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Full text of "History of the town of Durham, N. C., embracing biographical sketches and engravings of leading business men, and a carefully compiled business directory of Durham, to which is annexed a compilation of useful information in relation to the cultivation, curing and manufacture of tobacco in North Carolina and Virginia, by Hiram V. Paul"

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Alkxakdcb  H.  SriPHms,  E<-Oovernar 
of  (ieorgia,  writes: 

I  have  been  for  over  twenty 
years  a  constant  smoker.  1  fiM'  n 
Blaokwcll's  Durham  that  trui:  v- 
cellence  founU  in  no  other  brainl — 
uniformity  ;  every  package  being 
the  same.  I  can  sm«ku  it  at  all 
times,  day  and  night,  with  im- 
punity' ;  it  aci-;  as  a  mild  and  pleas- 
ant stiraultmt.  always  quiets  my 
nerves,  and  in  no  m-.t;,'  disagrees 
with  mc.  It  is  a  great  comforter, 
rpurc,  sweet  andjnild  smo^:n. 



PRICE,  IN  CLOTH.  »4.00:  IN  BOARD,  •3.00. 


Main  Street,  Durham,  N.  C. 

Gleneral    Merchandise ! 

Guarantees  to  mriii>h  anyarticle  of  the  best  goody 

at  the  h)\vest  cash  pric(%  kept  in  the 

following  (le|iartm(MitH: 



Ladies'  Cloaks.  Ulsters,  Hosiery,  Gloves  and  Underwear. 


For  men,  boys,  ynutJis,  hidies,  misses  and  chihiren. 

Hats,  and  Gents'  Furnishing  Goods. 

TXT'ood.    a^nd.    "V\7"illo-\?s7-    "^^TT', 



Looking  Glasses  and  Clocks. 

Heavy  and  Fancy  Groceries. 




Sta.n.c^Q.rd.  ZE^ertilizers-  " 

Any  article  not  kept  in  my  stock  will  l)e  furnished  on 
short  notice  at  lowest  cash  [)rice.  Special  attention  given 
to  buying  and  selling  Coiton. 

Respertluily,  JOHN  L.  MARKHAM. 


Brick  Warehouse, 

DURHAM,  N.  G. 

Hsadquartsrs  for  ths  Sals  of  Lsaf  Tobacco. 

Sells  more  Tobacco  than  any  other  Warehouse  in  North 
CaroHna  or  Virginia,  and  makes  the  biggest  averages. 


Sold  nearly  eight  million  pounds  of  Tobacco  last  year 
for  about  one  million  dollars. 

Always  Sell  at  Parrish's  Warehouse, 

And  you  will  be  sure  to  get  Full  Market  Prices. 

Mark  your  name  on  each  package  and  give  full  instruc- 
tions by  mail. 

■    Prompt  Returns  and  Highest  Prices  Guaranteed. 

f  ' 

J.  Southgate  &  Son, 


Rooms  in  the  Rigsbee  Building,  corner  Main  and 

Mangum  Streets, 

DURHAM,  N.  C. 

Thirty  of  the  largest  and  best  Life  and  Fire 
Companies  represented,  having  combined  Capi- 
tal and  Assets  of  more  than 



— AND— 

First-class  Indemnity  Guaranteed. 

W.  T.  BLACKWELL,  President. 

P.  A.  WILEY,  Cashier. 

ANK  OF  Durham, 

Durham,  N.  C, 

The  undersigned  has  opened,  in  the  Town  of  Durham, 
N.  C,  a  Banking  House,  under  the  name  and  title  of  "  The 
Bank  of  Durham,"  with  ample  means  for  the  transaction  of 
a  Geiieral  Banking  Business. 

The  business  of  the  Bank  is  conducted  by  P.  A.  WiLEY 
Esq.,  for  thirteen  years  Cashier  of  the  Citizens  National 
Bank,  of  Raleigh,  N.  C 

Ws  Buy  and  Sail  Stocks  and  Bonds, 


Negotiate  Loans,  Discount  Paper, 

Buy  and  Sell  Exchange,  Receive  Deposits, 

Payable  on  demand  or  otherwise  as  may  be  agreed  upon, 
>and  do  such  other  legitimate  business  as  may  be  offered  in 
the  line  of  Banking. 

W.  T.  BLACKWELL,  President. 
P.  A.  WILEY,  Cashier. 


President.  Yice-Pres.  and  Treas. 

W.  M.  MORGAN,  Secretary. 


'4'k^'\^.  ill  ^s-  z^  y^y 


Durham  Bull  Fertilizer: 

1.  It  is  composed  of  the  very  best  recognized  materials  for  Fertilizer  with  the 
addition  of  Tobacco  Stems,  which  is  of  itself  one  of  the  best  Fertilizers. 

2.  We  guarantee  the  purity  of  all  our  goods. 

3.  They  are  as  free  from  water  and  dirt  as  is  possible  for  us  to  make  them. 

4.  It  is- a  home  industry  and  merits  the  patronage  of  home  people. 

5.  It  is  as  cheap  as  any  first-class  goods  on  the  market. 

6.  Our  goods  prove  equal  to  any  on  the  market,  as  is  evidenced  by  the  lead- 
ing Tobacco  planters  in  the  fine  Tobacco  section  of  North  Carolina  who  have 
fully  tested  our  goods. 


X)a.te5.,   XTe-wr   "^orlr,   ^©"cx-uLary   ©,   l.SS-5;- 
Moisture,  ...---- 

Potash,         -  -  -  -  - 

Nitrogen,  2.25,  equivalent  to  Ammonia,  ... 

Total  Phosphoric  Acid,  8.34,  equivalent  to  Bone  Phosphate, 
Soluble  Phosphoric  Acid,  4.4S,  equivalent  to  Bone  Phosphate, 
Insoluble  Phosphoric  i\cid,  0.50,  equivalent  to  Bone  Phosphate,  - 
Reverted  Phosplioric  Acid,  3.36,  equivalent  to  Bone  Phosphate, 
Available  Phosphoric  Acid,  7.S4,  equivalent  to  Bone  Phosphate,  - 

To  Durham  Fertilizer  Co,,  Durham,  N.  C. 


II. 66 




Fire  Insurance  Company, 


Represented  by  J.  J.  Mackay. 

Insurance  Company 

Of  North  Aiiiorioa. 


KEl'UK.SKNTEl)  BY  J.  J.    7.IACKAY. 

Crescent  Insurance  Co. 

Of  Xcw  Oilcans. 


KF.PKES?:NTE7-)  hv  .i.  j.  mackay. 



Office  next  to  Tafum's,  Main  Sirset, 

ZD"crss:E3:.-^iv£,  int.  o. 

LiYerpocl  and  London 




J.  J.   MACKAY, 

DURHAM,   N.  C. 






list  Mm  Siiiiar 


Durham,  N.  C. 


Musical  Director  and  Calisthenics. 

Tuition,  Primar};-  Department, ^lO-OC 

Intermediate  Department, 12.50 

Collegiate  Department, 1 5.00 

Extra  branches  at  usual  rates. 
Vocal  Music  and  Calesthenies  free. 

Good  Board  in  nice  respectable  families,  with  home  comforts,  at 
Reasonable  Rates. 

H^^^  For  particulars,  address 

The  Principal, 

Or  J.  S.  CASE,  Chairman  Board  of  Trustees. 

Fall  Session  begins  the  first  Monday  in  September,  1884, 
and  continues  twenty  weeks.  Spring  Session  begins  Jan- 
uary 5th,  1885  ;  ends  on  the  last  Tuesday  in  May. 

It  is  desirable  that  all  pupils  be  present  at  the  opening  of 
the  session. 

H.  M.  SMITH  &  CO., 


Iron-Back  Shapes 

Tobacco  Factory  Fixtures. 

We  make  a  specialty  of  Iron-Back  Shapes,  and  have  had  larger  experience  in 
their  manufacture  than  any  other  establishment  in  the  world.  We  have  new 
machinery  specially  adapted  for  this  branch  of  manufacture,  much  of  which  is 
the  invention  of  our  senior  partner.  By  the  use  of  this  machinery  we  aie 
enabled  to  turn  out  Shapes  that  cannot  be  excelled  in  accuracy,  ease  of  work- 
inland  durability.  We  can  safely  promise  that  those  who  favor  us  with  their 
orders  will  get  the  best  work  that  can  be  made.  The  prices  we  quote  include 
for  each  set  of  Shapes  a  Top  Block,  Bottom  Board,  and  full  set  of  Russia  Sheets. 

Wc  deliver  free  on  board  of  cars,  and  make  no  charge  for  packing  or  boxing. 

N.  B. — Letters  of  inquiry  promptly  answered. 

Complete  Outfits  for  the  manufacture  of  Smoking  Tobacco  always  on  hand. 


Manufacturers  are  invited  to  send  for  Tobacco  Catalogue. 

1532  Main  Street,  Richmond,  Va. 

(P.  0.  BOX  8.) 



Banner  Warehouse, 



K  R.  Ipiv  fill  iTi    %m  mm 

Pej'sonal  Attention  given  to  all  Shipments. 

Quick  Sales  and  Prompt  Returns. 

C.  C.  T^YLC 

Main  Street,  Durham,  N.  C. 

StoYGS,  Tin  and  Sheet -Iron  Ware. 

Roofing  and  Guttering  promptly  attended  to. 

Richmond  StraieM  Cut  Ho.  1 

Cigarette  Smokers  who  are  willing  to  pay  a  little  more  for  Cigarettes  than 
the  price  charged  for  the  ordinary  trade  Cigarettes  will  find  the 



They  are  made   from  the   brightest,    most   delicately  flavored  and 
HIGHEST  cost  GOLD  LEAK  GROWN  in  Virginia,  and  are  absolutely  wiTHofT 


We  use  the  Genuine  French  Rice  Paper,  of  our  own  direct  importation, 
which  is  made  especially  for  us,  water-makkkd  with  the  name  of  the  brand — 


on  each  Cigarette,  without  which  none  are  genuine.  Base  imitations  of  this 
brand  have  been  put  on  sale,  and  Cigarette  Smokers  are  cautioned  that  this  is 
the  Old  and  Original  brand,  and  to  observe  that  each  package  or  box  of 

Richmond  Straight  Cut  Cigarettes 

bears  the  signature  of 

ALLEN  &  GINTER,  Manufacturers, 






(Flat  and  Round), 


PERFECTION,  etc.,  &c. 


RICHMOND  CAVENDISH,  Nos.  1  and  2, 









xirham,  M^  C» 

9        ««B 

LEA  k  WARREH,  Proprietors. 

The  Highest  Market  Prices 



Our  facilities  for  the  accommodation  of  Farmers 

are  ample  and  unsurpassed  for  comfort  and 


TJie  extensively  knoivn  and  i^opular  A^ictioneer, 

Sells  exclusively  for  this  House, 

Hstablislie^L  1878. 


Durham,  N.  C.  Baltimore  Co.,  Md. 

iEugene  Moreliead  &  Co., 

Durham^  M.   Cr. 


Ample  Money.     Ample  Facilities.     Correspondence  Soliciied. 


Assistant  Cashier, W.  M.  MORGAN. 

Teller, VV.  W.  AvERY. 

Book-keeper, ... W.  W.  PATTERSON. 

Book-keeper, R.   H.  J.  Blount. 

Corresponding  Clerk, ..H.  I.  DURHAM. 

New  York,... DONNELL,   Lawson  &  SiMPSON. 

Philadelphia, The  Central  National  Bank. 

Richmond, The  First  National  Bank. 

Special  auJ  ProDiDt  Attention  liyeu  to  all  Collections, 


All  points  in  Caswell,  Person,  Orange,  Durham,  Alamance  and 
Chatham  Counties. 




For  each  of  the  following  Crops  : 

Toiiaccs,  Wiieat,  Caitoii,  Cora,  Oats,  Yeptalite  aM  drass. 

OFFICE:  1322  Cary  Street;  FACTOEY:  Opposite  Eocketts, 


Esta!Dlislhed  1865. 










m  a 




Q  a 




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*:     . 



ih  < 

-     t. 

<o   . 

0  ^ 



U  3 



H  ^ 

m  ^ 





yj  ^ 




«)  ^ 









crq  O 

2.  o 

'^     H 




v;  ti. 

0  ST 










1^     ^  '^ 

o    %'h 


The  R«  F.  Morris  i  Son  Maniifaoturing  Company, 

DURHABVI,   N.   C. 

Also  Manufacturers  of  the  celebrated  •'  Gold  Leaf,"  and  Bear,  Durham  and 
Scotch  Snuffs. 

H,   P.   EDMOND, 

(Successor  to  EWnger  and  EdmoncJ.) 


Improved  Tobacco  E^achinery, 

Steam  Licorice  Kettles,  Power  Elevators, 

Hogshead  Screws,  Wringers, 
Spice  Grinders,  Lump  Machines,  &c. 

Send  for  Cataloiiuc. 

W*  WU  SONS  ^  00. 


Smoking  Tobacco  and  CigaretteSj 

AH  goods  containing  the  name  of  this  firm  are  fully  guaranteed  to  be  equal 
to  any  in  the  world.  Their  Cigarettes  have  been  before  the  public  for  three 
years,  and  are  now  the  most  popular  on  the  market,  because  they  are  manufac- 
tured from  the  best  and  purest  material  and  reliable  in  every  respect. 

H  I  ST p 





Leading  Business  Men, 









Entered  actordliig  to  Act  of  Congfess  In  the  J'ear  1884,  by 

111  the  office  of  the  Librarian  of  Congress,  at  Washington; 

suitROK  Giles  uth.cs  mv 

List  of  Engravings. 


Frontispiece.— Col.  D.  C.  PARPJSH,            .            .            .  o 

BLACKWELL,  Willi.^m  T.              ....  50 

CAER,  JuLUN  S.            -            -            -            -            -           -  1.33 

DUKE,  Washington             -            -            -            .            .  150 

GREEX,  Caleb  B.           -           -           -           -           -           -  139 

MOREHEAD,  Eugene            -           -           -           -           -  137 

PARRISH,  Edward  J.        -  -  -  -  -  -      144 

SOUTHGATE,  James 139 


As  a  factor  in  the  development  of  one  of  the  leading  in- 
dustries of  North  Carolina  and  our  beloved  Southland,  the 
faithful  historian  will  cheerfully  accord  to  the  city  of  Dur- 
ham a  conspicuous  position  in  the  annals  of  the  "  Old 
North  State."  While  on  the  one  hand  thousands  of  our 
farmers  are  to-day  standing  upon  the  brink  of  bankruptcy 
through  the  inordinate  mortgage  excise  demanded  by  King 
Cotton,  on  the  other  hand  equally  as  many  have  come  up 
from  theSahara  of  adversity  unto  the  translucent  fountain  of 
prosperity  and  contentment  through  the  beneficent  influ- 
ence of  the  "  weed."  As  a  principal  concomitant  in  event- 
uating this  happy  era  in  the  New  South,  and  especially  the 
industrial  interests  of  this  State,  and  because  she  has  done 
immeasurably  more,  through  her  lavish  and  judicious  sys- 
tem of  advertising,  to  attract  the  notice  of  capitalists  and  in- 
duce immigration  from  the  nations  of  the  earth,  Durham  is 
eminentlj^  entitled  to  honorable  historic  mention,  and  the 
following  pages  are  but  a  feeble  attempt  to  accord  plenary 
justice  to  her  great  leading  spirits  and  enterprises.  Her 
Carrs,  Blackwells,  Dukes  and  Parrishes,  actuated  by  a  lofty 
State  pride,  and  a  sincere  desire  to  advance  the  best  inter- 
ests of  all  classes,  have  freely  and  unstintingly  utilized  their 
energies,  brains  and  money,  elevating  Durham  to  the  front 
rank  of  the  Tobacco  Marts  of  the  world. 

Our  tobacco  interests  are  so  intimately  entwined  about 
those  of  our  sister  State,  Virginia,  that  the  undersigned 
did  not  feel  justified  in  quitting  the  subject  without  accord- 
ing to  her  appropriate  notice.  The  facts  set  forth  in  the 
following  pages  have  been  collected  at  considerable  expense 
and  research,  and  the  highest  authorities  only,  both  in  this 
State  and  Virginia,  have  been  consulted. 


Great  pains  have  been  taken  to  collect  such  information 
as  shall  render  this  volume  not  only  interesting  but  usfful 
alike  to  the  manufacturer,  dealer  and  planter.  The  atten- 
tion of  the  planter  is  invited  especially  to  Part  III — the 
History  and  Culture  of  Tobacco — and  more  particularly  to 
the  article  on  "Soils,"  page  169,  as  the  judicious  selection 
of  soil  is  a  vital  element  of  success.  The  information  con- 
tained in  this  entire  Department  is  the  very  cream  of  the 
best  authority,  treated  under  the  various  sub-heads,  from 
the  selection  and  j)reparation  of  soil  until  the  planter  shall 
have  deposited  his  tobacco  with  the  warehousemen  of  Dur- 
ham, where  the  very  highest  prices  are  always  guaranteed. 
As  the  success  of  this  great,  leading  industry  is  predicated 
upon  judicious  cultivation,  the  author  would  respectfully 
and  earnestly  urge  the  planter  to  familiarize  himself  with 
the  instructions  and  suggestions  offered  in  this  Department, 
which  is  divided  into  two  chapters,  and  sub  divided  and 
classified  under  appropriate  sub-heads. 

To  the  critic,  and  especially  the  hypercritic,  the  author 
desires  to  acknowledge  frankly  that  there  are  mistakes  and 
deficiencies.  But  "  to  err  is  human."  This  is  no  attempt  at 
a  literary  cowp  de  maitre,hut  simply  a  collection  of  facts  and 
figures  which  are  matters  of  pertinent  record,  the  whole 
being  permeated  and  dictated  by  a  sincere  desire  to  promote 
tile  interests  of  Durham  as  a  city,  and  his  fellow-citizens  of 
North  Carolina  as  a  State. 

To  his  friends,  who  will  cheerfully  cast  the.  mantle  of 
charity  over  all  short-comings,  and  who  have  not  only  en- 
couraged him  by  good  wishes,  but  substantial  assistance,  he 
would  tender  his  most  unfeigned  and  heartfelt  thanks.  The 
remembrance  of  their  kind  offices  will  ever  occup}''  one  of 
the  brightest  pages  in  life's  little  ephemeris. 

Very  truly,  &c.,  H.  V.  PAUL. 

Durham,  N.  C,  May  24th,  1884. 

Table  of  Contents, 


List  of  Engravings ni 

Prefatory IV 

Table  of  Contents vi 

Memoir  of  the  Author viil 

Proemial  Historic    Facts xiil 


Allen,  Jones  &  Co 253 

Allison  &  Addison 12 

Allen  &  Ginter 9 

Argo,  T.  M 245 

Atwater  &  Wyatt   24 

Bank  of  Durham 3 

Blackwell's  Durham  Tob.  Co 2i 

Baucom,  J.  M 245 

Briggs  &  Sons,  T.  H 228 

Christian,  Wilkerson  &  Co 157 

Dike,  James 242,  251 

Duke  Sons  &  Co.,  W 14 

Duke,  B.  L 252 

Durham  Fertilizer  Co 4 

Edmonds,  H.  P 13 

Farmer  &  Mechanic,   Raleigh  . . .  241 

Green,  Lucius 248 

Herndon,  W.  R 255 

HoUoway,  Charles 252 

Howerton  cS:  Bro.,  R.  T 253 

Dottier,  Lawrence 251 

Lewellin  Charles  H 245 

Lyon,  A.  M 250 

Mackay,  J.  J 5 

^1  angum,  P.    J 254 

Markham,  John  L cover 

Morehead  &  Co.,  Eugene 11 

Morris  &  Sons,  R.  F 12 

Mayo,  P.  H 248 

Mallery,  J.  T 245 

Manning  &  Manning 246 

News  &  Observer,  Raleigh ......  246 

Ober  &  Sons,  G 255 

O'Brien  &  Co.,  C.  J 254 

Ott,  John 22 

Pace  &  Sizer 22 

Parrish,  E.  J 2 

Perry,  R.  S 250 

Pinnix,  J.  T 250 

Pogue,  E.  H 247 

Rochelle,  C.  W 246 

Reams,  H.  A 250 


Reid,  Morton  V/.    247 

Roberts,  Loyd  &  Co 24 

School,  Durham  Graded 23 

Sears,  A.   A 252 

Seminary,  Methodist  Female. ...  6 

Siegel  Bros 250 

Smith,   H.  M 7 

Southgate  &  Son,  Jas 2,  82,  gS 

Styron  &   Co.,  W.  R 253 

Taylor,  C.  C 8 

Tobacco  Plant,  Durham. ......  249 

Utley,  M.  D.,  E.  B 252 

Warehouse,  E.  J.  Parrish's 2 

Warehouse,  Banner 8 

Warehouse,  Reams 10 

Whitted,  James  Y 243.  256 

Williams  &  Co.,  Alfred 249 

Younger,  C.  G  252 



Chapter  I. 

Gleanings  from  Early  Settlers — 
Origin  of  Durham  and  Durham 
Smoking  Tobacco — Incorpora- 
tion and  Organization  of  the 
Town  and  County  of  Durham 
— The  Graded  School — Asses- 
sed Ante-Bellum  Valuations — 
The  Colored  Race 25-49 

Chapter  II. 

The  Blackwell  Litigation — The 
Origin  of  and  Title  to  the  use 
of  the  word  Durham,  and  the 
Durham  Bull,  as  Trade-Marks 
for  Smoking  Tobacco 50-77 

Chapter  III. 

Durham  Fires — The  Methodist 
Female  Seminary — The  Lyce- 
um— The  Post  Office-The  Rev- 
enue Office — Newspapers. . .  .78-88 

Chapter  IV. 

Religious  Denominations 88-92 

Chapter  V. 

Tobacco  Board  of  Trade — Ware- 
houses  93-98 

Chapter  VI. 

Tobacco  Factories-Opening  Sales 
New  Banner  Warehouse — The 
Durham  and  Franklinton  Rail- 
road   99-123 

Table  of  Contents. 


Biographical  Sketclies. 


Carr,  Julian  S 133 

Blackwcll,  William  T 130 

Duke,  Washington 150 

Green,  John  R 139 

Green,  Caleb  B 142 

Fuller,  Bartholomew 154 

Jones,  Thomas  D 141 

Lockhart,  J.  S 155 

Mangum,  William 128 

Morehead,  Eugene 137 

Panish,  D.  C 124 

Parrish,  E.  J 144 

Soulhgate,  James 138 

Webb  &  Kramer 156 

Whitakcr,  Jr..   J.  B 14S 


Tlie  Tobacco  Interests  of  >\  C. 

Chapter  I. 

Early  History— Modern  Progress- 
Tobacco  Area — Mode  of  Con- 
ducting    Trade — Culture     and 
Curing — Grades,    Prices,    Soil 
Analyses,  etc 158-189 

Chapter  II. 

Important      Information Seed 

Beds — Insect  Enemies  of  the 
Tobacco  Plant — The  Diseases 
of  the  Plant — The  Bonsack 
Cigarette  Machine 189-209 


The  Tobacco  Interests  of  Virginia. 

Chapter  I.  Page. 

Richmond — Sketches  of  Leading 
Tobacco  Manufacturers — Leaf 
Dealers — Cigar  and  Cigarette 
Manufacturers — Manufacturers 
of  Plug  and  Smoking  Tobac- 
co   209-217 

Chapter  II. 

Brief  History  of  Types  of  To- 
bacco Produced  in  Virginia  and 
Maryland — Quality  of  Tobac- 
co— Soils 217-223 


The  Durham  Light  Infantry  ....  224 
The  Durham  Female  Seminary.  .  227 
Errata 227 

Business  Directory  of  Durham. 


Attorneys  at  Law 235 

Banking  Houses 231 

Benevolent  Organizations 233 

Books  and  Stationery 239 

Blacksmith  Shops 241 

Builders  and  Contractors 240 

City  Government 229 

County  Government 229 

Carriage  and  Wagon  Factories. . .  240 

Commission  Merchants 238 

Candy  Factory 251 

Cigar  and  Plug  Tobacco  Factories  231 

Colored  Churches 234 

Colored  Schools 235 

Dentists 240 

Dry  Goods 237 

Drug  Stores 233 

Durham  Cotton  Manufact'g  Co.  .  232 

Durham  Water  W'orks 231 

Educational  Institutions 234 

Fertilizer  Companies 23S 

Foundry  and  Machine  Shop 241 

Furniture  Dealers 238 

General  Merchandise 235 

Hotels  and  Boarding  Houses. .  . .  237 

Harness  and  Saddleiy 239 

Herbalists 240 

Hucksters  and  Meat  Venders.  . ..  241 

Hardware  Dealers 239 

Insurance  Companies 236 

Insurance  Agencies 238 

Job  Printing  Offices 240 

Livery  and  Exchange  Stables. . . .  240 

Liquor  Dealers 241 

Merchant  Tailors 240 

Milliner^' 237 

Newspapers 232 

Photographers 240 

Post  Office 232 

Physicians  233 

Revenue  Office 232 

Religious  Denominations 234 

Restaurants 237 

Steam  and  Gas  Fitters 240 

Sash,  Door  and  Blind  Factories. .  239 

Southern  Express  Co 238 

Stone  and  ^Iarble  Works 238 

The  Durham  Woolen  and  Wooden 

Mills  Co 232 

Tonsorial  Artists 241 

Tobacco  Board  of  Trade 229 

Tobacco  P'actories 230 

Tobacco  Warehouses 230 

Undertakers  and  Cabinet-Makers  239 

Watchmakers  and  Jewelers 239 

Memoir  of  the  Author. 

BY   JAMES    DIKE,    A.   M. 

Since  the  "History  and  Directory  of  Durham"  contains 
far  more  literary  matter  than  is  usually  found  in  a  book  of 
this  character,  and  consequently  requires  a  high  order  of 
ability  in  the  author,  its  wide  circle  of  patrons  and  readers 
will  very  properly  desire  a  sketch  of  his  life,  and  to  be  made 
acquainted  with  his  special  training  and  fitness  for  the 
labor  he  has  chosen. 

Hiram  Voss  Paul  is  the  youngest  son  of  Rev.  Hiram 
Gooding  Paul,  for  thirty  years  pastor  of  the  Baptist  church 
of  New  Berne,  N.  C,  He  was  born  February  8th,  1848,  and 
is  of  Scotch-Irish  descent,  his  forefathers,  McCotter  and 
Paul,  in  1663,  being  among  the  first  settlers  of  what  was 
then  known  as  the  "Albemarle  C'olony,"  so  named  in  honor 
of  the  Duke  of  Albemarle,  during  the  reign  of  Charles  II, 
King  of  England. 

Mr.  Paul  received  his  early  instruction  from  Professor 
Daugherty,  at  the  New  Berne  Academy,  and  was  fitted  for 
college  at  Lenoir  Institute.  But  a  sad  event  occured  at  this 
time  which  interfered  with  his  collegiate  course.  On  the 
8th  of  July,  1865 — just  one  year  after  the  death  of  his 
mother — his  affectionate  and  doting  father  was  called  to  his 
reward  in  the  Upper  and  Better  Sanctuary,  One  of  the 
greatest  desires  of  this  able  and  faithful  Ambassador  of 
Christ,  was  that  his  son  should  follow  him  in  the  sacred 
office  of  the  ministry.  He  had  made  ample  provision  with 
the  late  beloved  Dr.  Craven  for  his  son  to  enter  Trinity 
when  the  blessed  Master  called  him  home.  This  was  a 
dreadful  blow,  as  his  guardian  took  little  or  no  interest  in 
his   educational   advancement.     The  arrangements  which 

Memoir  of  the  Author.  ix 

were  made  with  Dr.  Craven  were  revoked,  and  young  Ki- 
RAM  placed  in  a  printing  office,  under  John  Spellman,  Esq., 
then  editor  and  proprietor  of  the  New  Berne  Commercial. 
This  action  was  vehemently  opposed  by  his  relatives  and 
friends,  but  without  avail.  And  surely  there  was  no  sound 
reason  for  such  extraordinary  conduct  on  the  part  of  his 
guardian,  as  by  will  his  father  had  mnde  ample  provision 
for  his  maintenance  and  schooling.  It  was  a  mean  disre- 
gard of  the  expreised  and  well-known  wishes  of  his  father 
Nevertheless,  although  he  was  obliged  to  forego  a  collegiate 
course,  he  never  lost  his  love  of  knowledge  and  availed  him- 
self of  every  opportunity  to  gratify  and  improve  it.  He 
was  a  close  reader,  and  manifested  decided  taste  and  ability 
for  literary  pursuits.  At  the  age  of  19  he  wrote  a  poem, 
entitled  "The  Sea  of  Life,"  which  was  extensively  published 
both  north  and  south;  from  which  we  make  the  following 

"Oh,  sea  of  life,  what  complex  billows  rise 
Upon  thy  bosom,  ever  frauglit  with  songs  and  sighs, 
How  oft  bright,  fickle  sunbeams  tremble  on  the  wave 
Which  murmur's  o'er  Hope's  early  melancholy  grave ! 

How  oft  the  sweetest  warbler,  thro'  springtime's  subtle  charms 
And  over- venturous  wing,  is  caught  amid  the  storms 
That  sweep  life's  little  sea.     Ah,  evermore 
Its  tender  bones  lie  bleeching  on  the  shore. 

Just  as  the  beams  of  Hope  in  rapture  kiss  the  wave 
The  requiem  of  Despair  floats  o'er  a  coral  grave ! 
Where'er  the  tender  buds  in  richest  beauty  ope' 
We  find  the  drooping,  wither'd  leaves  of  dying  hope ! 

To  love — oh  spell  divine — youth's  halcyon  dream; 
Could  we  but  always  "wake  and  find  things  what  they  seem 
'Twould  extract  from  each  wave  its  poignant,  bitter  spray. 
As  o'er  the  sea  of  life  our  spirits  glide  away. 

A  dear,  impassioned  look,  and  tender  words  and  tears 

Well  up  within  the  soul  thro'  long  and  weary  years; 

These,  treasured  up  in  memory's  casket  fair, 

Through  dreamy  spirit-eyes,  are  smiling  on  us  there ! 

And  teach  us  that  when  we  have  passed  thro'  Death's  cold  gloom 

The  drooping  buds  of  love  and  hope  shall  wear  eternal  bloom. " 

The  spirit-wail  over  the  one  great  misfortune  of  his  life  ! 


History  of  Durham. 

It  seems  to  have  been  dictated  by  his  sad  disappointment. 
There  is  a  melancholy  sweetness  about  this  little  poetic 
gem  which  will  doubtless  vibrate  upon  some  tender,  sym- 
pathetic cord  in  every  reader's  heart.  That  the  develop- 
ment of  such  manifest  abilities  should  have  been  thus  rudely 
impeded  was  not  only  a  great  misfortune  but  a  positive 
crime,  and  displayed  a  littleness  of  soul  in  the  guardian 
truly  deplorable. 

In  1869  Mr.  Paul  commenced  the  study  of  theology 
under  the  Rev.  Edward  M.Forbks,  D.  D.,  Rector  of  Christ 
Church,  New  Berne.  In  1871  he  visited  a  paternal  uncle 
in  New  York  City,  and  being  well  pleased  with  this  great 
city,  from  the  many  and  rare  opportunities  it  afforded  for 
the  prosecution  of  his  studies,  he  remained  nearly  three 
years.  During  his  stay  he  established  a  very  interesting 
and  ably  edited  journal — "  TAe  Evolutionist" — devoted  to 
the  Evangelical  Temperance  Alliance,  published  at  No. 
22,  Barclay  street.  In  the  latter  part  of  1872,  his  office 
'was  entirely  destroyed  by  fire.  In  the  meantime  he  had 
resumed  his  theological  studies  under  the  Rev.  Dr.  Chas. 
F.  Deems.  From  1872  to  1877  he  traveled  considerably. 
While  in  New  York,  one  of  his  poems,  entitled  "Alone," 
by  chance  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  well-known  authoress, 
Mrs.  Hale,  who  was  so  well  pleased  with  it  as  to  insert  it 
in  the  columns  of  the  Waverly  Magazine,  one  of  the  most 
chaste  and  high-toned  literary  magazines  of  the  country. 
This  was  the  first  channel  of  note  opened  to  his  poetic  ge- 
nius. His  poems,  sketches  and  stories  soon  gained  welcome 
reception  by  some  of  the  best  magazines  and  periodicals  of 
the  day.  Besides  this  wide  field  of  usefulness,  Mr.  Paul 
was  employed  by  the  Harper  Brothers,  Moses  Dow  and 
other  large  firms,  thus  gaining  important  business  knowl- 

Mr.  Paul  has  acted  in  the  capacity  of  Editor  of  the 
following  Democratic  and  literarys  journals  :   The  New  York 

Memoir  of  the  Author.  xi 

^Evolutionist,  22  Barclay  street,  N.  Y. ;  The  Oak  City  Item^ 
The  Evening  Dispatch,  Tlie  Evening  Post,  and  The  North  Car- 
olina  Prohibitionist,  Raleigh,  N.  C. 

The  mission  of  the  Daily  Evening  Dispatch  was  the 
vindication  of  the  interests  of  the  people  of  North  Car- 
olina against  foreign  grasping  railroad  syndicates — an  in- 
veterate opponent  of  the  sale  of  the  State's  interest  in  the 
Western  North  Carolina  Railroad,  In  this  contest  he  secured 
the  following  able  correspondents:  Hon.  VV.  T.  Dortch. 
Judge  McRae,  and  Maj.  Wm.  A.  Hearne.  Mr.  Paul  is  a 
bold,  logical  and  exceedingly  entertaining  writer,  and  as 
an  evidence  of  the  strong  influence  his  paper  was  wielding 
against  the  interests  of  the  B^^st  syndicate,  means  were  emr 
ployed  which  culminated  in  the  suspension  of  his  paper. 
Upon  the  expiration  of  the  lease  of  material  with  which 
the  paper  was  printed,  the  News  Publishing.  Company,  which 
started  out  in  opposition  to  the  sale,  but  soon  went  over 
body  and  soul  to  the  Syndicate,  refused  to  grant  a  further 
lease  ;  and  thus  a  commendable  enterprise,  with  as  fair 
prospects  as  any  newspaper  ever  started  in  Raleigh,  was 
choked  down  in  its  very  infancy  by  a  foreign  soulless  cor- 
poration ;  and  thus  the  people  lost  an  able,  staunch  and 
fearless  exponent  of  their  rights  and  interests.  The  firm 
was  composed  of  three  worthy  but  poor  young  men  :  Messrs. 
Paul,  Collins  and  Harper. 

The  next  enterprise  upon  which  Mr.  Paul  embarked  was 
the  Evening  Post,  with  Major  Wm.  A.  Hearne,  one  of  the 
ablest  writers  in  the  State.  The  Post  was  Democratic  in 
politics  ;  but  its  special  mission  was  the  advocacy  of  Hon. 
Daniel  G  Fowle  and  Julian  S.  Carr,  for  Governor  and 
Lieutenant  Governor;  gentlemen  whom  the  writer  believes 
could  have  polled  more  votes  than  any  other  two  men  in  the 

And  last,  but  not  least,  Mr.  Paul  engaged  in  the  publi- 
cation of  the  North   Carolina  Prohibitionist,  which   had  an 

XII  History  of  Durhi.m:. 

extensive  circulation  throughout  the  State,  and  is  acknowl- 
edged to  have  accomplished  much  good  in  the  Temperance 

In  1869  Mr.  Paul  published  a  volume  of  his  poems  at 
New  Berne,  N.  C.  These  poems  have  been  much  admired 
and  added  largely  to  his  reputation  as  a  writer  and  thinker 
of  fine  literary  taste. 

Many  positions  of  prominence  have  been  acceptably  filled 
by  the  subject  of  this  sketch.  His  association  with  promi- 
nent writers  and  speakers  of  many  States  has  given  him  a 
varied  and  valuable  experience,  and  he  has  brought  to  his 
work  of  writing  a  history  of  the  wonderfully  enterprising 
town  of  Durham,  rare  qualities  of  mind  and  ripe  training. 

While  many  other  towns  have  been  vegetating  merely, 
Durham  has  been  making  history,  not  only  for  herself,  but 
for  the  entire  State.  She  has  virtually,  through  her  judi- 
cious and  lavish  system  of  advertising,  introduced  North 
Carolina  to  the  world.  As  Mr.  J.  S.  Carr  once  very  perti- 
nently remarked:  "  When  it  has  come  to  such  a  pass,  that 
from  an  insignificant  railroad  station  we  can  within  fifteen 
years  cause  a  man  in  London  or  San  Francisco  to  put  on 
his  hat  and  walk  out  of  his  office,  saying,  *  I  am  going  to  Dur- 
ham, N.  C,  on  important  business; '  when  firms  that  a  few 
years  ago  were  comparatively  young,  have  Cable  addresses, 
I  assert  with  emphasis,  that  we  have  the  matter  of  a  great 
and  grand  future  in  our  own  hands."  Durham  deserved  a 
worthy  historian,  and  is  sigularly  fortunate  in  securing  one 
so  able  and  accomplished  as  the  subject  of  this  imperfect 

Proemial  Historic  Facts. 


The  following  historic  facts  were  collated  for  the  *'  His- 
tory of  Durham  "  by  our  courteous  and  talented  townsman, 
Garland  E.  Webb,  Esq.: 

Nineteen  years  ago,  the  26th  of  April,  there  occured 
about  3|  miles  from  Durham,  one  of  the  closing  scenes 
of  that  great  drama  known  in  American  history  as  the 
"  War  Between  the  States."  Sherman's  army  was  encamped 
here,  the  place  being  known  then  as  "  Durham's  Sta- 
tion," and  was  a  small  place  of  perhaps  not  more  than 
200  inhabitants.  Johnston  with  his  army  was  encamped 
near  Hillsboro.  The  war  was  fast  coming  to  a  close.  Lee 
had  surrendered,  and  what  remained  of  the  brave  Southern 
army  were  disheartened  and  ready  to  surrender  at  the  first 
opportunity,  and  on  the  2Gth  of  April,  1865,  General  John- 
ston surrendered  his  army  to  General  Sherman  at  Greens- 
boro, N.  C,  but  the  capitulation  was  arranged  at  what  was 
known  as  the  Bennett  House,  about  3^  miles  from  Dur- 
ham. It  was  here  that  the  two  great  Generals  met  and  ne- 
gotiated the  terms  of  peace,  and  it  was  here  at  this  plain 
old  farm  house  the  curtain  fell  upon  the  last  act  of  that 
terrible  drama,  and  the  dark  clouds,  that  had  so  long  hung 
gloomily  over  the  heads  of  our  people,  began  to  clear  away, 
and  a  new  era  commenced  to  dawn  upon  the  South. 


Our  chronicler  being  anxious  to  visit  this  historic  spot, 
accepted  an  invitation  from  Mr.  Thomas  D.  Jones,  a  wealthy 

XIV  History  of  Durham. 

tobacco  dealer  of  Durham,  and  who  is  the  proud  owner  of 
the  identical  bottle  from  which  the  two  Generals  drank  to 
each  other's  health  upon  the  memorable  occasion  of  which 
we  now  write.  Mr.  C.  B.  Green,  editor  of  the  Durham 
plant,  and  who  is  also  a  Justice  of  the  Peace,  accompanied 
us,  for  the  purpose  of  taking  the  affidavit  of  a  daughter  of 
old  man  Bennett,  as  to  the  genuineness  of  the  above  men- 
tioned bottle.  An  hour's  drive  through  an  improved  and 
prosperous  country,  brought  us  to  the  spot.  As  we  glanced 
around,  there  was  little  to  indicate  the  historic  associations 
ccrnnected  with  the  place.  The  house  is  a  plain,  old-fash- 
ioned, unpretending  structure,  devoid  of  paint  without  and 
within,  but  neatness  and  a  certain  degree  of  rustic  taste  was 
manifest  in  all  directions.  The  same  old  fence  stands  in 
front  of  the  green  yard,  and  the  broad  boards  are  covered 
with  advertisements.  As  we  stepped  into  the  little  yard 
a  musical  voice,  coming  from  the  old  kitchen  window,  said, 
"  Walk  into  the  house,  gentlemen,  I  will  see  you  in  a 
minute."  Accepting  her  polite  invitation,  we  were  soon 
seated  in  the  room  in  which  the  Generals  conferred  together 
and  drew  up  and  signed  those  important  documents  that 
ended  the  war.  Soon  the  possessor  of  the  musical  voice 
made  her  appearance,  looking  as  fresh  and  beautiful  as  one 
of  the  roses  that  grew  in  her  little  flower  garden.  We  found 
her  to  bo  the  granddaughter  of  old  man  Bennett,  (who 
by  the  way  has  long  since  been  gathered  to  his  fathers)  and 
lived  at  the  old  place  with  her  mother  and  brother.  She 
knew  but  little  of  the  facts  we  were  seekitig,  but  directed 
us  to  the  house  of  her  aunt  who  lived  near  by,  and  who 
was  the  only  surviving  member  of  the  Bennett  family  who 
was  an  eye-witness  to  the  important  circumstances  that 
form  the  subject  of  our  sketch.  This  was  the  same  party 
who,  quite  a  while  ago,  sold  Mr.  Jones  the  "little  black  bot- 
tle," and  after  thanking  our  rustic  friend  for  her  kindness 
we  were  soon  on  our  way  toward  the  house  of  the  aunt. 

Proemial  Historic  Facts.  xv 


We  arrived  in  a  few  minutes  at  a  small  bouse,  and  were 
informed  that  Mrs.  Eliza  Christopher  lived  there,  and 
entering  the  house  we  were  cordially  received  by  her,  and 
stating  the  object  of  our  visit,  she  at  once  signified  her  wil- 
lingness to  give  us  all  the  information  in  her  power.  We 
remarked  to  her  that  it  had  been  denied  by  some  pretend- 
ing knowing  ones  that  Johnston  and  Sherman  ever  met  at 
the  house  of  her  father.  She  then,  in  her  own  plain  way, 
told  us  how  she  stood  and  saw  the  two  officers,  Sherman 
and  Johnston,  meet  at  the  gate,  shake  hands  and  walk  side 
by  side  into  the  house,  talking  earnestly  all  the  while,  and 
how  strange  it  looked  to  her  to  see  these  two  men,  who  had 
been  fighting  each  other  for  four  years,  meet  so  friendly 
and  act  so  gentlemanly  toward  each  other.  She  said  they 
would  frequently  come  out  of  the  house  and  take  short 
walks  together,  and  she  also  said  she  saw  them  take  a  drink 
from  the  very  bottle,  in  company  with  her  father,  that  Mr. 
T.  D.  Jones  now  has  in  his  possession.  Continuing,  she 
said:  "I  still  own  the  little  table  that  was  used  by  the 
Generals  in  drawing  up  their  papers,  etc.  I  have  had  nu- 
merous offers  for  it,  but  none  sufficient  to  induce  me  to  part 
with  it ;  but  I  will  sell  it  for  money  enough."  We  remarked 
to  her  that  possibly  there  might  be  some  doubt  as  to  the 
table  she  so  greatly  valued  being  the  one  that  was  used  on 
the  occasion  mentioned.  She  said  she  thought  she  could 
prove  it;  and  arising  she  brought  from  above  a  small,  old- 
fashioned  table,  and  then  going  to  a  book-casein  the  corner 
she  took  from  between  the  leaves  of  an  old  book  a  dilapi- 
dated page  from  Harper's  Weekly,  dated  May  27th,  1865,  that 
contained  a  perfect  representation  of  the  exterior  of  the 
Bennett  House,  as  well  as  the  interior  of  the  room  that 
was  occupied  by  the  two  officers,  these  gentlemen  being 
seated  at  a  table  surrounded  with  papers,  writing  materials, 

XVI  History  of  Durham. 

&c. — the  &c.  consisting  mainly  of  the  "  little  black  bottle." 
The  table  owned  by  the  widow  was  compared  to  Harper^s 
representation,  and  was  pronounced  one  and  the  same  by 
all  present.  Mrs.  Christopher  said  it  was  quite  amusing 
to  her  to  hear  the  soldiers  on  both  sides,  who  were  lounging 
under  the  spreading  branches  of  the  trees,  laugh  and  talk 
over  their  war  exploits,  narrow  escapes,  etc.  The  lady  was 
then  asked  if  she  objected  to  swearing  that  the  bottle  she 
sold  Mr.  Jones  was  the  one  from  which  Generals  Johnston 
and  Sherman  drank  on  the  occasion  of  the  surrender.  She 
readily  answered  no,  and  holding  up  her  right  hand,  sol- 
emnly swore  to  the  following  affidavit: 

North  Carolina,  Durham  County: 
Mrs.  Eliza  A.  Christopher,  being  duly  sworn,  deposes 
and  says :  "  That  she  is  a  daughter  of  James  Bennett, 
who  resided  during  his  life-time  on  the  Hillsboro  road, 
three  and  a  half  miles  west  of  Durham.  That  she  was 
present  at  her  father's  house  on  the  26th  day  of  April,  1865, 
when  Generals  W.  T.  Sherman  and  Joseph  E.  Johnston 
met  there  and  arranged  all  the  stipulations  of  the  surren- 
der of  Johnston  to  Sherman.  That  while  the  arrangements 
were  being  made  they  drank  from  a  bottle  of  whiskey,  and 
that  the  bottle  she  sold  Mr.  Thomas  D.  Jones  is  the  identi- 
cal one  from  which  they  drank  on  that  occasion. 

Eliza  A.  Christopher. 
Sworn  to  and  subscribed  before  me  this  the  15th  day  of 
May,  1884. 

C.  B.  Green,  J.  P. 

We  thanked  our  good  old  friend  for  her  kindness  and 
valuable  information,  and  returned  to  town  through  the 
same  beautiful  and  now  highly  cultivated  country. 

Our  chronicler  was  soon  standing  upon  one  of  the  streets 
of  this  busy  little  city — a  town  that  in  sixteen  years  or 
less  has  grown  from  nothing  to  be  a  busy  and  prosperous 
city  of  over  5,000  inhabitants.  In  every  direction  could 
be  heard  the  hum  and  buzz  of   machinery,  mingled  with 

Proemial  Historic  Facts.  xvii 

the  song  of  the  saw,  and  the  sound  of  the  hammer.  Heavily 
loaded  wagons  and  drays  rattled  over  the  newly-made,  rock- 
paved  streets.  Magnificent  buildings  lined  each  side  of  the 
way,  elegant  dwellings  could  be  seen  in  the  distance,  churches 
with  their  tall  spires  almost  kissing  the  clouds  stood  here 
and  there,  factory  bells  and  steam  whistles  sent  forth  their 
evening  signals.  Everything  is  hurry  and  bustle.  Pro- 
gress and  enterprise  is  evident  on  every  side,  and  to  think 
that  where  this  proud  and  famous  little  city  now  stands 
was,  a  few  years  ago,  almost  a  wilderness.  Is  it  not  a  grand 
illustration  of  what  enterprise  and  energ}'  can  do?  We,  at 
this  point  of  our  observation,  came  to  the  conclusion  that 
Durham  could  date  its  birth  and  the  beginning  of  its  pros- 
perity to  the  time  when  those  two  Generals,  about  whom  we 
have  been  writing,  came  together  at  the  old  Bennett  House, 
shook  hands  as  it  were  over  the  "bloody  chasm,"  and  ar- 
ranged all  those  stipulations  that  ended  the  war. 














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History  of  Durham. 

The  Best  Fertilizer  ever  made  specially  for  Fine  Tobacco. 
remains  at  tlie  head  of  everything'  offered  for  that  Crop. 


Tobacco  Fertilizer. 

You  all  know  what  Major  Ragland  thinks  of  this  article.  The  demand  for  it 
is  universal  among  growers  of  fine  tobacco.  They  urge  that  nothing  gives  6od2/ 
and  t< xture  like  it. 

Kead  for  example,  the  following  from  Mes-srs.  Matthews  &  Williamson,  ot 

"From  our  own  personal  experience,  and  it  covers  a  long  time,  in  watching 
the  results  from  the  use  of  the  various  brands  of  commercial  fertilizers  handled 
in  this  section,  it  is  our  mature  judgment  that  the  ANCHOR  BRAND  stands  at 
the  head  of  all  for  tlie  production  oi' fine,  siUcij,  yellow  tobacco.  The.  plant  seems 
to  receive  more  fitting  nourishment  from  the  use  of  this  article  than  from  any 
other,  and  we  are  of  the  opinion  that  if  our  farmers  made  it  tlieir  standby,  we 
would  hear  less  of  light,  chaffy  tobacco,  having  some  color  but  no  body,  and 
that  the  farmer  would  realize  the  result  he  ought  to  enjoy  from  his  labor;  for 
low-grade  tobacco  will  not  bring  big  money." 

Agents  at  all  points  of  importance  throughout  the  Tobacco  Region. 


(Successors  to  R.  W.  Oliver,) 



Smoking,  Cut,  Plug,  and  Cigarettes. 


SmokingTobacco  i  Cigarettes, 

Advertisement.  23 




This  institution  of  learning  is  composed  of  a  regular 
Graded  School  and  a  High  School.  The  Graded  School 
serves  as  a  preparatory  department  to  the  High  School,  or 
Collegiate  department.  The  High  School  course  of  study- 
embraces  all  that  is  ordinarily  taught  in  similar  institutions, 
giving  special  prominence  to  the  Sciences  and  Literature. 

The  School  affords  extraordinary  facilities  for  the  intel- 
lectual development  of  both  sexes.  It  employs  a  corps  of 
teachers  who  make  teaching  their  business,  and  Avho  use 
the  most  improved  methods  of  instruction. 

Primary  Department,  per  year, $I0  oo 

Intermediate  Department,  per  year, 15  oo 

High  School  Department,  per  year, ._  20  00 

Each  annual  session  commences  the  first  Monday  in  Sep. 
tember  and  ends  the  last  Friday  in  May. 
For  further  information,  apply  to 




History  of  Durham. 

Chatham  County. 

Wake  County. 


few?  1^  fi'lWf  ©TOiiSS 


General  Commission  Merchants, 

(Richmond,  Cooper  &  Co.'s  Old  Stand,) 

ZD  XT  ::ES  lEZ  ..^  3S/£  ,    1ST.    O. 

We  keep  the  most  complete  stock  of  Heavy  and  Fancy 
Groceries  in  Durham.  Goods  promptly  delivered  free  of 
charge  in  the  city. 

Prices  Marked    Down  to  Rock  Bottom  5 

We  are  offering  our  stock  of  GUNS  at  greatly  reduced 
prices,  to  close  them  out. 






' — •       > 

C-2         Z 


ST77"ZlNrC3-Z3>TO-    X-.  .^  3^  IP  3  _ 
Hardware  Cheaper  than  Ever. 

Cheapest  House  in  Tinware  in  Town.    Fine  stock  of  Farm  Bells  from 
250  li)s.  Down. 


Mangum  Street,  DURHAM,  N.  C. 

History  of  Durham. 

:e=  .^f^  us  T  I . 



The  last  act  in  the  tragic  drama  of  the  late  civil  war 
transpired  in  the  vicinity  of  Durham.  It  was  here  that 
"grimvissaged  war  smoothed  its  wrinkled  front."  Gen.  R. 
E.  Lee,  the  great  southern  soldier  and  christian,  having 
capitulated  at  Appomattox,  Gen.  Sherman,  on  his  famous 
"march  to  the  sea,"  had  demonstrated  to  Gen.  Jos.  E.  John- 
ston, l)y  greatly  superior  numerical  strength  and  facilities, 
tliat  further  resistance  was  useless.  In  April,  1SG5,  Sher- 
man encamped  at  Raleigh,  while  Johnson,  with  his  remnant 
of  heroic  troops,  rested  at  Greensboro.  From  Raleigh  to 
Greensboro,  a  distance  of  about  seventy-five  miles,  both 
armies  roamed  indiscriminately.  Gen.  Johnston  intima- 
ted to  Gen.  Sherman  his  desire  for  a  conference,  and  an 
armistice  of  ten  days  was  declared.  These  two  great  chief- 
tains met  in  consultation,  in  a  little  house  near  Durham, 
which  was  then  an  insignificant  railroad  station,  with 
only  about  200  inhabitants.  This  station  was  declared  neu- 
tral ground.  Here  "the  boys  in  blue  and  gray"  met  in 
friendly  intercourse — swapped  horses,  ran  foot  races,  shot  at 
targets,  and,  around  the  same  camp-fires,  told  hairbreadth 
escapes, spun  camp  yarns, and  had  a  "good  time"  generally. 
About  one  hundred  yards  from  the  railway  station  stood  a 
two-story  frame  tobacco  factory,  owned  by  the  late  John  R. 
Green.  During  the  war  xMr.  Green  had  manufactured  smok- 
ing tobacco  for  the  "  boys  in  gray,"  but  now  Otliello  had 
seemingly  lost  his  occu[)ation.  Stored  in  this  factory  were 
large  quantities  of  smoking  tobacco,  ready  for  shipment, 
and  during  the  armistice  the  building  was  completely  sacked, 

26  History  of  Durham. 

and  around  the  camp-fires,  in  Durham,  the  "blue  and  the 
gray"  literally  smoked  the  pipe  of  peace.  When  tlie  hon- 
orable terms  of  surrender  were  consummated — which  term- 
were  most  dishonorablj'  ignored  by  radical  pot-house  polls 
ticians  of  the  national  government  at  Wa?l)ington — the 
soldiers  of  each  army  provided  themselves  with  a  plentiful 
supply  of  this  tobacco  and  marched  homeward.  Thus 
Green's  tobacco  was  distributed  from  Maine  to  Texas,  and 
what  he  regarded  as  a  great  calamity  sojn  proved  a  great 
blessing.  When  tiie  soldiers,  on  reaching  home,  had  ex- 
hausted their  supply  of  tobacco,  orders,  directed  to  the  R. 
E..  A^ent,  Postmaster,  etc.,  at  Durham,  began  to  pour  in  rap- 
idly for  more  of  that  tobacco.  Mr.  Green  was  quick  to  see 
his  advantage,  and  immediately  christened  his  tobacco 
"  Durham,"  and  selected  the  Durham  Bull  as  liis  trade-mark. 
And  this  was  the  first  tobacco  manufactured  in  Durham 
l>randed  with  the  words  "  Durham  Smoking  Tobacco,"  and 
the  first  to  use  as  a  trade-mark  the  "  Durham  Bull."  (See 
litigation.)  Nowhere  on  tlie  globe  is  tobacco  of  such  fine 
quality  raised — so  peculiarly  adapted  to  smoking  purposes — 
as  is  grown  in  the  vicinity  of  Durham.  It  is  almost  entirely 
free  from  nitrates  and  nicotine,  and  it  has  become  so  popular 
that  to  day,  all  over  the  United  States,  the  Canadas,  South 
America,  Japan,  Australia,  China,  etc.,  it  is  the  acknowl- 
edged standard  of  excellence  and  purit3\ 

Mr.  Green  died  in  iS69,  and  Messrs.  \V.  ,T.  Biackvvell  & 
Co.  purchased  the  business.  This  firm  put  fresh  capital, 
together  with  keen  business  sagacity,  into  the  enter- 
prise, and  soon  made  it  a  wonderful  success,  and  to-day 
they  are  the  largest  and  most  flourishing  manufacturers  of 
smoking  tobacco  in  the  country.  At  the  time  of  the  j)ur- 
chase  from  Green,  the  total  force  employed  in  the  factory 
numbered  less  tlian  twelve,  and  the  population  of  the  town 
less  than  300.  To-day  the  firm  pay  annually  to  the  govern- 
ment a  revenue  t<ix  of  more  than  8600,000.00;  manufacture 
over  5,000,000  pounds  of  tobacco  annually,  and  employ 
about  900  hands.  The  embryo  village  of  1865  had  a  popu- 
lation in  1881  of  nearly  4,000.  The  population  now  exceeds 

Durham  is  situated  twenty-six  miles  west  of  Raleigh,  the 
capital  of  the  State,  and  is  the  outlet  to  what  is  known  as 
the  Golden  Tobacco  Belt  of  North  Carolina,  and,  as  all  the 
tobacco  raised  in  this  section  finds  its  v/ay  to  Durham,  our 

Origin  of  Durham  Smoking  Tobacco.  27 

factories  and  warehouses  are  so  situated  as  to  comraand  the 
pick  of  all  offerings.  Tliirteen  years  ago  there  was  nothing 
here  but  a  fevv  small  shanties,  while  now  there  are  palatial 
buildings  devoted  to  mercantile  purposes,  huge  tobocco 
warehouses  and  numerous  manulactories  of  that  article  that 
are  unexcelled.  The  largest  factor}'  in  the  world  for  the 
manufacture  of  smoking  tobacco  is  located  here,  with  a  name 
famous  in  all  parts  of  the  globe.  Durham  is  really  the 
tobacco  mart  of  the  State,  and  from  the  nature  and  value 
of  the  crop  grown  in  the  immediate  neighborhood,  has 
strided  on  and  attained  the  very  enviat)le  position  slie  now 
holds.  She  draws  to  her  market  probably  the  greater  part 
of  all  the  tobacco  that  is  grown  in  the  counties  of  Durham, 
Orange,  Person,Caswell,  Ahimanceand  Granville,and  known 
as  "bright  smokers,"  only  adapted  for  smoking  tobaccos, 
and  from  these  come  ihe  wonderful  reputation  of  all  such 
emanating  from  this  place. 

Emjiloyment  is  offered  all  who  desire,  and  the  capacity  of 
production  is  only  limited  by  the  ditiiculty  of  procuring 
labor.  Opi)ortunities  present  themselves  on  all  sides,  and 
the  amount  of  money  disbursed  by  the  factories  is  something 
to  startle  the  uninformed.  Trade  is  flourishing  and  the 
stores  are  filled  with  fine  goods,  all  of  which  find  a  readv 
sale.  The  city  has  a  mayor,  board  of  aldermen,  police, 
lighted  streets  and  is  paved.  Durham  has  more  paved 
streets  than  any  other  place  in  North  Carolina.  Fires  h.ave 
occurred,  but  they  were  a  blessing  in  disguise,  as  what  was 
once  low  shanties  are  now  brick  blocks  of  two  and  three 
stories.     ' 

The  receipts  of  cotton  last  season  were  3,500  bales,  which 
will  be  largel}'  increased  in  the  future.  This  represents  con- 
siderable money  in  that  comuaodity.  Durham  can  be  made 
a  good  market  for  such,  as  numerous  cotton  mills  abound 
along  the  line  of  the  North  Carolina  railroad,  and  one  soon 
to  be  erected  in  Durham.  There  are  3  sash  an.l  door  facto- 
ries and  numerous  tobacco  works.  No  water-power ;  every- 
thing is  run  by  steam,  with  cheap  fuel.  The  greater  part  of 
the  citizens  are  full  of  energy,  ambition  and  kindness,  and 
are  fully  alive  to  the  importance  of  the  place.  To  Messrs.  W. 
T.'Blackwell  and  Julian  S.  Carr  the  place  owes  much  of  its 
importance,  as  tliey  were  pioneers  in  building  it  up.  These 
gentlemen  have  erected  nearly  200  buildings  in  the  town. 
The    former  was  long  identified   with  the  celebrated  Bull 

28  History  of  Durham. 

Durham  Tobacco  Works,  but  sold  out  his  interest  a  short 
time  since,  and  is  now  in  the  banking  business  with  Mr.  P. 
A.  Wiley,  a  well-known  financier,  as  cashier.  The  Bank  of 
Durham  has  discounted,  in  four  months,  about  $400,000  in 
paper — mostly  tobacco  acceptances;  and  Eugene  Morehead 
&  Co.,  bankers,  probably  as  much  more. 

This  is  quite  a  remarkable  showing,  and  gives  a  faint  idea 
of  the  growth  of  Durham  in  this  one  instance. 

Railroad  facilities  are  hardly  adequate,  only  one  train  a 
day  each  way  being  allowed  by  the  liberal  policy  of  the 
Richmond  &  Danville  system.  The  depot  is  a  reproach, 
there  being  no  reception  room  for  either  ladies  or  gentlemen, 
and  the  apartment  used  as  such,  and  adjoining  the  ticket- 
office,  being  so  filthy  an  offensive  that  ladies  never  apply 
for  tickets,  except  in  cases  of  absolute  necessity.  It  is  about 
12x14  feet,  and  is  used  almost  continuously  by  negro  section 
hands  as  a  kitchen  and  sleeping  quarters.  The  walls  are 
black  with  soot  and  grease,  and  the  floor  is  caked  with 
grease  and  dirt.  It  is  just  to  add,  that  the  managers  are 
perhaps  not  aware  of  the  real  condition  of  things.  It  is  to 
be  hoped,  however,  that  the  importance  of  the  city  will 
arouse  this  mammoth  monopoly  from  its  complacent  leth- 
argy, and  that  decent  facilities  at  least, will  soon  be  aff'orded. 

Real  estate  in  the  corporate  limits  is  very  high  , ranging 
from  §1  per  foot  up,  a  further  evidence  of  its  prosperity. 
To  show  how  wonderfully  this  section  has  advanced,  we 
give  a  few  ante-bellum  prices  for  lands  which  now  sell  for 
from  $1  per  foot  upward: 

In  1845,  the  land  now  covered  by  the  town  of' Durham, 
sold  at  from  $1.50  to  $4.00  per  acre.  The  Durham  site,  130 
acres,  sold  for  the  sum  of  $90.00. 

In  1859  this  land  was  re-assessed  and  sold  for  about  $25 
per  acre. 

The  old  Strayhorn  Tract — now  the  Rigsbee  property — 
sold  for  $15  per  acre.  This  tract  extends  from  Mangum 
street  to  Redmond  Grove — formerly  known  as  Prattsburg. 
The  same  land  cannot  be  bought  to-day  for  $1,000  per  acre. 

The  Dillard  land  sold,  for  $10  per  acre,  the  old  Andrew 
Turner  tract — now  known  as  the  Green  land — sold  for  $8 
per  acre,  and  the  Proctor  land — now  owned  by  Messrs.  W. 
T.  Vickers  and  B.  W.  Mathews— for  $8  to  SIO  per  acre. 

Taxes  on  real  and  personal  property  are  thirty-five  cents 
on  the  $100,  and  $1.05  on  the  poll.  Graded  school  tax 
twenty  cents  on  the  $100,  and  sixty  cents  on  the  poll. 

Establishment  of  Durham  County.  29 

Tobacco  brings  better  prices  here,  perhaps,  than  at  any 
other  point  in  the  State.  A  few  weeks  ago  a  farmer,  for 
two  two-horse  wagon  loaJs  of  tobacco — barn  'round — re- 
ceived $2,600,  and  it  is  a  common  thing  for  negro  farmers 
to  come  in  with  a  load  and  carry  away  from  five  to  eight 
hundred  dollars.  This  shows  the  value  of  the  land  for  this 
great  staple.  These  lands,  of  the  Central  Golden  Belt,  lie 
principally  in  Durham,  Orange,  Person,  Caswell,  Chatham. 
Alamance,  Granville  and  Wake  counties,  andean  be  pur- 
chased for  from  $10  to  $25  per  acre,  improved. 

This  country  has  superb  pastorage  for  stock  and  is  adapted 
to  all  kinds  of  grain,  as  well  as  cotton,  tobacco,  fruits  and 
grapes.  The  latter  flourishes,  and  the  wine  sells  readily  for 
$1.50  per  gallon.  To  all  parties  who  are  looking  for  a  place 
to  locate,  to  till  the  soil,  this,  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of 
Durham,  possesses  vast  advantages.  If  capital  is  looking 
for  investment,  it  can  be  judiciously  used  here,  certain  to  be 
returned  tenfold,  and  more  than  likely  twenty.  The  city 
has  a  world-wide  rejiutation  and  no  doubt  is  the  best  adver- 
tised section  of  the  State;  and  when  one  views  the  immpnse 
tobacco  factories,  warehouses,  press-rooms,  etc.,  he  cannot 
but  say  she  has  earned  her  position. 

The  depot  of  the  N.  C.  R.  R.,  in  this  town,  was  establislied 
in  1S32,  with  Dr.  B  L.  Durham  as  agent.  Pratt«^burg  was 
originally  intended  for  the  depot  site,  but  Mr.  Pratt,  the 
owner,  refused  to  grant  the  land,  and  the  present  site  was 
donated  by  our  venerable  townsman,  Dr.  Durham,  in  honor 
of  whom  the  station  was  called  Durham. 

The  first  store  opened  for  business  was  by  Messrs.  B.  L. 
Duiham,  John  W.  Carr  (father  of  Julian  S.  Carr,  President 
B.  D.  Tobacco  Co.)  and  James  Mathews,  with  our  venerable 
and  townsman,  M.  A.  Angier,  as  clerk.  This  store 
was  situated  at  the  Rigsbee  corner — then  known  as  the  An- 
gier corner — now  corner  Main  and  Mangum  streets. 

Establishment  of  Durham  County. 

The  bill  for  the  establishment  of  the  County  of  Durham 
was  introduced  in  the  General  Assembly,  in  the  early  part 
of  the  session  of  1881,  by  Hon.  Caleb  B.  Green,  then  a  rep- 
resentative from  the  County  of  Orange.  The  bill  was  sub- 
mitted to  and  ratified  by  the  people  April  10.  1881.  The  fol- 
low! ng  is  a  copy  of  thelaw(seechap.  1 38,  pp.  272,  Laws  of  1881); 

30  History  of  Durham. 

The  General  Assembly  of  North  Carolina  do  enact  : 

Section  1.  That  a  couuty  by  the  name  of  Darharn  be  and 
the  same  is  hereby  created  and  established  out  of  and  em- 
bracing parts  of  the  counties  of  Orange  and  Wake,  the  whole 
to  lie  within  and  iiave  the  following  specified  bounds,  that 
is  to  say  :  Beginning  at  the  north-east  corner  of  Orange  coun- 
ty, tlunce  with  the  Orange  and  Person  line  north  eighty- 
seven  degrees,  west,  eight  miles,  to  the  corner  of  Mangum 
and  Little  River  townships  of  Orange  county;  thence  south 
ten  degrees  west,  twenty  five  and  one  quarter  miles  to  the 
Chatham  county  line,  at  the  corner  of  Patterson  and  Chapel 
Hill  townships;  thence  with  the  Chatham  county  line  south 
eight3^-seven  degrees  east,  seven  miles,  to  the  Wake  county 
line ;  thence  the  same  course  four  miles,  to  a  point  in  Wake 
County;  Cedar  Fork  township;  thence  a  line  parallel  to  the 
Wake  and  Oiange  line  north  fifteen  degreese  ast,  thirteen  and 
one  half  miles,  to  the  corner  of  New  Light  and  Oak  Grove 
townships  ;  thence  continuing  the  satne  course  two  and  one- 
quarter  miles,  and  following  tlie  dividing  line  between  said 
townships  to  the  Granville  county  line,  at  the  corner  of  the 
aforesaid  townships  ;  thence  with  the  Wake  and  Granville 
line  to  their  corner  on  Neuse  river,  in  the  Orange  county 
line;  thence  with  the  Granville  line  about  north  nine  and 
three-quarter  miles  to  the  beginning. 

Skc.  2.  That  the  said  county  of  Durham,  hereby  created,  be 
and  the  same  is  hereby  invested  with  all  the  rights,  powers, 
privileges,  advantages  and  immunities  that  belong  and  ap- 
[lertain  to  other  counties  in  this  state. 

Sec.  o.  That  Isaac  N.  Linke,  of  said  county  of  Durham, 
be  and  is  hereby  a[)pointed  a  commissioner  to  survey  and 
mark  the  line  between  the  said  couuty  of  Durham  and  the 
said  counties  of  Orange,  Chatham,  Wake,  Granville  and 
Person,  as  designated  and  specified  in  the  first  section  of  this 
act,  and  he  shall  within  thirty  days  next  after  the  ratifica- 
tion of  this  act,  make  a  report  of  such  survey  under  his  hand 
and  seal  to  the  commissioners  respectively  of  said  counties, 
which  report  shall  form  and  be  a  part  of  the  record  of  the 
proceedings  of  said  commissioners  of  said  counties  ;  and  said 
commissionersshall  furnish  the  commissioners  of  said  county 
of  Durham  with  a  ma[)  thereof.  Said  commissioner  to  sur- 
vey said  line  shall  have  power  to  employ  such  persons  as 
ma}'  be  necessary  for  making  such  survey,  and  he  and  such 
other  persons  shall  be  allowed  a  reasonable  compensation 

Establishment  of  Durham  County.  31 

for  such  service,  to  be  allowed  by  the  commissioners  of  said 
county  of  Durham.  And  if,  for  any  cause,  the  said  Isaac  N. 
Link  cannot  make  such  surve3',then  and  in  such  case,  David 
G.  McDuflie  is  hereby  appointed  to  make  the  same,  and  he 
shall  be  |)aid  for  his  services  as  herein  provided. 

Sec.  4.  That  if  said  boundary  line  shall  divide  any  town- 
ship of  any  of  said  counties  of  Orange  and  Wake,  any 
officer  of  any  such  township,  who  shall  reside  within  said 
county  of  Durham,  shall  continue  to  hold  and  exercise  his 
said  office  in  the  said  count}'  of  Durham  until  his  successor 
shall  be  elected  or  appointed,  and  qualified  according  to  law. 

Sec.  5.  That  the  sheriffs  and  other  county  officers  of  Oi- 
ange  and  Wake  counties  respectively,  shall  continue  to 
exercise  the  functions  of  their  respective  offices  in  the  detached 
portions  of  said  last  mentioned  counties,  until  the  county 
officers  of  said  county  of  Durham  shall  be  elected  or  appointed 
and  qualified  according  to  law. 

Sec.  G.  That justices  of  the  peace  shall  bo  appointed 

as  now  provided  by  law  for  said  county  of  Durham  ;  and  said 
justices  of  the  peace  shall,  on  the  first  Monday  in  May,  Anno 
Domini  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  eighty-one,  assem- 
ble at  the  town  of  Durham  and  elect  five  commissioners  for 
said  county,  who  shall  thereupon  be  forthwith  qualified  by 
any  one  of  the  said  justices  of  the  peace,  and  he  shall  certify 
sucli  qualification  and  deliver  his  certificate  in  such  respect 
to  the  clerk  of  said  commissioners,  and  he  shall  file  thesauie 
among  the  records  and  papers  of  his  offica  ;  and  said  com- 
missioners so  elected  shall  hold  their  offices  respectively 
until  their  successors  shall  be  elected  and  qualified  according: 
to  existing  laws. 

Sec,  T.  That  it  shall  be  the  dut}'  of  said  county  commis- 
sioners, forthwith  after  their  qualification,  to  divide  the  said 
county  into  convenient  districts;  to  determine  and  fix  the 
boundaries  of  the  same,  and  prescribe  names  therefor,  and 
designate  voting  places  in  said  districts  according  to  law,  at 
which  all  elections  by  the  qualified  electors  of  s^id  county 
of  Durham  shall  be  held. 

Sec  8.  That  the  said  county  commissioners,  as  soon  as 
they  shall  establish  said  districts  and  voting  places,  shall 
provide,  according  to  law,  for  the  registration  of  electors  and 
the  election  of  county  officers  for  said  county,  except  as  in 
this  act  otherwise  provided,  and  an  election  for  such  officers 
shall  be  held  on  the  first  Thursday  of  August,  Auuo  Domiui 
one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  eighty-one. 

32  History  of  Durham. 

Sec.  9.  That  said  commissioners,  at  their  first  meeting 
shall  appoint  a  sheriff,  a  coroner  and  constables  for  said 
county,  who  shall  give  bond  and  qualify  as  such  officers  ac- 
cording to  existing  laws,  and  said  last  named  officers  and  all 
county  officers  so  to  be  elected  shall  liold  and  exercise  their- 
offices  respectively  until  theii'  successors  sliall  be  elected  or 
ajipointed  according  to  existing  laws,  regulating  the  elec- 
tions of  sheriffs,  coroners,  constables,  and  other  county 

Sec.  10.  That  the  town  of  Durham  shall  be  the  county 
town  of  said  county  of  Durham,  and  the  court  house  and 
jail  thereof  shall  be  located  in  said  town  on  a  site  or  sites 
to  be  selected  by  the  county  commissioners,  and  the  site  for 
the  court  house  shall  eml)race  at  lea-;t  one  acre  and  a  half 
of  land,  and  the  site  for  the  jail  at  least  one-half  acre  of 
land;  and  said  county  commi-sioners  shall  purchase  or 
receive  by  donation  lots  or  i)aicels  of  land  sufficient  for 
the  last  mentioned  [imposes;  and  shall  proceed  according  to 
existing  laws  to  have  a  court  house  and  jail  for  said  last  men- 
tioned county  construc'ed;  and  until  the  same  shall  be  com- 
pleted or  may  be  used,  said  commissioners  shall  select  and 
provide  a  temporary  f)lace  and  suitable  building  for  hold- 
ing the  court  and  preserving  the  records  and  transacting 
the  business  of  said  county  of  Durham,  as  in  other  counties. 

Sec.  11.  That  the  superior  courts  of  this  State  shall  have 
jurisdiction  in  and  over  said  county  of  Durham,  as  such 
count}',  on  and  after  the  second  Thursday  of  August,  Anno 
Domini  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  eighty-one,  to 
the  same  extent  and  in  the  same  manner  as  the  said  courts 
have  ill  and  over  the  several  counties  of  this  State  ;  and  the 
said  courts  shall  be  within  the  fifth  (5th)  judicial  district  and 
a  superior  court  therefor  sliall  be  held  on  the  first  Monday 
in  Februar}'  and  the  first  Monda}''  in  August  of  each  suc- 
ceeding year,  and  all  actions,  both  civil  and  criminal,  of 
which  the  said  last  mentioned  court  would  have  had  juris- 
diction, had  the  same  existed  at  the  time  of  the  beginning 
of  said  actions  shall  be  removed  into  and  tried  or  disposed 
of  according  to  law  in  said  last  mentioned  court:  Provided, 
nevertheless,  both  civil  and  criminal,  to  which  citizens  of  said 
county  of  Durham  are  parties,  pending  in  the  superior 
courts  of  said  counties  of  Orange  and  Wake,  may  be  con- 
tinued in  the  courts  of  said  counties  respectively,  at  the 
option  of  the  party- residing  in  said   county  of  Durham; 

Establishment  of  Durham  County,  33 

ham  ;  but,  when  such  actions  shall  be  so  transferred  to  the 
court  of  said  county  of  Duriiara,  it  shall  be  without  preju- 
dice by  reason  of  such  transfer;  and  all  persons  who  shall 
be  adjudged  to  be  inijirisoned  in  said  county  of  Durham, 
before  the  completion  of  a  jail  for  said  last  named  county, 
shall  be  committed  to  the  jail  of  Orange  county.  But, 
until  the  second  Thursday  of  August,  Anno  Domini  one 
thousand  eight  hundred  and  eighty-one,  all  actions,  both 
civil  and  criminal,  shall  be  begun  and  prosecuted  as  now 
provided  by  law. 

Skc.  l*i.  That  the  cou'Uy  commissioners  of  Durham 
county  shall  be,  and  are  hereby  empowered  to  appoint  three 
or  more  commissioners  to  confer  with  the  commissioners 
of  Orange  and  Wake  counties,  for  the  purpose  of  ascertain- 
ing the  proportionate  part  of  the  public  debt  of  Orange  and 
Wake  counties  to  be  assumed  by  the  county  of  Durham, 
and  such  settlement  shall  be  based  upon  the  amount  of 
taxable  property  and  polls  according  to  the  valuation  of 
property  in  the  year  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and 
eighty;  and  said  county  commissioners  shall  i)roceed  ac- 
cording to  law  to  levy  and  collect  a  tax  sutiicient  to  pay 
such  })roportionate  part  of  the  debt  of  the  counties  of  Orange 
and  Wake,  when  it  shall  have  been  so  ascertained. 

Sec.  13.  That  nevertheless,  an  election  shall  be  hold  in 
said  county  of  Durham,  on  second  Thursday  in  April, 
Anno  Domini  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  eight3'-one, 
for  tlie  purpose  of  ascertaining  whether  or  not  a  majority 
of  the  electors  of  said  count}'  shall  be  in  favor  of  the  estab- 
lishment thereof;  that  at  such  last  mentioned  election  every 
male  person  born  in  the  United  States,  and  every  such  per- 
son who  has  been  iiaturalized,  twenty-one  years  old  and  up- 
wards, and  who  shall  have  resided  in  the  boundary  line  of 
said  county  for  thirty  days  next  before  the  said  last  specified 
day  of  election,  except  such  persons  as  by  the  constitution 
and  laws  of  this  State  are  not  deemed  electors,  shall  be  en- 
titled to  vote  at  said  election  in,  and  only  in,  the  township 
or  precinct  where  he  shall  reside,  and  be  dul}^  registered  on 
the  day  of  such  election,  except  as  hereinafter  otherwise 
provided;  and  every  elector  voting  at  said  election,  who 
shall  be  in  favor  of  the  establishment  of  the  said  county  of 
Durham,  shall  have  printed  or  written  on  his  ballot  the 
words,  "  For  the  county  (>f  Durham,"  and  every  elector  who 
shall   be  opposed    to  the  establishment  of  said   county  of 

34  History  of  DuRnAM. 

Durham  shall  have  printed  or  wrilten  on  liis  ballot  the 
words,  "  Against  the  county  of  Durham,"  and  the  judges  or 
inspectors  of  election,  appointed  by  this  act  to  hold  said 
election  in  the  several  precincts  respectively,  shall  carefully 
count  the  votes  cast  at  such  election,  and  designate  the 
number  so  cast  "For  the  county  of  Durham,"  and  likewise 
the  number  so  cast  "Against  the  county  of  Durham,"  and 
respectively  certify  the  result  under  their  hands  to  the  com- 
missioners herein  provided  to  canvass  the  votes  cast  at  the 
several  voting  [)lace3  in  said  county. 

Sec.  14.  That  said  election  shall  be  held  in  that  part  of 
Durham  township  in  said  count}'-  of  Orange,  embraced  in 
said  county  of  Durham,  in  the  town  of  Durham,  by  and 
under  the  superintendence  of  John  C.  Angier,  registrar,  S. 
W.  Chamberlain  and  B.  L  Duke;  that  said  election  shall 
be  held  in  that  part  of  Patterson  township  in  said  county 
of  Orange,  embraced  in  said  county  of  Durham,  at  Patter- 
son's jMills,  by  and  under  the  superintendence  of  A.  B. 
Couch,  registrar,  C.  H.  Carlton  and  A.  P.  Stroud ;  and  like- 
wise at  Asa  Gunter's  in  said  lost  mentioned  township,  by 
and  under  the  superintendence  of  G.  A.  Barbee,  registrar, 
Rufus  Massey  and  Simon  Barbee;  that  said  election  shall 
be  held  in  Mangum's  township  as  now  constituted  in  said 
county  of  Orange  embraced  within  said  county  of  Durhamj 
and  likewise  that  part  of  Little  River  township  in  said 
count}'  of  Orange  embraced  in  said  county  of  Durham,  the 
whole  making  one  township  for  the  purpose  of  the  said 
election  at  Mangum's  store,  by  and  under  the  superinten- 
dence of  S.  G.  Scruggs,  registrar,  W.  D.  Lunsford  and  Wm. 
Bass;  that  said  election  shall  beheld  in  Lebanon  township, 
as  now  constituted  in  said  county  of  Orange  embraced  in 
said  county  of  Durham,  at  Bladen  Springs,  by  and  under 
the  superintendence  of  J.  G.  Latta,  registrar,  S.  H.  Johnson 
and  Thomas  Lipscomb;  and  such  electors  as  may  reside  in 
that  part  of  said  Little  River  township  embraced  in  said 
county  of  Drham,  shall  register  and  vote  at  either  of  the 
last  mentioned  voting  places  in  their  discretion  ;  that  the 
said  election  within  that  part  of  Cedar  Fork  township,  as 
now  established  in  Wake  county  embraced  in  said  county 
of  Durham,  shall  be  held  at  Cedar  Fork  church,  by  and 
under  the  superintendence  of  Ransom  O'Brien,  registrar, 
Hiram  Weatherspoon  and  Asa  Green  ;  that  the  said  election 
within  that  part  of  Oak  Grove  township,  as  now  consti- 

Establishment  of  Durham  County.  85 

tuted  in  said  county  of  Wake  embraced  in  snid  county  of 
.Durham,  shall  be  iield  at  Sandy  Level  churchy  by  and  under 
the  superintendence  of  John  Hall,  registrar,  John  Pollard 
and  William  Evans. 

Skc.  15.  Tlie  electors  residing  witliin  the  said  county  of 
Durham,  whether  they  have  heretofore  been  registered  in 
the  counties  of  Orange  and  Wake  or  not,  shall  each  be  reg- 
istered in  the  township  or  precinct  where  lie  sliali  reside, 
before  he  shall  be  entitled  to  vote  at  said  election,  and  to 
this  end  (he  several  registrars,  in  section  sixteen  of  this  act 
appointed,  shall,  each  in  the  township  or  precinct  for  which 
he  is  appointed,  open  a  registration  book  ior  the  registration 
of  such  electois  as  nniy  reside  in  said  last  referred  to  town- 
ship or  precinct  and  be  entitled  to  vote;  he  shall  open  such 
registration  book  for  the  registrat^ion  of  such  electors  on 
Thursday  next  before  the  day  of  said  election,  and  keep  the 
same  open  for  the  registration  of  such  electors  from  day  to 
day,  Sunday  excepted,  until  and  including  Wednesday  next 
before  the  day  of  said  election  ;  electors  shall  take  the  oath, 
which  said  registrars  are  hereb}'  authorized  to  administer, 
now  prescribed  by  law  for  electors,  and  registration  shall 
be  conducted  as  now  prescribed  by  law,  except  as  otherwise 
provided  by  this  act;  electors  residing  in  that  part  of  said 
Little  River  tovvnsliiji  in  said  county  of  Durham  may,  in 
their  discretion  be  registered  either  in  said  jMangum  town- 
ship in  said  county  of  Durham,  or  in  that  part  of  said  Leb- 
anon township  in  said  county  of  Durham,  but  they  sliall 
vote  only  in  the  township  where  they  shall  so  register. 

Sec.  16.  That  John  C.  Angier  be  and  he  is  hereby  ap- 
pointed such  registrar  for  that  part  of  the  said  tovvnship  of 
Durham  in  said  county  of  Durham,  and  the  registration 
book  for  this  township  shall  be  so  kept  open  for  the  regis- 
tration of  electors  at  Angler's  store  in  Durham  ;  A.  B  Couch , 
registrar  for  the  precinct  in  that  part  of  Patterson's  town- 
ship in  said  county  of  Durham,  embracing  Patterson's  mills, 
and  the  registration  book  for  the  precinct  shall  be  so  kept 
open  at  Patterson's  store;  G.  A.  Barbee,  registrar  for  the 
precinct  in  said  part  of  Patterson  tovrnship  embracing  Asa 
Gunter's,  and  the  registration  book  for  this  precinct  shall  be 
so  kept  open  at  G.  A.  Barbee's  house;  Ransom  O'Brien,  reg- 
istrar for  that  part  of  said  Cedar  Fork  township  in  said 
county  of  Durham,  and  the  registration  book  for  that  town- 
ship shall  be  so  kept  open  at  Ransom  O'Brien's  residence; 

36  History  of  Durham. 

John  Hall,  registrar  for  that  part  of  said  Oak  Grove  towii- 
shi[)  embraced  in  said  coiiaty  of  Darhi'Ji,  and  the  registra- 
tion book  f  >r  that  township  shall  be  so  ijept  open  at  F.  M. 
Barbee's  store;  S.  G.  Scruggs,  registrar  for  said  township  of 
M;uignn:i  in  said  county  of  Durham,  and  the  registration 
[book]  f.)r  that  township  shall  be  so  kept  open  at  Mangum's 
store;  J.  G.  Latta,  registrar  for  that  part  of  L-^banon  town- 
ship in  said  county  of  Durham,  and  the  registration  book 
for  that  township  shall  be  so  kept  open  at  J.  G.  Latta's  resi- 

Sec.  17.  Each  of  said  registrars  shall  be  as  herein  pro- 
vided one  of  the  judges  or  inspectors  of  election  in  the  town- 
ship or  precinct  for  which  he  is  such  registrar;  he  shall  have 
the  regintration  hook  containing  the  names  of  the  electors 
so  registered  by  him  at  .the  proper  voting  place  on  the  said 
day  of  election  as  now  required  by  law;  and  he  shall  pre- 
serve such  registration  book  and  deposit  the  same  in  the 
office  of  the  county  commissioners  of  said  county  of  Dur- 
ham, as  soon  as  they  shall  be  organized. 

Sec.  is.  That,  the  said  judges  or  inspectors,  so  appointed 
to  hold  and  superintend  such  election,  shall  each  be  sworn 
by  an  acting  justice  of  the  peace  to  well,  truly  and  fairly 
hold  such  election,  and  certify  the  result  thereof,  as  in  this 
act  provided ;  no  elector  after  registration  shall  be  chal- 
lenged, except  when  he  offers  to  vote,  and  if  the  right  of  any 
person  offering  to  vote  shall  be  challenged,  any  one  of  the 
said  judges  or  inspectors  at  the  voting  place  where  such 
person  so  offers  to  vote,  may  administer  an  oath  to  such 
person  and  examine  him  touching  his  right  to  vote,  and  the 
said  judges  or  inspectors  holding  said  election  at  such  last 
named  voting  place  shall  determine  whether  or  not  such 
])erson  has  the  right  to  vote,  and  to  allow  or  disallow  his 
vote  according  to  law,  and  the  said  judges  or  inspectors  so 
holding  said  election  shall  respectively  keep  a  written  list 
of  the  names  of  the  electors  voting,  and  return  the  same 
with  their  certificate  of  the  result  of  the  election  so  held  by 
them,  and  said  judges  or  inspectors  of  election  designated 
and  charged  to  hold  the  said  election  at  each  voting  place 
shall  repectively,  as  soon  as  the  result  of  the  election  shall 
be  so  ascertained,  designate  one  of  their  number  to  convey 
the  certificate  of  tlie  result  of  the  election  so  held  by  them 
to  the  town  of  Durham  by  twelve  o'clock  meridian  of  Fri- 
day next  after  the  day  of  said  election  ;  and  the  judges  or 

Establishment  of  Durham  County.  37 

inspectors  so  conveying  such  certificate  of  the  result  of  said 
election  at  the  voting  places  represented  by  them  respec- 
tively, shall  compose  and  constitute  a  board  of  canvassers 
to  compare  and  count  and  ascertain  the  result  of  the  vote  so 
cast  and  certified  in  said  county  of  Durham,  and  this  shall 
be  done  on  the  said  last  mentioned  day ;  and  the  canvassers 
so  comprising  said  board  shall  be  sworn  by  any  justice  of 
the  peace  to  well  and  faiihfully  so  ascertain  the  result  of  the 
said  vote  so  cast  in  said  county ;  and  as  soon  as  the  said 
board  shall  so  ascertain  the  result  of  said  vote  in  said  county 
of  Durham,  they  shall  certify  the  said  result  under  their 
hands  to  the  Governor,  and  he  shall  forthwith  make  known 
such  result  by  proclamation,  and  if  it  shall  turn  out  that  a 
majority  of  the  votes  so  cast  in  the  said  count}'  of  Durham 
,were  "  For  the  county  of  Durham,"  then  in  that  case  the 
said  county  of  Durham  shall  thenceforth  continue  to  be 
such  county,  as  by  this  act  established ;  but  if,  on  the  con- 
trarj'-,  it  shall  turn  out  that  a  majority  of  the  votes  so  cast 
in  the  said  county  of  Durham  were  "  Against  the  county  of 
Durham,"  then  in  that  case  the  said  county  of  Durham 
shall  cease  to  be  such  county,  and  this  act  shall  be  inopersK 
tive  and  of  no  further  effect,  and  the  counties  of  Orange  and, 
Wake  shall  remain  respectively  as  they  now  are. 

Sec.  19.  If  for  any  cause  any  one  of  the  judges  or  insi>ec- 
tors,so  appointed  to  hold  said  election,  shall  fail  to  discharge 
the  duty  with  which  he  is  by  this  act  char^ged,  then  the 
acting  judges  or  inspectors  or  judge  or  inspector  may  ap- 
point a  judge  or  inspector  to  supply  his  place. 

Sec.  20.  The  polls  at  the  said  voting  places  as  to  time, 
shall  be  opened  and  closed  as  now  provided  by  law  for  the 
election  of  members  of  the  General  Assembly. 

Sec.  21.  If  any  person  shall  disturb,  prevent  or  in  any 
way  interfere  with  said  election,  any  person  so  offending 
shall  be  deemed  guilty  of  a  misdemeanor,  and,  on  convic- 
tion in  the  superior  court,  shall  be  fined  and  imprisoned  in 
the  discretion  of  the  court. 

Sec.  22.  If  any  person  shall  vote  at  such  election,  who  is 
not  entitled  to  vote,  however  said  judges  or  inspectors  may 
decide  every  person  so  voting,  shall  be  deemed  guilty  of  a 
misdemeanor,  and,  on  conviction  in  the  superior  court, 
shall  be  fined  and  imprisoned  in  the  discretion  of  the  court. 

Sec.  23.  Said  registrars  shall  be  sworn  to  faithfully  dis- 
charge their  duty  as  such  by  any  acting  justice  of  the  peace, 


38  History  of  Durham. 

and  such  registrar  shall  respectively  register  such  persona 
as  shall  become  qualified  in  respect  of  age  and  residence  or 
otherwise  on  the  day  of  election,  and  such  person  so  regis- 
tered shall  be  allowed  to  vote. 

Sec.  24.  If  at  the  election  provided  by  this  act  a  majority 
of  those  who  vote  in  the  township[s]  of  Cedar  Fork  and 
Oak  Grove,  in  the  county  of  Wake,  shall  vote  "Against  the 
county  of  Durham,"  then  those  po-rtions  of  said  townships 
comprehended  within  the  line  of  the  county  of  Durham 
shall  not  be  part  of  said  county  of  Durham,  but  shall  be  and 
remain  portions  of  the  county  of  Wake,  notwithstanding 
the  townships  in  Orange  may  vote  for  said  county  of  Dur- 
ham, and  in  that  event  said  county  of  Durham  shall  consist 
of  the  territory  mentioned  in  this  act  exclusive  of  said  por- 
tions of  Cedar  Fork  and  Oak  Grove  townships. 

Sec.  25.  This  act  shall  be  in  force  from  and  after  its  rati- 

Read  three  times  in  the  General  Assembly,  and  ratified 
this  the  28th  day  of  February,  A.  D.  1881. 

Pursuant  to  the  provisions  of  the  bill,  the  Justices  of  the 
Peace  for  the  new  county  met  in  the  town  of  Durham  on 
the  1st  of  May,  1881,  and  proceeded  to  ballot  for  County 
Commissioners.  The  following  gentlemen  having  received 
a  majorit}'  of  votes  cast,  v/ere  declared  duly  elected :  Messrs. 
A.  K.  Umstead,  Washington  Duke,  G.  A.  Barbee,  John  T, 
Nichols  and  S.  W.  Holman. 

The  new  board  met  on  May  2d,  1881,  over  John  L.  Mark- 
ham's  store,  corner  Main  and  Mangum  streets,  and,  after 
qualifying,  organized  and  elected  Mr.  A.  K.  Umstead  chair- 
man, and  W.  T.  Patterson,  clerk,  who  also  acted  as  Superior 
Court  Clerk  until  the  election  of  Mr.  J.  S.  Ferrell  in  Au- 
gust of  the  same  year.  The  board  also  appointed  Mr.  Jas. 
R.  Blacknall  as  sheriff,  D.  L.  Belvin  constable  and  Dr.  A, 
G.  Carr  as  coroner.  Mr.  Wm.  Lipscomb  was  also  appointed 
tax  assessor  for  Durham  township. 

At  the  election,  which  occurred  first  Tuesday  in  August, 
1881,  Mr.  J.  J.  Ferrell  was  elected  Superior  Court  Clerk,  and 
Dr.  W.  M.  Laws,  Register  of  Deeds.  Among  the  proceed- 
ings of  the  second  meeting  of  the  Board  of  County  Commis- 
sioners, Ma}^  10th,  1881,  we  find  the  following  wise  and 
.commendable  order : 

"  The  question  of  granting  license  to  retail  spirituous 

Incorporation  of  Durham. 


liquors  in  the  count}'  of  Durham  to  several  parties  petition- 
ing^ was  taken  up,  and  after  a  fair  and  full  discussion,  it  was 
ordered  that  no  license  should  be  issued  to  sell  spirituous 
liquors  in  the  county  of  Durham.  By  request,  A.  K.  Um- 
stead's  vote  was  recorded  in  favor  of  not  granting  them." 

If  this  noble  example  had  been  strictly  followed  after- 
ward, much  suffering,  pauperism,  crime  and  death  would 
have  been  averted.  It  may  be  said  to  the  honor  of  this 
board  that  among  their  very  first  acts  they  manifested  a 
desire  to  promote  not  only  the  material  but  the  moral  inter- 
ests of  society. 

In  June,  1SS3,  the  Justice?  of  the  Peace  for  Durham 
count}'  convened  in  the  court-house  in  the  city  of  Durham, 
and  elected  the  following  commissioners:  Messrs.  Duncan 
Cameron,  W.  A.  Jenkins,  D.  P.  Paschall,  G.  A.  Barbee  and 
J.  G.  Latta.  The  new  board  met  and  organized  December 
4th,  1882. 

In  June,  1883,  the  real  and  personal  property  of  Durham 
Township  was  assessed  at  $2,000,200.  The  assessed  value  of 
real  and  personal  property  at  the  present  writing  is  about 
$3,000,000— or  a  market  value  of  about  $5,000,00.  The  as- 
sessed value  of  the  same  territory  in  1S65  was  about  $150,000. 

The  assessed  valuation  of  real  and  personal  property 
within  the  corporate  limits  of  the  city  of  Durham  is  $1,850,- 
000.     The  assessed  value  in  1865  was  about  $120,000. 


The  land  now  environed  by  the  corporate  limits  of  the 
City  of  Durham  contains  640  square  acres,  or  one  square 
mile.  The  following  table  shows  the  assessed  valuation  per 
acre  and  per  tract  for  1850  and  1860.  The  assessment  for 
1860  was  made  by  Messrs.  M.  A.  Angier,  J.  P.,  Z.  I.  Lyon 
and  C.  G.  Markham.  The  names  of  tracts  and  the  number 
of  acres  each  are  given  for  convenient  future  reference.  This 
land  will  readily  sell  to-day  for  from  $5,000  to  $15,000  per 
acre,  according  to  locality  : 

Name  of  Tract. 

Proctor  Tract 

Strayhorn  Tract 

Green  Tract 

Pratt  Tract 

Dr.  Durham  Tract. 
May  Tract 








Total ...I     640 

Per  Acre.    Per  Tract. 

$3  00 


Per  Acre.     Per  Tract. 

330  OOj 
450  00 
190  00 
450  00 
270  00 
I  So  00 

$  8  00 
15  00 
8  00 
10  00 
30  00 
10  00 

$    1,870  00  Av.$i4.28J 

^    8S0  00 

1,350  00 

760  00 

1,500  00 

'4,050  00 

600  00 

,140  00 

40  History  of  Durham. 


The  bill  to  incorporate  the  town  of  Durham  was  intro- 
duced in  the  General  Assembly  of  1868-'G9,  by  Hon.  T.  M. 
Argo.  The  bill  passed  and  was  ratified  the  10th  day  of 
April,  1869.     The  following  is  a  copy  of  the  act : 

Section  1.  The  General  Assembly  of  North  Carolina  do  en- 
act: That  the  Town  of  Durham,  in  the  county  of  Orange, 
be,  and  the  same  is  hereby  incorporated,  by  the  name  and 
style  of  "  The  Town  of  Durham,"  and  shall  be  subject  to  all 
the  provisions  contained  in  the  one  hundred  and  eleventh 
chapter  of  the  Revised  Code :  Provided,  That  any  male  citi- 
zen residing  within  the  proposed  corporation  shall  be  enti- 
tled^to  all  the  privileges  contained  in  an  act  to  provide  for 
the  holding  of  municipal  elections  in  North  Carolina,  rati- 
fied 16th  day  of  December,  1868. 

Sec.  2.  That  the  corporate  limits  of  said  Town  shall  ex- 
tend one-half  mile  in  all  directions  from  the  warehouse  of 
the  North  Carolina  Railroad  in  said  town. 

Sec.  3,  That  this  act  shall  be  in  force  from  and  after  its 

Ratified  the  10th  day  of  April,  1869. 

Speaker  of  the  House. 
President  of  the  Senate. 

I,  Henry  J.  Meuninger,  Secretary  of  State,  hereby  certify 
that  the  foregoing  is  a  true  copy  of  the  original  Act  on  file 
in  this  ofiicr. 

Secretary  of  State. 

At  the  first  election  under  the  provisions  of  this  act,  the 
following  municipal  officers  were  elected : 

Maijor—R.  F.  Morris. 

Commissioners — William  Mangum,  W.  K.  Styron,  Wil- 
liam Clark,  J.  W.  Cheek  and  John  A.  McManning,  Sr. 


The  bill  establishing  the  Durham  Graded  School  was  in- 
troduced in  the  General  Assembly  of  1881,  by  Hon.  Caleb 

Graded  School.  41 

B.  Green;  submitted  to  and  ratified  by  the  people  in  May, 
1882.  The  following  is  a  copy  of  the  law  (Laws  1881,  chap. 
231,  page  433): 

The  General  Assembly  of  North  Carolina  do  enact : 

Section  1.  The  commissioners  for  the  town  of  Durham  are 
hereby  authorized  to  submit  to  the  qualified  voters  of  said 
town,  at  such  time  and  under  such  rules  and  regulations  as 
the  said  commissioners  may  prescribe,  whether  an  annual 
tax  shall  be  levied  therein  for  the  support  of  a  graded  school 
in  said  town.  That  such  qualified  voters  at  such  election 
are  authorized  to  vote  on  written  or  printed  ballots  the  words 
"  for  school  "  and  "  against  school,"  and  the  penalties  for 
illegal  and  fraudulent  voting  in  this  election  shall  be  the 
same  as  in  the  annual  elections  for  mayor  and  commission- 
ers of  the  town  of  Durham. 

Sec.  2.  In  case  a  majority  of  the  qualified  voters  at  such 
election  shall  be  in  favor  of  such  tax,  the  same  shall  be 
levied  and  collected  by  the  town  authorities  under  the  same 
rules  and  regulations  by  which  other  iown  taxes  are  levied 
and  collected,  and  the  tax  collector  shall  be  subject  to  the 
same  liabilities  for  the  collection  and  disbursement  of  said 
tax  as  he  is  or  may  be  for  other  town  taxes :  Provided,  The 
special  taxes  so  levied  and  collected  shall  not  exceed  one- 
fifth  of  one  per  centum  on  the  value  of  property  and  seventy- 
five  cents  on  the  poll,  and  that  the  taxes  thus  levied  and 
collected  shall  be  applied  exclusively  for  the  support  of  a 
"graded  public  school,"  and  shall  not  be  appropriated  or 
expended  for  any  other  purpose. 

Sec.  3.  The  special  taxes  thus  levied  and  collected  from 
the  taxable  property  and  polls  of  white  persons  shall  be  ex- 
pended in  keeping  up  a  graded  public  school  for  white  persons 
of  both  sexes,  between  the  ages  of  six  and  twent-one  years  ; 
and  the  special  taxes  thus  levied  and  collected  from  the 
taxable  property  and  polls  of  colored  persons  shall  be 
expended  for  the  benefit  of  the  public  schools  of  the  colored 
children  of  both  sexes,  between  the  ages  of  six  and  twenty- 
one  years,  in  said  town. 

Sec.  4.  If  a  majority  of  the  qualified  voters  of  the  town  of 
Durham  shall  vote  "for  school,"  the  commissioners  for  said 
town,  at  their  next  regular  meeting,  and  their  successors  in 
ofiice  at  their  first  regular  meeting,  in   the  month  of  June 

42  History  of  Durhaji. 

annually  thereafter,  shall  elect  three  gentlemen  of  integrit}' 
and  ability,  qualified  voters  of  said  town,  to  constitute  "the 
Durham  Board  of  Education  and  Learning,"  and  the  said 
"Durham  Board  of  Education  and  Learning,"  the  school 
committee  for  the  school  district  in  Orange  county  com- 
posed of  the  town  of  Durham,  and  the  mayor  of  the  town  of 
Durham,  who  shall  be  cx-ojjicio  chairman,  but  have  no  vote 
except  in  case  of  a  tie,  shall  be  and  are  hereby  created  a 
bod}'  corporate  by  the  name  of  the  "  Durham  Graded  School 
Committee,"  which  shall  have  full  control  and  management 
of  the  "  Durham  Graded  School,"  and  each  member  of  said 
"Graded  School  Committee"  shall  continue  in  office  until 
his  successor  shall  be  elected  or  appointed  and  qualified. 

Sec.  5.  The  Durham  Graded  School  Committee  may  sue 
and  be  sued,  have  a  common  seal,  purchase  and  hold' real 
and  personal  property  not  exceeding  fifty  thousand  dollars 
in  value,  and  may  adopt  any  rules  and  regulations  for  its 
government  not  inconsistent  with  the  laws  of  North  Carolina. 

Sec.  6.  The  principal  and  teachers  of  such  graded  public 
school  shall  not  be  subject  to  the  restrictions  and  limitations 
as  to  salary,  prescribed  by  section  fifty-one  of  chapter  sixty- 
eight  of  Battle's  Revisal ;  but  may  be  paid  such  compensa- 
tion as  the  "Durham  Graded  School  Committee"  may  deem 
just  and  proper. 

Sec.  7.  This  act  shall  be  in  force  from  and  after  its  ratifi- 

In  the  General  Assembly  read  three  times,  and  ratified  this 
the  9th  day  of  March,  A.  D.  1881. 

This  school  is  now  one  of  the  most  important  and  at  the 
same  time  one  of  the  most  flourishing  institutions  of  the 
town,  and  experience  has  demonstrated  the  fact  that  Dur- 
ham with  its  great  energy  and  enterprise,  has  never  taken 
a  more  positive  step  towards  material,  as  well  as  intellectual 
advancement,  than  in  the  establishment  of  its  Graded 
School.  It  is  now  past  the  domain  of  experiment  and  is 
one  of  the  fixtures  which  is  pointed  to  with  genuine  pride 
and  admiration. 


In  the  Legislature  of  1881,  Hon.  Caleb  B.  Green  intro- 
duced and  secured  the  passage  of  a  bill  providing  that  when 

Graded  School. 

so  requested  the  Town  Commissioners  should  submit  to  the 
people  for  their  ratiiScation  or  rejection  the  proposition  to 
levy  annually  a  special  tax  of  20  cents  upon  the  |100  worth 
of  real  and  personal  projierty,  and  75  cents  upon  the  poll,  for 
the  maintenance  of  a  Graded  School  for  the  white  race. 
The  bill  provided  for  the  election,  by  the  Commissioners, 
for  a  term  of  one  year  of  a  Board  of  Education  and  Learn- 
ing, to  be  composed  of  three  citizens  of  integrity  and  learn- 
ing, and  that  this  Board  in  conjunction  with  the  Public 
School  Committee  of  the  District,  with  the  Mayor  as  chair- 
man ex  officio^  should  compose  the  Durham  Graded  School 

After  the  passage  of  the  bill  but  little  was  said  of  the 
matter  for  some  months,  and  many  thought  the  Duriiam 
Graded  School  was  a  thing  of  the  distant  future.  However, 
now  and  tlien,  through  the  year  18S1,  the  importance  of 
the  subject  was  urged  through  Mr.  Green's  paper,  the  lohacco 
Plant.  In  February  or  March,  1882,  the  Commissioners 
were  petitioned  to  submit  the  proposition  to  the  voters  of 
the  town  at  the  municipal  election  to  be  held  the  first  Mon- 
daj'  in  the  following  May.  Accordingly,  the  election  was 
ordered  and  a  vigorous  campaign  was  instituted,  which 
grew  more  and  more  intense  until  it  culminated  in  a  most 
decisive  victory  for  the  advocates  of  the  School — the  vote 
being  a  little  more  than  three  to  one  in  favor  of  the  estab- 
lishment of  this  institution. 

As  the  duty  of  electing  the  Board  of  Education  would 
devolve  upon  the  incoming  Board  of  Commissioners,  active 
and  successful  efibrts  weie  made  to  elect  citizens  favorable 
to  the  measure.  By  very  large  majorities,  the  following 
gentlemen  were  elected  Commissioners,  viz:  R.W.Thomas, 
W.  A.  Lea,  W.  H.  Rogers,  R.  D.  Blacknall,  and  \V.  H. 


Where  so  man}'  did  such  effective  work  in  establishing 
this  school,  it  might  appear  invidious  to  discriminate  in 
ascribing  leadership;  but  it  is  generally  conceded  that  spe- 
cial credit  is  due  the  following  gentlemen  for  extraordinary 
exertions  in  behalf  of  the  movement,  viz:  C.  B.  Green,  J. 
B.  Whitaker,  Jr.,  John  M.  Moring,  W.  T.  Blackwell,  James 
W.  Jones,  Js  F.  Freeland,  D.  C.  Mangum,  R.  W.  Thomas, 
N.  A.  Ramsey  and  T.  C.  Oakley. 

44  History  of  Durham. 

The  Hon.  Wm.  A.  Guthrie,  of  Fayetteville,  N.  C.,is  held 
in  grateful  remembrance  for  valuable  aid  rendered  during 
this  memorable  campaign. 


On  June  5th,  1882,  the  Town  Commissioners  elected  the 
following  gentlemen  as  the  Durham  Board  of  Education 
and  Learning,  for  a  term  of  one  year,  viz :  Messrs.  Eugene 
Morehead,  J.  B.  Whitaker,  Jr.,  and  J.  S.  Carr.  The  School 
Committee  for  the  District,  embracing  the  town,  was  com- 
posed of  Messrs.  D.  C.  Gunter,  William  Maynor  and  T.  C. 
Oakley.  The  Board  of  Education  and  the  School  Commit- 
tee, with  the  Mayor  as  chairman  ex  officio,  constituted  the 
first  Graded  School  Committee.  Mr.  J.  S.  Carr,  being  Presi- 
dent of  the  Methodist  Female  Seminary,  declined  the  posi- 
tion tendered  him  on  the  Board,  and  on  June  8th,  1882,  the 
Commissioners  elected  Mr.  Bartholomew  Fuller  to  fill  the 

The  first  meeting  of  the  Committee  was  held  June  10th, 
1882.  Mr.  J.  B.  Whitaker,  Jr.,  was  elected  Secretary  and 
Treasurer.  Subsequently,  it  was  determined  to  open  the 
School  September  4th,  1882.  Prof.  E.  W.  Kennedy,  a  native 
of  Tennessee,  but  at  this  time  occupying  a  position  in  the 
Goldsboro  Graded  School,  was  elected  Superintendent,  with 
the  following  corps  of  teachers :  Prof.  C.  D.  Mclver,  Assis- 
tant Superintendent,  Mrs.  M.  E.  Mahoney,  Misses  Lula 
Freeland  and  Bessie  Fanning.  Later  it  was  found  neces- 
sary to  engage  another  male  teacher,  and  Professor  Price 
Thomas,  of  Tennessee,  was  selected  for  the  position. 


As  the  success  of  a  school  depends  very  largely  upon  the 
capability  of  the  Superintendent,  the  committee  was  very 
fortunate  in  securing  tlie  services  of  Prof.  E.  W.  Kennedy 
for  this  most  important  position.  A  fine  scholar,  experi- 
enced in  the  graded  system  of  instruction,  with  superior 
executive  ability,  and  without  an  equal  in  the  State  as  a 
disciplinarian,  he  has  given  abundant  evidence  by  his  con- 
duct of  the  school  that  he  is  the  "right  man  in  the  right 
place."  Devoted  to  his  work,  with  a  determination  to  suc- 
ceed, and  moreover,  a  close  student,  the  increasing  brilliancy 

Graded  School.  45 

of  his  reputation  attests  that  the  highest  success  awaits  him. 
Prof.  Kennedy  has  endeared  liimself  to  the  pupils,  and  is 
regarded  hy  the  citizens  generally  as  a  valuable  member  of 
the  community.  During  the  vacation  of  1SS4,  he  proposes 
to  visit  Germany,  Italy  and  other  European  countries,  and 
while  absent  will  apply  himself  to  special  studies. 


Wright's  Factory,  on  Main  street,  was  leased,  and  during 
the  Summer  of  1882  it  was  re-modeled  and  adapted  in  some 
degree  to  the  necessities  of  the  school.  It  was  supplied  with 
patent  desks  and  seats  and  such  other  furniture  and  fixtures 
as  the  means  at  command  would  warrant. 


At  the  time  previously  designated,  September  4th,  1882, 
the  doors  of  the  school  were  opened  for  the  reception  of 
pupils,  and  an  important  and  memorable  day  it  was  in  the 
history  of  our  thriving  little  city.  Three  hundred  and  eight 
pupils  were  enrolled  the  first  month. 

In  November,  1SS2,  the  school  and  the  community  sus- 
tained a  great  loss  in  the  death  of  Mr.  B.  Fuller,  a  member 
of  the  Board  of  Education.  A  committee  was  appointed  to 
draft  resolutions  expressive  of  the  loss  of  such  a  true  friend 
and  wise  counselor,  and  the  school  was  adjourned  as  a  mark 
of  respect. 

Mr.  S.  F.  Tomlinson  was  elected  to  fill  the  vacancy  occa- 
sioned b}'  the  death  of  Mr.  Fuller. 

Soon  after  the  school  was  opened  Mr.  Eugene  Morehead 
donated  $100  lor  the  purpose  of  supplying  books  to  poor 
children.  He  also  loaned  the  committee  a  sum  of  money 
for  several  months,  without  interest. 

In  December,  1882,  the  term  of  office  of  the  Public  School 
Committeemen  expired  and  the  County  Commissioners 
elected  the  following  gentlemen  :  Messis.  C.  B.  Green,  John 
L.  Markham  and  John  V.  Riggsbee. 

The  Graded  School  Act  was  amended  b.y  the  Legislature 
of  1883,  as  follows:  Changed  the  word  "  Orange  "  to  "  Dur- 
ham ;"  provided  that  the  Board  of  Education  should  be 
composed  of  four  members  to  serve  for  two  years,  and  struck 
out  the  clause  creating  the  Mayor  chairman  ex  officio  of  the 

46  History  of  Durham. 

Board.     It  also   placed  the  general  school  fund  of  the  Dis- 
trict (for  the  white  race)  at  the  disposal  of  the  committee. 


Recognizing  the  importance  of  a  Library  in  connection 
with  the  school,  on  the  10th  of  May,  18S3,  Profs.  Kennedy 
and  Mclver  started  the  ball  in  motion  by  the  contribution 
of  a  few  volumes.  These  were  followed  by  other  dona- 
tions, and  at  the  meeting  of  the  committee,  May  loth,  1883, 
it  was  ordered  that  an  admission  fee  be  charged  at  the  Ex- 
hibition to  be  given  by  the  school  at  the  close  of  the  first 
year,  and  that  the  net  proceeds  be  applied  to  the  Library. 
About  $125.00  were  realized  from  the  Exhibition  and  the 
Library  has  continued  to  grow  from  that  time  to  the 

The  Exhibition  was  a  most  creditable  affair,  and  was 
witnessed  by  one  of  the  largest  audiences  ever  assembled 
in  Stokes  Hall.  The  order  and  regularity  of  movement  of 
so  large  a  number  of  children  were  wonderful  and  elicited 
general  admiration. 


On  June  5th,  1883,  the  Town  Commissioners  elected  as  the 
Board  of  Education  for  the  ensuing  term  of  two  years, 
Messrs.  Eugene  Morehead,  J.  B.  Whitaker,  .Jr.,  S.  F.  Tom- 
linson,  and  Geo.  W.  Watts.  Mr.  Watts  declined  to  serve, 
and  on  June  18th,  the  Board  of  Education  elected  Mr.  John 
C.  Angier  in  his  place. 

On  June  6th,  J  883,  the  Committee  re-organized  by  electing 
Mr.  Eugene  Morehead,  President ;  Mr.  J.  B.  V/hitaker,  .Jr., 
Secretary,  and  Mr.  John  L.  Markham,  Treasurer.  At  this 
meeting,  all  the  teachers  of  the  past  year  were  re-elected, 
viz.:  Prof.  E.  W.  Kennedy,  Superintendent;  Profs.  C.  D.  Mc- 
lver and  Price  Thomas,  Mrs.  M.  E.  Mahoney,  Misses  Lula 
Freeland  and  Bessie  Fanning.  All  of  these  accepted,  with 
the  exception  of  Mrs.  Mahone3^  On  June  25th,  the  following 
additional  teachers  were  elected  :  Mrs.  S.  T.  Morgan,  Misses 
Dora  Fanning,  Ida  Christmas  and  Eva  Cox.  August  9th, 
1883,  Prof.  Price  Thomas  resigned  to  accept  the  Superinten- 
dency  of  the  New  Berne  Graded  School.  September  1st, 
1883,  Miss  Ida  Christmas  resigned  to  accept  a  position  in  the 

Graded  School.  47 

New  Berne  school.  September  Sth,  notice  was  given  that 
Mr.  John  V.  Rigsbee  had  resigned  as  a  member  of  the  Com- 
mittee, and  that  in  his  place  the  Count}'  Commissioners  had 
elected  Mr.  Wm.  H.  Rogers.  On  the  same  day,  Prof.  C.  L. 
Dowell,  of  Raleigh,  was  elected  a  teacher,  vice  Prof.  Tliomas, 

Prof.  C.  D.  Mclver,  having  been  elected  Assistant  Super- 
intendent of  the  Winston  Graded  School,  tendered  his  resig- 
nation, to  take  effect  in  January,  18S4,  which  was  accepted 
Prof.  Thomas  J,  Simmons,  of  Fayetteville,  was  chosen  to 
fill  the  vacancy. 


The  first  official  step  towards  the  erection  of  a  Graded 
School  Building  was  taken  January  IGth,  1884,  when  a  com- 
mittee was  appointed  to  recommend  a  .site,  ascertain  price, 
&c.  The  committee  still  have  the  matter  under  considera- 
tion, and  we  venture  the  opinion  that  before  the  opening  of 
a  new  year  there  will  be  erected  a  handsome  edifice  for  the 
permanent  use  of  the  school. 


The  graduating  class  of  1884  will  be  composed  of  Misses 
Katie  Cox,  Etta  Fanning,  Marion  Fuller,  .Jessie  Lewellin, 
Annie  McGary,  and  Mr.  Chas.  A.  W.  Barham,  Jr.  Graduates 
of  the  school  are  permitted  to  return  and  pursue  any  study 
at  pleasure. 


The  superior  advantages  afforded  by  our  Graded  School 
are  not  confined  to  the  citizens  of  the  town.  Pupils  from 
the^Clntry  and  from  other  towns  will  be  received  upon 
payment  of  fees  amounting  to  onl}'  about  one-half  the  regu- 
lar charges  of  other  schools.  Many  are  availing  themselves 
of  these  extraordinary  facilities,  and  this  number  will  con- 
tinue to  increase.  The  school  stands  in  the  foremost  ranks 
of  the  educational  institutions  of  the  State,  and  when  a  good 
thing  can  be  procured  at  half-price  people  are  not  slow  to 
tivail  themselves  of  it. 

48  History  of  Durham. 

FROM   THE  pupil's   STANDPOINT. 

The  school  is  not  only  popular  with  the  parents  and  guar- 
dians, and  older  people  generally,  but  it  is  held  in  still 
higher  regard,  if  possible,  bj''  the  pupils.  So  attached  to  it 
are  they  that  it  requires  strong  persuasion  or  the  interposi- 
tion of  parental  authority  to  cause  them  to  absent  them- 
selves even  in  extreme  weather.  To  please  the  children, 
parents  often  hire  conve3'ances  to  take  them  to  the  building. 
Such  universal  fondness  for  school  was  unknown  before  the 
establishment  of  the  Graded  School.  The  attendance  record 
of  this  school  stands  without  parallel  in  the  State. 


With  age  the  school  has  grown  stronger  and  its  future 
is  bright  with  promises  of  great  usefulness.  The  proba- 
bilities are  that  generations  yet  unborn  will  rise  up  to  bless 
the  founders  and  all  who  have  contributed  to  the  establish- 
ment and  perpetuity  of  so  noble  an  institution. 


Since  the  above  was  written,  Mr.  J.  S.  Carr  has  very  gen- 
erously donated  a  lot  valued  at  $3,000,  located  on  Railroad 
street,  near  his  residence.  The  Committee  have  accepted 
the  gift  and  also  decided  to  purchase  the  lot  adjoining,  (the 
property  of  Mr.  W.  W.  Fuller,)  for  $2,500,  making  the  value 
of  entire  grounds,  containing  about  one  and  a  quarter  acres, 
$5,500.  Efforts  are  now  being  made  to  raise  funds  for  the 
erection  of  a  $12,500  or  $15,000  building  for  the  use  of  the 
school.  It  is  the  purpose  of  the  Committee  to  erect  the 
building  this  year. 


In  passing  it  seems  appropriate  in  this  place  to  refer 
briefly  to  the  condition  and  position  of  the  colored  people 
of  North  Carolina — and  especially  of  this  section  of  the 
State.  The  impression  prevails  to  some  extent  in  the  North- 
ern States  that  though  by  the  act  of  emancipation  made 
legally  free,  the  negroes  of  the  South  are  practically  in  as 
complete  subordination  to  the  white  people  as  ever  they 

The  Colored  Race.  49 

were,  and  that  the  gift  of  freedom,  instead  of  contributing 
to  their  advancennent,  has  tended  to  repress  them  by  reason 
of  the  prejudice  and  opposition  of  the  whites.  Whatever 
may  be  the  case  in  other  portions  of  the  South — and  we  do 
not  believe  it  warranted  in  any  portion — that  impression  is 
entirely  without  foundation,  except  in  conjecture  or  mis- 
representation, so  far  as  North  Carolina  is  concerned.  If 
any  people  anywhere  possess  a  full  measure  of  liberty  to  do 
for  themselves  as  to  themselves  seems  best,  without  let  or 
hindrance,  it  is  the  colored  people — men,  women  and  chil- 
dren— of  this  State.  In  all  public  places  they  are  cheerfully 
allowed  not  only  to  assume  but  to  assert  their  rights;  and, 
as  a  consequence,  they  are  as  "  happy  as  the  day  is  long," 
as  the  old  saying  goes.  They  sing  at  their  work  and  at 
their  play  without  objection  from  their  employers;  and  to 
listen  to  their  melodious  strains  on  the  raihvay  cars,  in 
which  some  of  them  are  always  moving;  in  the  great  to- 
bacco manufactories,  or  on  the  cotton  or  other  plantations, 
is  a  pleasure  that  is  worth  a  long  journey  to  enjoy.  They 
are  contented  and  they  are  prospering.  They  are  a  class 
still  distinct  from  the  whites,  and  for  many  years  they  must 
remain  so;  but  the  kind  consideration  with  which  they  are 
every  where  treated  in  the  State,  and  the  many  opportuni- 
ties the  State  affords — educationally  and  industrially — for 
their  advancement  to  a  higher  plane  of  existence  are  cir- 
cumstances that  are  helping  them  to  push  upward  and  on- 
ward rapidly  in  the  scale  of  being.  Schools  and  churches 
for  them  abound  in  all  the  towns  and  many  of  the  villages, 
and  in  all  the  avocations  of  life  they  have  an  equal  chance 
with  their  former  masters  and  their  descendants.  Com- 
mencing with  nothing  but  their  ability  to  labor,  many  of 
them  are  now  the  owners  of  farms  and  farm  stock,  stores 
and  other  business  establishments,  and  in  the  possession  of 
what  they  have  acquired  they  are  as  fairly  protected  as  are 
the  whites.  With  all  the  primary  branches  of  the  tobacco 
interest  they  are  prominently  identified,  and  it  is  for  the 
reason  that  they  are  so  that  we  have  devoted  so  much  space 
here  to  the  subject  of  their  welfare. 

A  large  majority  of  all  the  hands  employed  in  the  facto- 
ries and  warehouses  here,  are  colored,  are  well  treated  and 
receive  good  wages.  Blackwell's  Durham  Tobacco  Co.  em- 
ploy about  500  men,  women  and  children.  They  have  large 
and  flourishing  churches  and  schools,  and  so  far  as  the 
writer  can  ascertain,  are  contented  and  prosperous. 

50  History  op  Duraam. 



The  Origin  of  and  Title  to  the  use  of  the  Word  "  Dur- 
ham," AND  THE  "  Durham  Bull,"  as  Trade-Marks  for 
Smoking  Tobacco,  Being  a  Brief  Review  of  the  Liti- 
gations  BETWEEN    W.    T.  BlACKWELL,    L.  L.  ArMISTEAD 

and  W.  E.  Dibrell,  with  the  Decisions  of  the  Courts 
IN  Each  Case. 

The  litigations  of  W.  T.  Blackwell  &  Co.  are  matters  of 
pertinent  liistoric  interest,  so  intimately  connected  with  the 
establishment,  prosperity  and  fame  of  the  town  of  Durham, 
that  the  writer  esteems  a  brief  review  of  them  due,  not  only 
to  the  parties  directly  concerned  financially,  but  also,  as  an 
important  industrial  item  in  the  annals  of  North  Carolina. 
The  history  of  Durham,  and  indeed  the  history  of  the 
State,  would  be  incomplete  without  giving  them  appropri- 
ate mention.  Al'ter  the  unequivocal  and  thorough  estab- 
lishment by  the  U.  S.  Circuit  Courts  and  the  Patent  Office, 
of  W.  T.  Black  well's  claims,  it  is  fair  to  presume,  after  ex- 
amination, that  no  honest  and  intelligent  person  can  for  a 
moment  doubt  their  validity,  or  attempt  any  further  in- 
fringement of  the  same.  The  first  case  we  notice  is  that  of 
Armistead  vs.  Blackwell. 

The  history  of  this  desperate  attempt  to  defeat  Blackwell 
will  be  fully  set  forth  in  the  following  pages.  The  belief 
has  been  entertained  by  many  that  one  Wesley  A.  Wright 
was  the  originator  of  the  word  "  Durham  "  as  a  mark,  and 
so  positive  was  he  of  his  ability  to  sustain  this  claim  that 
L.  L.  Armistead  was  induced  to  espouse  his  caus^.  But, 
that  the  reader  may  have  a  clear  and  perfect  understanding 
of  the  matter  at  issue,  it  is  necessary  to  state  the  material 
difference  in  the  issues  joined  before  Judge  Rives  and  Com- 
missioner Leggett.  Before  Judge  Rives  Blackwell  was 
plaintiff  and  Armistead  defendant;  vice  versa  before  the 
Commissioner.  In  the  early  part  of  1871,  Mr.  Blackwell, 
having  ascertained  that  one  Louis  L.  Armistead,  of  Lynch- 
burg, Va.,  not  only  claimed  the  right  to  use  the  celebrated 
Bull  Brand  of  Durham  Tobacco,  but  also  claimed  its 
actual   ownership,   and,  anxious  to   test  the  matter   in  the 

The  BlacivWell  Litigation.  51 

courts,  he  applied  for  and  obtained  an  order  restraining 
Armistead  from  the  use  of  the  brand.  In  due  course  of  time 
the  matter  came  on  to  be  heard,  and  attention  is  invited  to 
the  opinion  of  one  of  Virginia's  most  worthy  sous  and  tal- 
ented jurists,  the  most  casual  digest  of  which  will  show  how 
unconditionally  the  court  surrendered  the  brand  to  Blackwell, 
and  ordered  Armistead  to  reimburse  him.  Armistead, 
smarting  under  the  blow,  hoped  by  dropping  the  Bull,  to 
register  the  words  "Durham  Smoking  Tobacco"  as  a  trade- 
mark. He  appears  before  the  patent  office,  and  under  the 
solemnity  of  an  oath,  claims  the  exclusive  use  to  the  word  "  Dur- 
ham "  as  a  brand.  Here  again  Blackwell  meets  him.  It  is 
found  that  Blackwell  has  not  only  protected  his  brand  by  a 
trade-mark  on  the  words  with  the  Bull,  but  has  actually  ob- 
tained a  trade-mark  on  the  words  independent  of  the  Bull. 
The  last  trade-mark  Armistead  swears  is  spurious,  and  asks 
an  interference.  The  Commissioner  says,  that  while  the 
office  erred  in  granting  Blackwell  his  last  trade-mark,  it 
cannot  repeat  the  error  in  order  that  Armistead  may  be 
placed  upon  the  same  footing.  He  therefore  dismisses  the 
interference,  refuses  Armistead  the  right  to  register,  and 
thus  leaves  Blackwell  with  two  trademarks. 

The  following  is  the  opinion  of  the  Court: 

KiVES,  J. — Tlie  preliminary  injunction  in  this  case  was 
founded  on  the  statements  of  the  bill.  In  pursuance  of  the 
notice  required  by  statute,  the  defendant  appeared  and  con- 
tested its  emanation  upon  ex  parte  affidavits  assailing  the 
title  of  the  plaintiffs.  But  in  that  incipient  state  of  the  pro- 
ceedings it  would  not  have  been  proper,  if  at  all  practicable, 
to  pass  upon  the  merits  of  this  defense;  and  the  only  ques- 
tion then  was,  whether  the  case,  as  presented  by  the  bill 
and  affected  by  this  adverse  testimony,  was  still  such  as  to 
require  this  day  till  the  merits  of  the  controversy  could  be 
developed  by  further  pleading  and  testimony.  The  pro- 
priety of  this  interposition  by  the  court  will  scarcely  be  now 
questioned,  as  these  further  proceedings  have  shown  the 
case  to  be  one  of  perplexity  and  doubt. 

The  pleadings  have  now  been  perfected.  The  defendant's 
answer  was  duly  filed,  issue  taken  upon  it,  and  the  cause 
set  down  for  final  hearing.  A  vast  volume  of  testimony  has 
also  been  taken,  some  of  it  contradictory,  and  a  vast  deal 
of  it  irrelevant  and  impertinent.  It  is  to  be  regretted  that 
the  zeal  of  counsel  or  the  anxiety  of  parties  should  have  so 

52  History  of  Durham. 

augmeiited  the  bulk  of  this  testimony  as  to  make  a  need- 
lessly expensive  record  of  it,  and  to  devolve  upon  alien- 
gaged  in  its  examination  a  wearisome  amount  of  unprofita- 
ble reading.  Still  it  is  a  subject  of  congratulation  that  the 
cause  is  now  fully  developed  in  all  its  aspects  and  bearings, 
and  has  been  argued  with  a  discriminating  force  and  full- 
ness of  research  alike  masterly  and  instructive,  and  calcu- 
lated to  produce  settled  convictions  one  way  or  the  other. 

Our  first  task  is  to  acquire  accurate  and  precise  ideas  of 
the  issues  made  by  the  pleadings.  If  this  be  done,  and  then 
the  law  be  properly  applied,  it  seems  to  me  we  can  reach  a 
safe  conclusion  almost  without  resorting  to  the  voluminous 
testimony.  The  plaintiffs  claim  a  trade-mark,  designed  in 
1865  or  1866,  and  continuously  used  ever  since.  It  is  exem- 
plified and  made  a  part  of  their  bill.  The  descriptive  terms 
are:  "Genuine  Durham  Smoking  Tobacco,"  and  the  sym- 
bol or  device  is  the  side  view  of  a  Durham  bull.  They  as- 
sert that  this  trade-mark  has  been,  violated  by  the  defendant 
in  using,  under  date  of  January,  1871,  tliis  term:  "The 
Durham  Smoking  Tobacco,"  and  the  symbol  or  device  of 
"a  bull's  head,"  with  a  note  of  the  defendant  of  Wright's 
patent  for  the  manufacture  of  "  Genuine  Durham  Smoking 
Tobacco."  This  latter  trade-mark  of  the  defendant  is  also 
exemplified  in  the  bill  and  placed  in  juxtaposition  and  con- 
trast with  plaintiffs'  trade-mark. 

The  answer,  while  calling  for  full  proof  of  the  allegations 
of  the  bill,  does  not  directly  deny  this  statement,  but  rests 
the  defence  upon  three  chief  grounds :  1.  The  prior  use  of 
this  trade-mark  by  VV^right,  (under  whom  the  defendant 
claims,)  as  far  back  as  1860 ;  2.  That  the  defendant's  trade- 
mark is  not  an  infringement  of  the  plaintiffs',  but  is  wholly 
dissimilar;  and,  3,  That  the  plaintiffs  by  fraudulent  repre- 
sentations in  the  premises,  have  deprived  themselves  of  all 
equitable  assistance. 

The  main  contest  is  considered  by  all  parties  and  the 
counsel  in  this  case  to  rest  upon  the  irriority  in  the  use  of 
this  disputed  trade-mark.  The  defendant  does  not  pretend 
that  AVright,  under  whom  he  claims,  ever  used  the  identi- 
cal trade-mark  set  up  by  the  plaintiffs.  On  the  contrary, 
he  takes  especial  pains  to  show  that  he  placed  no  particular 
value  on  the  term  ^^  Durham, ^^  which  he  now  asserts  belonged 
in  common  to  his  and  plaintiff's  brands.  The  discovery 
which  he  had  made,  and  for  which  he  seeks  protection^  was 

The  Blackwell  Litigation.  53 

his  preparation  for  or  mode  of  treating  smoking  tobacco, 
so  as  to  mitigate  its  noxious  qualities  and  impart  to  it  an 
agreeable  flavor.  This  is  the  merit  he  claims;  this  the  pro- 
cess he  has  patented.  The  testimony  and  the  ansvrer  con- 
cur in  proving  that  the  whole  merit  of  this  smoking  to- 
bacco, and  its  celebrity,  were  due  to  the  use  of  the  flavoring 
he  gave  his  tobacco.  He  was  confessedly  the  first  to  com- 
mence its  manufacture  at  Durham  station.  There  was  noth- 
ing in  the  locality  he  could  have  reasonably  counted  upon 
to  commend^ his  manufacture  to  the  public.  But,  if  we  are 
to  credit  the  defendant's  answer  and  his  testimony  in  this 
cause,  it  was  his  discovery  .of  the  flavoring  compound  on 
which  he  plumed  himself.  Accordingly  it  was  this  which 
he  emblazoned  on  his  stencil-plate.  Take  his  own  state- 
ment for  the  present,  and  what  was  his  brand?  "Best 
Spanish  Flavored  Durham  Smoking  Tobacco."  What,  in 
view  of  the  pleadings  and  evidence  in  this  cause,  is  the 
characteristic — the  vital  element — of  this  trade-mark.  Man- 
ifestl}',  "Best  Spanish  Flavored."  That  was  the  only  con- 
spicuous and  discriminating  element  of  this  trade-mark. 
"  Durham,"  if  indeed  a  part  of  it,  was,  upon  the  defendant's 
own  showing,  subordinate  and  insignificant.  Now,  the 
plaintiffs  concede  in  the  fullest  manner  Wright's  superior 
title  to  the  use  and  brand  of  his  flavoring  compound,  and 
disclaim  in  their  process  any  infringement  of  it;  nor  does 
it  appear  there  has  been  any,  nor  indeed  any  formal  com- 
plaint of  it. 

The  pretension  of  the  defendant,  then,  amounts  to  this: 
that  because,  in  18G0,  he  branded  his  smoking  tobacco 
"  Best  Spanish  Flavored  Durham,"  wholly  because  of  the 
mode  in  which  he  flavored  it,  no  subsequent  manufacturer 
of  the  article  at  Durham,  without  the  use  of  his  process, 
shall  brand  his  as  "Genuine  Durham  Smoking  Tobacco," 
with  a  symbol  which  he  never  used.  My  reply  is  that,  un- 
der the  circumstances  of  his  use  of  the  name  "Durham," 
there  was  nothing  in  it  so  descriptive  as  to  restrain  succeed- 
ing manufacturers  at  the  same  place  from  engrafting  it  on 
their  brand,  so  long  as  they  laid  no  claim  to  nor  made  any 
use  of  his  "  best  flavored  Spanish  "  compound,  which  he  in- 
deed appropriated  by  this  first  and  original  use  of  this  only 
conspicuous  term  on  his  stencil-plate  in  1860-'61.  It  must 
be  remembered  that  Wright  was  only  in  the  infanc}'  of  this 
manufacture  at  Durham  ;  and  that  others  followed  and  de- 

54  History  of  Durham. 

veloped  it  till  the  plaintiffs  instituted  their  brand  in  1865 
and  1866. 

Conceding,  then,  all  the  defendant  claims  by  virtue  of  his 
purchase  from  Wright,  he  fails,  in  my  opinion,  to  rebut  the 
plaintiffs'  title  by  proving  a  brand  as  used  by  Wright  pre- 
viously, wherein  "  Best  Flavored  Spanish  "  was  the  distin- 
guishing attribute  and  "  Durham,''  under  the  circumstan- 
ces at  that  time,  a  mere  unmeaning  incident.  Thus  stands 
this  point  in  the  light  of  the  pleadings  alone,  the  allega- 
tions of  the  plaintiffs. on  the  one  hand,  and  the  denials  aad 
defenses  of  the  defendant  on  the  other. 

The  testimony  as  to  the  fact  whether  the  term  "Durham  " 
was  ever  upon  the  stencil-plate  of  Morris  &  Wright  is  con- 
tradictory. But  in  my  mind  it  preponderates  against  the 
existence  of  that  name  in  that  brand.  Counsel  have  adroitly 
insisted  that  the  testimony  against  it  is  negative,  and  cannot 
from  its  nature,  however  commanding,  overcome  clear 
affirmative  proofs.  The  proposition  of  law  involved  in  the 
statement  is  correct;  but  the  whole  inquiry  is  into  a  fact, 
namely:  What  was  the  stencil  used  by  Morris  &  Wright? 
Some,  on  the  one  hand,  who  had  used  it,  declare  with  em- 
phasis it  was:  "Morris  &  Wright's  Best  Spanish  Flavored 
Smoking  Tobacco  ;"  others,  but  mainly  Wright  and  his  two 
sons — the  latter  at  the  time  but  boys — stated  it  as  "  Morris 
&  Wright's  Best  Spanish  Flavored  Durham  Smoking  To- 
bacco." The  proofs,  therefore,  on  both  sides,  are  equally 
affirmative.  If,  then,  it  be  left  in  doubt,  we  must  look  to 
the  probabilities  of  the  case  to  turn  the  scales.  What  mo- 
tive could  have  existed  with  Wright,  all  whose  reliance  was 
upon  the  merits  of  his  flavoring  compound,  to  invoke  the 
name  of  a  small,  thriftless  station  on  a  railroad,  settled  by 
only  two  or  three  families,  with  a  store  and  this  factor}^,  to 
invoke  its  name  to  give  celebrity  to  the  preparation  to  which 
he  solely  looked  for  his  reward?  It  seems  to  me  extremely 
improbable,  upon  ordinary  grounds  of  reason  and  human 
action,  to  suppose  that  he  used  "  Durham  "  on  his  stencil  at 
all.  On  comparing  and  weighing  the  testimony  on  both 
sides,  I  am  constrained  to  adopt  the  conclusion  that  he  did 
not.  Neither  he  nor  his  vendee,  therefore,  have  any  claim 
to  contest,  under  this  state  of  the  evidence,  the  validity  of 
the  plaintiff's  trade-mark  and  his  original  and  paramount 
•title  thereto. 

It  cannot  be  denied  that  it  is  abundantly  proven  in  this 


The  Blackwell  Litigation.  55 

cause,  that  the  manufacture  of  Morris  &  Wright,  and  of 
those  who  succeeded  them  at  Durham,  was  known,  called, 
and  distinguished  in  the  market  as  "  Durham  "  smoking 
tobacco.  It  is  on  this  notorious  fact  in  the  cause  that  the 
able  and  ingenious  argument  has  been  raised  that  the  pub- 
lic, by  its  voice,  may  appropriate  and  consecrate  to  an  indi- 
vidual property  in  a  designation  by  which  he  may  choose 
to  denote  any  product  of  his  industr}'.  But  I  can  find  no 
warrant  for  such  proposition  in  law  on  this  subject.  On  the 
contrary,  it  is  distinctly  laid  down  by  the  authorities,  that 
it  is  only  the  actual  use  of  the  mark,  device,  or  symbol  b}^  the 
dealer  which  entitles  him  to  it,  and  gives  him  the  right  to 
be  protected  in  the  enjoyment  of  it. 

The  doctrine  on  this  Subject  has  grown  with  commerce, 
and  has  assumed  the  form  and  title  of  a  distinct  body  of  law 
under  the  moulding  hand  of  able  judges,  who  have  sought 
in  their  decisions  to  establish  its  guiding  principles,  and  of 
acute  commentaiors  and  essayists,  who  have  exerted  the  pow- 
ers of  a  superior  analysis  and  discrimination  to  extricate  from 
doubt  the  true  maxims  of  this  beneficent  code  of  business 

So  much  of  it  as  is  necessary  or  material  for  our  present 
inquiry  is  comprehended  in  a  single  proposition.  It  is  the 
5e?7M«a^  principle  of  the  wholedoctrine.  The  simple  statement 
of  it  is,  that  the  dealer  has  property  in  his  trade-mark.  This 
is  allowed  him  because  of  the  right  which  every  man  has  to 
the  rewards  of  his  industry  and  the  fruits  of  his  discover}', 
and  because  of  the  wrong  of  permitting  one  man  to  use  as  his 
own  that  which  belongs  to  another.  In  regard  to  the  latter, 
it  may  be  well  said,  that  any  imitation  of  a  trade-mark,  calcu- 
lated todeceive  the  unwary  customer,  differs  from  an  absolute 
forgery,  not  in  the  nature,  but  rather  in  the  extent  of  the 
injury.  The  dissimilarity  to  the  expert  wholesale  dealer  may 
be  such  as  to  save  him  from  the  imposition,  but  too  slight,  and 
that  perhaps  by  design,  to  diminish  sales  to  the  incautious 
purcliaser.  But,  uponthe  success  of  fraud  depends,  ultimately, 
the  extent  of  the  injury.  Let  the  spurious  fabrication  meet 
with  the  same  sale,  among  private  and  individual  consumers, 
as  the  genuine  article,  and  the  wholesale  dealer  loses  all  motive 
for  the  exercise  of  his  skill  in  detection  when  he,  perhaps,  can 
reap  better  profits  from  the  spurious,  and  therefore  cheaper, 
than  from  the  genuine  article.  In  this  way  a  simulated  trade- 
mark may  work  the  same  mischief,  and  to  the  same  extent, 
as  a  forgery,  defying  detection  at  the  hands  of  the  exvert. 

56  History  of  Durham. 

With  this  brief  vieu'  of  the  law.  I  proceed  to  examine  the 
second  ground  of  defense :  that  the  defendant  has  not  infringed 
the  trade-mark  of  the  plaintiffs.  This  is  scarcely  the  subject 
of  argument.  It  must  be  referred  to  ocular  examination  and 
decision.  Place  the  respective  trade- marks  side  b}'  side,  con- 
trast the  labels,  the  words,  and  the  devices,  and  each  one's 
vision  must  determine  for  himself  whether  the  imitation  is 
such  as  to  deceive  the  unpractised  and  unwary  customer.  It 
matters  not  uovv',  in  the  critical  inspection  of  them,  and  aided 
b}'  ingenious  counsel,  we  can  clearly  discern  differences 
between  the  two.  The  true  question  is,  whether  taking  the 
"  tout  ensemble,'''  Armistead's  trade-mark  might  not  pass  with 
the  unwary  for  that  of  Wm.  T.  Blackwell  &  Co.;  and,  if  that 
be  so,  the  wrong  is  done,  and  Ihe  title  of  the  latter  to  be 
protected  by  this  court  is  consummated.  For  m}'-  part  I  do 
not  see  how  trade-marks  so  similar  could  escape  being  con- 
founded in  the  market.  One  reads,  "  Genuine  Durham  Smo- 
king Tobacco";  the  other,  ''The  Durham  Smohing  Tobacco" 
This  use  of  the  definite  article  makes  these  phrases  equivalent. 
To  remove  all  doubt,  and  aid  the  deception,  in  the  note  of 
sale  of  the  patent  to  Armistead,  it  reads,  for  "  Genuine  Dur- 
ham Smoking  Tobacco."  Thus  the  language,  to  this  extent,  of 
the  labels  is  identical.  Now,  as  to  the  symbols  or  devices, 
one  is  the  side  view  of  the  Durham  bull ;  the  other,  that  of 
his  head,  on  a  medallion.  The  one  symbolizes,  by  a  part,  the 
name  "  Durham  "  as  effectually  as  the  other  does  by  the  whole. 
The  color  of  the  paper  is  also  the  same.  Whether  this  simu- 
lation be  the  product  of  accident  or  design,  does  not  matter. 
It  is  the  province  of  this  court  to  suppress  it  in  either  case. 
It  is  a  little  curious,  however,  to  note  that  Wright's  first 
label,  at  Liberty  or  in  Bedford,  was  wholly  different,  and  that, 
after  his  son  had  seen  plaintiff's  trade-mark  in  Kentucky,  and 
after  his  return  to  his  father,  the  present  trade-mark,  as 
transferred  to  the  defendant,  w'as  adopted  by  Wright. 

The  third  and.last  ground  of  defense  is  that  the  plaintiffs 
have  forfeited  their  right  to  relief  in  this  court  by  reason  of 
their  false  and  fraudulent  pretensions.  This  is  upon  the 
ancient  and  familiar  principle  that  those  v\ho  do  iniquity 
must  not  ask  ncr  expect  equity.  It  is  worthy  of  all  acceptaton. 
It  is  a  hoary  maxim,  hallowed  by  its  age,  and,  unlike  some 
other  equally  sacred  antiquities,  it  is  as  yet  unassailed  by 
the  spirit  of  change  or  reckless  progress.  I  adhere  to  it.  But 
the  charges  are  serious  and  demand  investigation. 

The  Blackwell  Litigation.  57 

The  first  is,  that  the  plaintiffs  sent  out  business  envelopes 
and  business  cards,  giving  the  year  ISGO  as  the  date  of  the 
establishment  of  their  enterprise.     In  the  absence  of  explana- 
tion, this  might  well  impugn  the  bona  fides  of  the  plaintiffs, 
as  in  their  bill  they  fix  it  no  earlier  than  1865.     But  was  this 
statement  by  mistake  or  design  ?     Have  the  plaiuliffs  failed 
to  account  for  it?  A  junior  member  of  the  firm  was  examined 
and  showed  how  it  all  occurred  innocevthj,  and  without  intent 
to  deceive.     He  ordered  the  ]irinting  and  gave  the  date ;  soon 
after  the  packages  were  received  and  opened  in  the  presence 
of  Dr.  Blackwell  :  the  latter  saw  the  error  of  the  date  and 
corrected  it;  and  the  witness  stated  that  he  proceeded  to  cor- 
rect the  misdate  by  writing  the  figure  (5)  over  the  cipher  in 
1860,  so  as  to  make  the  date  1865,  as  corrected  by  Dr.  Black- 
well,  but  that  some  might  have  gone  out  before  the  correc- 
tion.    The  exhibits  made  by  the  defendant  of  these  envelopes 
and  cards  corroborate,  rather  than  conflict,  with  the  witness. 
That  should  not  be  taken  for  fraud  which  is  proved  b}'  an 
unimpeached  witness  to  have  been  a  mistake  on  his  part. 
Besides,  there  was  no  reasonable  motive  for  such  misrepre- 
sentation ;  the  plaintiffs  had  nothing  to  gain  by  it,  but  much 
to  lose  on  the  hypothesis  of  the  counsel  for  the  defendant. 
The  next  is  a  charge  of  falsehood  in  representing  that  the 
label  was  secured  by  copyright.     There  is  not  a  particle  of 
proof  to  that  effect.     Argument  and  ridicule  alone  are  relied 
on  to  show  the  inapplicability  and  absurdity  of  a  copyright 
for  snch  a  print.     The  language  of  the  statute  is  certainly 
comprehensive  enough  to  embrace  a  label  of  this  kind.   (Act 
of  July  8,  1870,  §  86,  U.  S.  Stats,  at  Large,  vol.  16,  p.  212.) 
The  object  of  sucli  copyright  is  to  secure  to  "  the  author, 
inventor  or  designer"  of  any  such  "  print"  the  sole  liberty  of 
printing  and  vending  the  same.     It  forbids  the  surreptitious 
use  and  the  illegal  sale  of  his  labels.   This  is  a  perfectly  legit- 
imate resort  to  copyright  in  such  a  case  and  for  such  a  pur- 
pose.    It  would,  indeed,  hj  absurd  and  ridiculous  if  the 
object  were,  as  sarcastically  portrayed  b}--  counsel,  to  protect 
the  designer  against  the  unlawful    multiplication  of  such 
ycleped  works  of  art.     The  dealer  seeks  merely  by  his  copy- 
right to  keep  the  printing  and  vending  of  his  labels  in  his  own 
hands  and  under  his  control.  It  has  been  resorted  to  in  other 
cases,  as  for  instance,  in  the  case  of  Wolfe  v.  Goulard,  Cox's 
Am.  Trade-Mark  Cases,  page  227,  for  the  label  of  "Schiedam 
Schnapps."    There  is  nothing  unreasonable  or  incredible  iu 

58  History  of  Durham. 

this  claim  of  the  plaintiffs  to  a  copyright  for  their  label ; 
nor  is  there  anj'thing  in  the  testimony  or  the  law  to  lead  us 
to  discredit  it  and  brand  it  as  a  falsehood. 

It  seems  to  me,  therefore,  that  both  these  charges  are  un- 
founded. They  spring  from  the  heat  of  forensic  contests. 
They  pertain  to  the  polemics  of  the  bar.  Their  effect  is  to 
provoke  recrimination.  Hence,  the  plaintiffs'  counsel  re- 
taliate by  imputing  falsehood  to  the  defendant  in  dating  his 
purchase  of  Wright  1st  of  January,  when  he  had  stated 
in  his  answer  he  would  not  bu^^  till  he  had  ascertained  his 
title  by  certificates ;  and  those  very  certificates  bore  the 
subsequent  date  of  the  6th  of  that  month.  The  imputa- 
tion seems  plausible;  but  the  transaction  is  susceptible  of  a 
more  charitable  construction,  v\'hich  I  deem  it  my  duty  to 
put  upon  it.  Dates  are  commonly  immaterial,  and  often 
misapplied  in  business  transactions.  The  main  fact  is 
doubtless  correctly  stated  by  the  defendant,  though  he  is 
made  himself  to  confront  it  by  a  mistaken  date. 

I  am  glad,  therefore,  to  have  it  in  my  power  to  state  that 
there  is  nothing  in  this  cause  to  affect  the  fair  fame  of  the 
parties,  plaintiffs  or  defendant.  They  are,  doubtless,  respect- 
able men,  and  enterprising  manufacturers  of  tobacco  in 
their  respective  communities.  They  are  engaged,  as  I  be- 
lieve, in  the  honest  pursuit  of  their  rights  as  they  respect- 
ively understand  them.  The  defendant  has  acted  on  the 
information  of  another,  under  whom  he  claims.  He  has 
obeyed  the  order  of  this  court.  The  only  thing  I  have  to 
regret  is,  that  the  same  deference  was  not  paid  by  another 
manufacturer,  who,  though  no  party  to  this  suit,  could  not 
have  been  ignorant  of  it  from  his  near  relation  to  the  de- 
fendant. But  the  plaintiffs  have  not  chosen  to  bring  him 
before  this  court,  save  by  proving  his  acts  in  the  use  of  the 
simulated  mark,  notwithstanding  the  injunction  upon  his 

I  am  sure  the  plaintiffs  and  the  defendant,  as  enterprising 
dealers,  will  find  their  ultimate  interests  subserved  by  the 
doctrine  I  have  sought  to  expound  and  maintain  as  to  their 
trade-marks.  Whoever  may  now  be  the  loser  by  it  may 
soon  have  occasion  to  invoke  it  for  his  own  protection  ;  and 
they,  whose  rights  are  now  sustained,  must  learn  thereby 
to  respect  those  of  other  competitors  in  their  business,  at 
the  same  time  that  they  may  take  encouragement  to  them- 
selves from  their  present  success.     All  intelligent  men,  en- 

The  Blackwell  Litigation.  59 

gaged  in  manufactures  or  other  enterprises,  must  sooner  or 
later  become  reconciled  to  losses,  in  whatever  favored  quar- 
ter they  ma}''  fall,  that  may  be  fairly  viewed  as  penalties  for 
the  infraction,  however  unintentional,  of  laws,  well  settled, 
designed  and  calculated  to  vindicate  tho  honor,  advance 
the  morals,  and  promote  the  interests  of  trade. 

For  these  reasons  I  decree  the  perpetuation  of  the  injunc- 
tion, and  ord^r  an  account  to  be  taken  by  a  master  of  the 
profits  made  b}^  the  defendant  from  his  sales  under  the 
simulated  trade-mark  aforesaid. 

JJ.  S.  DisL  Judge  fo?'  West.  Dist.  of  Virginia. 

Clerk's  Office  U.  S.  Circuit  Court, 
West.  Dist.  of  Virginia,  at  Lynchburg.  _ 

I  hereby  certify,  that  the  foregoing  document  of  17  pages 
is  in  the  handwriting  of  Hon.  Alex.  Rives,  Judge  of  this 

Witness  my  hand  and  seal  this  1st  day  of  May,  A.  D. 

E.  W.  EARLY, 

[seal.]  Clerk. 


For  the  Western  District  of  Virginia, 

March  Term,  1872. 

W.  T.  Blackwell  &  J.  S.  Carr,  partners,'^ 
under  the  style  of  Wm.  T.  Blackwell,  I  j    p„.^p 

L.  L.  Armistead.  J 


The  case  of  Blackwell  v.  Armistead  came  on  to  be  heard 
at  the  March  terra,  A.  D.  1872! 

The  case  had  been  prepared  with  great  care  and  was  de- 
fended with  marked  ability.  Connected  directly  or  indi- 
rectly therewith  were  the  following  counsel : 

60  History  of  Durham. 

For  Mr.  BlackweU,^  the  'plaintiff— Messrs.  W.  &  J.  W.  Daniel, 
of  Lyncliburg  ;  Phillips  &  Meriimon,  of  Raleigli;  Bouldin, 
Marshall  &  Bouldin,  of  Richmond,  and  Cox  &  Cox,  of 
AVashingtou,  D.  C. 

For  defendant,  Mr.  Armistead — Messrs.  Bocock  &  Davis  and 
B.  G.  H.  Kean,  of  Lynchburg;  Jones  &  Jones,  of  Raleigh; 
A.  H.  &  R.  K.  Evans,  of  Washington,  D.  0. 

After  about  three  da3's  spent  in  able  and  exhaustive  ar- 
gunaent  on  both  sides,  the  case  vras  submitted  to  the  court, 
and  upon  consideration  decided  in  Mr.  Blackwell's  favor, 
the  decree  being  for  an  account  of  all  the  profits  made  by 
Mr.  Armistead  from  sales  of  tobacco  under  the  brand  of 
"  Duriiam  Smoking  Tobacco,"  with  a  cut  representing  the 
head  of  a  Durham  Bull. 

In  the  Interference  between  1  In  the  U.  S.  Pat- 

L.  L.  Armistead  and  W.  T.  Blackwell.  J      ent  Office. 

This  case  was  first  heard  before  Commissioner  Brown, 
who  decided  that  the  applicant,  Mr.  Armistead,  was  entitled 
to  the  use  of  the  word  "  Durham,"  as  a  trade-mark.  From 
this  decision  Mr.  Blackwell  took  an  appeal  to  the  Commis- 
sioner, the  final  authority  in  .the  case.  The  interference 
was  elaborately  and  ably  argued  on  both  sides.  Mr.  Arm- 
istead was  represented  by  the  following  counsel :     Messrs. 

A.  H.  &  R.  K.  Evans;  and  Mr.  Blackwell  by  Messrs.  Cox  & 
Cox,  and  W.  W.  Leggett,  Esq.  After  a  very  careful  and  criti- 
cal examination — a  decision  having  been  postponed  nearly 
a  month — the  Commissioner  reversed  the  decision  of  the 
Examiner  and  gave  judgment  in  favor  of  W.  T.  Blackwell, 
thus  substantially  acquiescing  in  the   opinion   of   Judge 

■Rives.  The  following  is  an  extract  from  the  brief  filed  by 
Cox  &  Cox,  counsel  for  Blackw^ell,  and  fully  sets  forth  the 
merits  of  the  case : 

"The  substance  ol  the  applicant's  (Armistead)  preliminary 
statement  is  as  follows :  That  Wesley  A.  Wright,  a  citizen 
of  Virginia,  having  removed  to  Durham,  N.  C,  commenced 
the  manufacture  of  smoking  tobacco  in  association  with  T. 

B.  Morris,  under  the  firm  of  Morris  &  Wright,  using  in  the 
manufacture  of  said  smoking  tobacco  his  (Wright's)  flavor- 
ing compound,  subsequently  patented. 

The  Blaczwell  Litigation.  61 

111  the  following  year,  1861,  said  Wright  Continued  the 
manufacture  of  smoking  tobacco,  individually,  at  a  point 
about  two  miles  from  Durham  ;  that  the  tobacco  so  manu- 
factured by  said  Wright  in  1860  and  1861  was  sometimes 
branded  with  a  stencil  and  sometimes  otherwise  marked,  and 
very  soon  became  widely  known  as  "Durham  Smoking  To- 
bacco," the  precise  brand  as  first  used  being  "  Best  Spanish 
Flavored  Durham  Smoking  Tobacco." 

That  said  Wright  was  the  first  person  who  ever  manu- 
factured smoking  tobacco  at  Durham;  was  the  originator 
of  the  use  of  the  word  "  Durham  "  as  descriptive  of  smoking 
tobacco;  that  this  tobacco  was  much  sought  after  in  the 
markets,  a  special  value  attaching  to  it  in  consequence  of 
the  flavoring  compound  used  in  its  preparation,  which 
value  was  designated  by  the  word  "  Durliam  ;  "  that  said 
Wright,  being  in  service,  ins  operations  were  suspended 
during  the  war.  After  the  war  his  circumstances  were  such 
that  he  did  not  carry  on  business  until  1869,  when  he  again 
manufactured  tobacco. 

Respondent's  (Blackwell)  statement  is,  in  substance,  that 
the  word  "  Durham  "  was  first  used  as  a  trade-mark  for 
smoking  tobacco  by  J.  R.  Green,  his  assignor,  who  ap{)]ied 
it  in  the  year  1865. 

The  inception  of  this  controversy  is  described  by  Mr. 
Armistead  in  his  answer  (p.  37)  substantially  as  follows : 
Sometime  in  1870,  W.  A.  Wright  came  to  him  and  informed 
him  that  he  (Wright)  was  the  owner  of  "  the  Durham 
brand."  Knowing  the  said  brand  to  be  popular,  Mr.  Arm- 
istead entered  into  a  provisional  contract,  the  condition  of 
which  was,  that  if  Mr.  Wright  could  produce  satisfactory 
and  sufficient  evidence  that  he  was  the  owner  of  the  said 
brand,  he  (Armistead)  would  purchase  it.  Accordingly  Mr. 
Wright  proceeded  to  the  town  of  Durham,  and  returned  with 
a  certificate  setting  out  that  no  person  other  than  W.  A. 
Wright  was  entitled  to  use  said  brand.  This  certificate  is 
sworn  by  Mr.  Armistead  to  have  been  sufficient,  and  was 
printed  and  circulated  as  conclusive  of  the  facts  set  forth. 
More  than  this,  the  signers  are  described  as  "gentlemen  of 
high  standing  and  character."  (p.  55.)  It  was  i^uhesita- 
tingly  accepted  by  Mr.  Armistead  as  a  full  performance  of 
the  condition  of  the  provisional  contract,  and  at  once  acted 
upon.     (p.  37.) 

Now,  if  the  testimony  of  these  "gentlemen  of  high  stand- 

62  History  of  Durham. 

ing  and  chara<iter"  was  sufficient,  to  establish  one  fact,  in 
equity  Mr.  Armistead  is  estopped  to  deny  tliat  it  is  sufficient 
to  establisli  another.  But  whether  he  is  estopped  or  not, 
he  is  committed  to  the  fact  that  ho  accepted  their  evidence 
as  conclusive  of  Mr.  Wright's  title. 

The  signers  of  the  said  certificate  were  W.  Y.  Clark,  Wm. 
Mangum,  R.  Vickers,?.  J.  Mangum,  S.  Shepherd  and  Nash 
Booth,  all  of  whom  are  witnesses  in  this  case,  the  first  for 
applicant,  and  the  others  for  Mr.  Blackwell. 

W.  Y.  Clark,  applicant's  witness,  says,  on  cross-examina- 
tion, in  respect  to  said  certificate : 

"  I  can't  say  I  understood  the  paper  at  the  time  Mr. 
Wright  read  it  to  me.  As  I  knew  he  was  the  first  man  that 
put  up  plug  and  smoking  tobacco  at  Durham,  I  signed  it. 
Can't  say  that  I  did  mean  to  convey  the  idea  that  he  was 
the  originator  of  the  Durham  brand,  as  I  never  saw  the 
brand."     (p.  148.) 

Wm.  Mangum  (p.  93)  says : 

"  I  signed  a  paper  Mr.  Wright  had  concerning  smoking 
tobacco,  *  *  stating  that  he  was  manufacturing  smoking 
tobacco.  *  *  I  dij  not  read  the  paper;  signed  it  on  his 
representation ;  did  not  understand  him  to  mean  that  he 
was  the  first  to  use  the  word  Durham.  I  simply  meant  to 
say  that  he  and  Morris  were  the  first  to  make  smoking  to- 
bacco here.  I  can't  read  writing  unless  it  is  very  good;  I 
am  a  very  poor  scholar." 

Riley  Vickers  (p.  88)  says  : 

"  Mr.  W.  A.  Wright  and  Mr.  Clark  came  to  my  house 
with  an  instrument  of  writing,  and  stated  that  he  was  put- 
ting up  tobacco.  *  *  I  had  the  paper  in  my  hand,  but 
did  not  examine  it  much.  1  thought  that  was  the  purport 
of  it;  that  is,  that  he  was  the  first  to  put  up  tobacco.  I  did 
not  know  what  the  smoking  tobacco  first  put  up  at  Durham 
was  called." 

P.  J.  Mangum  (p.  124)  says: 

"  Mr.  Wright  brought  the  paper  to  me  ;  I  was  then  run- 
ning an  engine,  and  hesaid  he  wanted  to  get  some  signers 
*  "  to  show  *  *  that  he  could  work  the  Durham  to- 
bacco. -^  *  I  never  read  it;  onlj^read  a  few  lines  on  the 
top ;  was  too  busy  to  read ;  did  not  propose  to  say  or  do 
anything  to  establish  the  fact  that  Mr.  W.  A.  Wright  was 
the  originator  of  Durham  brand  smoking  tobacco." 

The  Blackwell  Litigation.  63 

Solomon  Shepherd  (p.  70)  says  : 

"  The  first  of  this  year  I  think  Mr.  W.  A.  Wright  came 
to  my  house  and  told  me  he  had  a  paper  writing,  and  asked 
me  if  I  would  sign  it;  he  told  *  *  he  was  manufac- 
turing tobacco;  *  *  said  he  could  not  sell  his  tobacco 
within  ten  cents  of  what  Durham  tobacco  brought.  *  * 
I  was  verj'  feeble ;  had  had  a  long  spell  of  sickness ;  read 
part  of  his  paper;  was  very  badly  written.  *  *  I  certi- 
fied that  Mr.  Wright  was  the  first  to  manufiicture  smoking 
tobacco  at  Durham.  *  *  j  did  [not]  read  all  of  Mr. 
Wright's  letter,  and  do  not  know  whether  the  printed  cer- 
tificate is  an  exact  copy  of  the  paper  I  signed  or  not." 

Nash  Booth  (p.  126)  says : 

"  I  did  not  read  it;  signed  it  on  Mr.  Wright's  representa- 
tion. My  understanding  was  that  he  wanted  to  show  that 
he  was  the  first  man  who  worked  smoking  tobacco  at  this 

That  all  these  witnesses  should  have  signed  the  certificate 
under  a  misapprehension  of  Mr.  Wright's  representations  is 
significant.  And  that  all  of  them  should  declare  that  he 
attempted  to  perpetrate  a  fraud  upon  them,  and  through 
them  upon  the  public,  is  a  fact  that  affords  an  appropriate 
introduction  to  this  and  its  kindred  proceedings.  By  means 
of  misre])resentation  Mr.  Wright  was  enabled  to  complete 
his  contract  with  Mr.  Armistead,  and  by  virtue  of  those 
misrepresentations  Mr.  Armistead  is  here  to-day. 


The  first  finding  of  the  Examiner  is  as  follows: 

First.  That  the  firm  of  Wesley  A.  Wright,  [Morris  & 
Wright,]  the  assignor  of  Louis  L.  Armistead,  the  applicant, 
was  the  first  to  adopt  and  use  a  trade-mark,  the  essential 
element  of  which  was  the  word  "  Durham,"  for  smoking 

And  the  first  question  arising  thereunder  is:  What  was 
the  Brand  used  by  the  firm  of  Morris  &  Wright  ? 

It  is  claimed  by  Mr.  Armistead  that  the  word  "  Durham  " 
vTas  used  by  the  firm  of  Morris  &  Wright  in  18G0.  Their 
.brand  was,  according  to  his  allegations,  "  Morris  &  Wright's 
Best  Spanish  Flavored  Durham  Smoking  Tobacco  ;"  and 
according  to  Mr.  Blackwell,  "  Morris  &  Wright's  Best  Span- 
ish Flavored  Smoking  Tobacco."     Upon  this  point  issue  is 

64  History  of  Durham. 

joined.  There  is  no  earlier  use  set  up,  tlie  only  question 
being  on  the  words  embraced  in  the  brand  used  by  said 

Let  us  turn  to  the  evidence.  The  following  witnesses  de- 
pose that  the  brand  of  Morris  &  Wright  contained  the  word 
"  Durham  :"  W.  A.  Wright,  J.  E.  M,  Wright,  W.  P.  Wright, 
Pompey  Gordon. 

These  four  are  the  onh^  ones  who  sustain  Mr.  Armistead 
upon  this  point.  Not  another  of  his  witnesses  pretends  to 
have  any  knowledge  of  the  mark  of  said  firm.  We  consider 
their  testimony  in  turn. 

W.  A.  Wright's  statement  is  distinct  and  positive. 

The  next  two,  however,  both  sons  of  W.  A.  Wright,  one 
of  whom,  at  the  time  the  alleged  brand  is  said  to  have  been 
used,  was  but  eleven,  and  the  other  but  fifteen  years  of  age, 
(pp.  195,  224,)  differ  materially  in  their  statements,  thus  con- 
firming the  natural  inference  that  they  would  not  be  likely 
to  retain  a  very  clear  impression  of  any  brand  used  so  long 
ago.  But  in  this  connection  we  waive  any  critical  objection 
to  them,  as  well  as  to  their  father,  suggesting  only  their 
very  great  interest  in  the  premises,  and  the  probable,  nay 
inevitable,  consultations,  v\'hich  increased  their  (perhaps) 
very  proper  bias,  and  resulted  in  a  reasonable  agreement  as 
to  facts. 

Pompey  Gordon,  however,  we  must  protest  against,  as  too 
brazen  an  attempt  to  impose  upon  judicial  credulit}'. 

Pompey  says  (p.  146): 

"  While  in  the  service  of  Messrs.  Morris  &  Wright,  which 
was  in  the  year  ISGO,  I  rolled  plug  tobacco  and  helped  to 
put  up  smoking  tobacco.  Their  smoking  tobacco  was  put 
up,  *  *  and  branded  with  a  plate.  *  *  '  Morris  &  Wright's 
Best  Spanish  Flavored  Durham  Smoking  Tobacco,  Durham, 
N.  C  I  did  not  know  what  the  letters 'N.  C  meant  at  that 
time,  as  I  was  not  then  educated;  but  have  since  found  that 
'  N.  C  meant  North  Carolina,  and  this  is  why  I  recollect  so 
well  the  brand  of  Morris  &  Wright." 

On  cross-examination  (p.  147),  Pompey  says  he  could 
neither  read  nor  write.  How  he  could  swear  to  the  words 
that  were  "  branded  "  on  the  tobacco,  it  is  not  necessary  to 
inquire.     Clearly  his  evidence  can  have  no  weight. 

The  above  is  the  sum  total  of  Mr.  Armistead's  testimony 
on  this  point. 

The  evidence  presented  by  Mr.  Blackwell  is,  we  submit, 

The  Blackvvell  Litigation.  65 

in  every  respect  satisfactory,  and  entirely  overcomes  the 
depositions  of  the  three  Wrights. 

The  following  witnesses  swear  positively  that  they  lived 
at  Durham  at  the  time  Morris  &  Wright  made  tobacco,  and 
that  the  brand  used  by  said  Morris  &  Wright  was  that 
alleged  by  Mr.  Blackwell,  and  did  not  contain  the  word 

Thomas  B.  Morris,  Mr.  Wright's  partner,  who  appears  to 
have  conducted  the  business  of  the  firm.     (p.  94.) 

J.  R.  Blacknall,  a  farmer,  who  says  he  was  frequently  in 
the  factory  of  Morris  &  Wright,     (p.  85.) 

A.  J.  Carroll,  a  carf»cnter,  who  sold  smoking  tobacco  for 
the  firm  of  Morris  &  Wright,     (p.  77.) 

J.  M.  Hern  don,  a  farmer,  who  also  sold  tobacco  for  said 
firm.     (p.  89.) 

B.  C.  Hopkins,  a  school  teacher,  who  taught  at  Durham, 
(p.  83.) 

J.  H.  Watson,  a  mail  contractor,  and  a  resident  of  Chapel 
Hill.    (p.  280.) 

W.  G.  Guess,  a  farmer,  who  saw  said  firm  put  up  and 
brand  their  tobacco,     (p.  131.) 

R.  F.  Morris,  a  tobacconist,  who  saw  the  stencil  plate  of 
said  firm,  and  often  helped  to  use  it.     (p.  74.) 

W.  H.  Bowles,  tobacconist,  and  a  resident  of  Tally  Ho. 
(p.  66.) 

E.  W.  Morris,  a  tobacconist,     (p.  283.) 

The  testimoney  of  these  witnesses  is  corroborated  by  S. 
Shepherd,  (p.  70,)  a  farmer ;  J.  W.  Cheek,  (p.  120,)  a  mer- 
chant; W.  Mangum,  (p.  93,)  a  carpenter;  M.  H.  Turner,  (p. 
130,)  a  farmer,  and  others. 

The  great  preponderance  in  favor  of  Mr.  Blackwell  must 
be  held  to  overcome  the  testimony  of  the  three  Wrights,  and 
compels  the  conclusion  that  the  brand  used  by  said  firm  of 
Morris  &  Wright  was  "  Morris  &  Wright's  Best  Spanish  Fla- 
vored Smoking  Tobacco,"  without  the  word  Durham. 

It  cannot  be  claimed  that  any  of  this  evidence  is  negative. 
As  is  said  by  Judge  Rives,  the  question  is,  What  brand  was 
used  by  the  firm  of  Morris  &  Wright?  Mr.  Armistead  pro- 
duces the  three  Wrights,  who,  perhaps,  swear  that  it  was 
one  thing,  while  Mr.  Blackwell  produces  a  dozen  or  more 
competent  witnesses  who  swear  tiiat  it  was  something  else. 
Nor  can  it  be  claimed  that  the  latter  arc  interested,  for  at 
least  three-fourths  of  them  are  not  tobacconists,  or  in  any 

66  History  of  Durham. 

manner  connected  with  Durham  tobacco.  Upon  any  fair 
hypothesis,  it  must  be  decided  that,  according  to  the  evi- 
dence, the  word  "Durham"  was  not  a  part  of  the  brand  em- 
ployed by  the  said  firm  of  Morris  &  Wright. 

When  to  the  great  preponderance  in  respondent's  favor  is 
added  the  weighty  consideration  that  a  United  States  Court 
has  found,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  (see  Opinion  of  Rives,  J.,)  that 
the  word  was  not  used  in  the  brand  in  question,  we  cannot 
but  feel  that  any  impartial  mind  will  be  forced  to  accept  the 
respondent's  story  as  that  which  must  be  believed. 

MR.  Wright's, OPERATIONS  at  barbee's. 

The  above  carries  us  down  to  the  first  of  the  year  1861, 
when  Mr.  Wright  removed  to  Barbee's,  three  miles  from 
Durham,  where  he  put  up  tobacco  until  the  close  of  1861. 

Let  us  see  what  is  advanced,  if  anything,  showing  the  use 
of  the  word  "Durham  "  there. 

We  commence  with  Mr.  Wright.  The  examiner  says  : 
« Wright  *  *  swears  that  he  *  *  continued  to  use  it 
(the  word  Durham)  after  he  had  removed  his  factory  from 
Durham's."  With  all  respect,  Wright  swears  no  such  thing. 
On  the  contrary,  he  cannot  be  made  to  swear  it.  His  evi- 
dence on  this  point  is  as  follows: 

"Q.  State  how  the  tobacco  put  up  at  Barbee's  was  packed 
or  sold,  and  whether  it  was  branded  or  marked,  and  how? 

"  A.  Some  of  it  was  sold  in  barrels  and  some  in  bulk.  That 
sold  in  bulk  was  sold  by  sample,  and  afterwards  put  up  in 
boxes  to  be  delivered.  A  portion  of  that  was  marked  with 
a  pencil  brush,  to  be  delivered  in  Raleigh.  I  don't  recollect 
distinctly.  My  impression  is,  that  it  was  marked  with  a 
pencil  brush  Durham  Smoking  Tobacco.  I  know  I  sold  it 
as  such.  I  also  put  the  weights  on  the  barrels.  The  bal- 
ance of  it  was  sold  by  sample,  and  after  that  put  up  in  boxes. 
I  remember  one  large  box  sold  to  Cheek.  The  balance  was 
in  barrels.  A  remnant  of  that  lot  didn't  have  the  entire 
flavoring.  The  lot  I  sold  to  Cheek  was  not  branded." 
(p.  237.) 

Nov/,  may  it  please  your  honor,  we  submit  that  an  anal- 
vsis  of  this  answer  must  end  in  two  results.  It  must  compel 
the  conclusion  that  Mr.  Wright's  testimony  is  Vv^holly  unre- 
liable, and  that  he  did  not  mark  the  tobacco  made  at 

The  Blackwell  Litigation.  67 

If,  as  he  sa3's,  he  carried  the  word  Durham  in  his  head, 
and  knew  it  to  be  a  brand  of  very  great  value  and  repute,  is 
it  fair  to  suppose  that  he  could  not  remember  the  fact,  had 
he  used  it?  Is  it  not  contrary  to  reason  to  fancy  for  a  mo- 
ment that  he  could  recollect  every  detail  in  the  history  of 
the  brand  of  Morris  &  Wright ;  that  he  could  recall  the  phra- 
seology of  letters ;  that  no  circumstance  afiecting  the  coveted 
word  escaped  his  memory  while  at  Durham  ;  and  yet  that 
he  cannot  remember  whether  or  not  he  used,  while  at  Bar- 
bee's,  what  he  claims  as  substantiall}'  the  same  brand  used 
by  Morris  &  Wright?  He  cannot  remember  a  single  in- 
stance in  which  he  used  it,  altliough  the  alleged  period  of 
use  covers  an  entire  year.  Again,  your  honor,  he  remem- 
bers putting  the  weights  upon  the  boxes  and  barrels;  re- 
members how  he  packed  and  sold  it,  nay,  he  remembers  he 
did  not  brand  a  certain  lot  sold  to  Cheek.  Could  he  remem- 
ber, we  ask  in  all  candor,  that  a  particular  box  was  not 
branded,  and  fail  to  remember  some  box  that  was?  How 
did  he  happen  to  recollect  this  box  he  sold  to  Cheek,  and 
the  fact  of  its  being  without  a  brand?  Did  it  impress  his 
mind  as  being  an  exception  ?  If  it  did,  he  convicts  himself, 
for  a  recollection  of  an  exception  compels  a  recollection  of 
the  rule.  It  is  simply  child's  play  to  contend  that  a  man 
may  recall  something  different  from  what  he  was  accus- 
tomed to  do,  without  recalling  that  from  which  he  had  de- 

May  it  please  your  honor,  the  conviction  is  irresistible. 
Mr.  Wright  did  not  use  the  word  Durham  upon  the  tobacco 
put  up  at  Barbee's.  He  could  not  have  done  so  and  for- 
gotten it. 

But,  in  any  event,  he  swears  only  as  to  his  "  impression  " 
in  the  premises,  which,  interested  as  he  is,  must  go  for 

J.  E.  M.  Wright  cannot  be  made  to  say  that  the  tobacco 
put  up  at  Barbee's  was  branded  or  marked,  and  yet  he,  like 
his  father,  remembers  every  part  and  feature  of  the  pre- 
tended brand  of  Morris  &  Wright,  as  well  as  other  matters 
equally  liable  to  escape  the  mind. 

W.  P.  Wright,  (p.  226,)  deposes  as  follows: 

"  Q.  State  whether  the  tobacco  made  at  Durham  station 
in  18G0,  and  in  the  vicinity  in  1861,  was  called  or  known 
by  any  name  or  designation,  and  if  so,  what  was  it? 

"  A.  It  was  called  by  the  name  of  '  Durham  Smoking  To- 

68  HisTOKY  OF  Durham. 

The  same  witness,  on  cross-examination,  (p.  234,)  deposes 
as  follows: 

"  Q.  Did  he,  or  did  he  not,  whilst  at  the  place  near  Dur- 
ham, put  up  tobacco  for  his  neiglibors,  and  did  tliey  not  re- 
ceive it  from  him,  either  loose  or  in  barrels,  boxes,  or  bags, 
which  they  sent  for  the  purpose  of  taking  the  tobacco  away, 
and  did  or  did  not  other  boxes,  barrels,  or  bags  go  from  the 
factory  without  any  mark  on  it? 

A.  While  near  Durham  he  put  it  up  for  himself  and  sold 
it,  and  in  whatever  he  put  it  up  in,  he  marked  it  Durham 
Smoking  Tobacco,  and  directed  it  to  Vvdioever  it  was  to  go 
to;  there  wan't  any  bags  at  all.  That  was  the  only  mark  I 
recollect  its  having  on  it. 

Q.  Did  he  not  sell  some  of  this  tobacco  loose  or  in  bulk? 

A.  Xot  that  I  know  of;  I  think  it  was  all  boxed  up  or 
barrelled  up  that  he  sent  from  the  factory." 

It  vv'ill  be  observed  that  this  witness  fiatlv  contradicts  his 
father,  (p.  237  ;)  Mr.  Cheek,  (p.  120  ;)  Mr:  Geer,  (p.  142 ;) 
and  others,  who  depose  that  Mr.  W.  A.  Wright  put  up  to- 
bacco for  his  neighbors;  that  all  the  tobacco  made  at  Bar- 
bee's  v.-as  not  branded ;  and  that  a  considerable  part  of  it 
was  sold  in  bulk.  This  same  witness  makes  other  state- 
ments that  are  equally  conclusive  of  his  unreliability.  He 
saj's  his  father  "  never  told  any  one"  of  his  pretended  secret ; 
that  the  brand  of  Morris  and  Wright  was  applied  to  all  the 
tobacco  put  up  in  packages  at  Durham;  that  Robt.  Morris 
was  in  partnership  with  his  father,  at  Durham,  whereas  it 
was  Thomas  B.  Morris. 

Again,  he  says  positively  there  "  wan't  any  bags  at  all ; " 
whereas  Barbee  says  he  hauled  a  load  of  the  tobacco  to 
Raleigh  put  up  in  bags.     (pp.  127,  128.) 

It  is  clear  that  the  interest  of  this  witness  is  so  great  that 
his  discretion  is  overbalanced,  and  he  goes  so  far  that  he  can- 
not be  believed.  He  is  not  only  too  ready  and  v/illing  to 
swear  to  vvdiat  he  could  by  no  possibility  know,  but  he  con- 
tradicts facts  that  are  established  and  admitted  to  be  beyond 

One  other  witness  only  is  offered  by  the  applicant  to  prove 
the  use  by  Mr.  Wright  at  Barbee's  who  swears  that  he  first 
knew  Durham  Smoking  tobacco  in  the  fall  of  1862,  and 
that  he  bought  a  lot  of  W.  A.  Wright.  Now,  as  Mr.  Wright 
was  in  the  army  in  the  fall  of  1862,  this  witness'  deposition 
does  not  materially  help  the  applicant's  case.    It  is,  of  course, 

The  Blackwell  Litigation.  69 

to  be  excluded,  as  not  entitled  to  credence.  But,  good  or 
bad,  he  says  the  tobacco  was  called  Durham,  and  that  it  was 
not  branded.     (L.  W.  Pejk,  p.  146  ) 

And  here  we  rest.  Substantially  not  another  line  to  sus- 
tain a  claim  that  is  to  result  in  the  overthrow  of  the  indus- 
try of  a  whole  community.  The  "  impression  "  of  one  man 
and  the  memor}-  of  an  illiterate  boy  of  sixteen,  whose  evi- 
dence bears  all  the  ear-marks  of  unreliability,  are  the  only 
evidences  of  title  to  the  name  of  a  town  and  all  that  its 
people  are  worth.  There  is  rebutting  testimony,  however, 
that,  although  in  a  degree  negative  in  its  character,  is  amply 
sufficient  to  overcome  that  above  cited,  even  if  it  were  en- 
titled to  full  credence.  The  people  living  about  Durham 
evidently  knew  little  or  nothing  of  Mr.  Wright's  tobacco. 
It  appears  to  have  had  no  reputation,  and  probably  to  have 
been  made  at  hap-hazzard,  or  for  other  parties. 

Dr.  Blacknall  (pp.  62,  63,)  thinks  it  was  called  Wright's 
tobacco,  and  says  it  had  no  repute. 

E.  W.  Morris  thinks  Mr.  Wright  used  no  brand  at  all 
while  at  Barbee's.     (p.  2S3.) 

Solomon  Shepherd  says  he  sold  smoking  tobacco  for  Mr. 
Wright,  and  that  J.  R.  Green  was  the  first  person  to  uso  the 
word  Durham  as  a  mark.     (p.  70.) 

T.  B.  Morris  says  he  does  not  remember  to  have  seen  an}' 
tobacco  manufactured  by  Mr.  Wright  at  Barbee's  branded 
in  any  manner,     (p.  97.) 

R.  F.  Morris  saw  some  that  was  not  marked,     (p.  77.) 

Other  witnesses'  touch  the  point  in  more  general  terms. 

From  the  following,  however,  we  gather  perhaps  a  clearer 
idea  of  the  facts*: 

F.  0.  Geer,  applicant's  witness,  (p.  142,)  deposes  that — 
"He  (W.  A.  Wright)  manufactured  some  smoking  to- 
bacco for  me  in  1861,  and  I  hauled  it  home  in  sack-bags. 
He  came  to  my  house  himself  and  flavored  it  with  what 
they  called  tonka  bean.  Mr.  Cheek  sold  this  tobacco  for 
me  at  the  depot ;  it  was  not  branded  that  I  know  of."    *    * 

The  same  witness,  on  cross-examination,  says: 
"I  think  Mr.  Green  was  the  first  I  ever  saw  or  knew  to 
use  the  word  Durham." 

It  would  seem  that  Mr.  Geer  must  have  known   of  Mr. 

Wright's  use  of  the  word   Durham,  if  u  was  actual!}'-  used 

as  stated.     He  was  at  Mr.  Wright's  place  at  Barbee's.     He 

must  have  conversed  freely  with  him,  and  yet  has  no  idea 


70  History  of  Durham. 

of  his  using  the  word  Durham,  although  testifj'ing  in  his 
(Mr.  Wright's)  interest. 

It  will  be  seen  that  he  mentions  a  party  by  the  name  of 
Cheek,  who  also  had  a  transaction  with  Mr.  Wright. 

Mr.  Cheek  says  in  substance  that  he  purchased  five  hun- 
dred and  seventy  pounds  of  smoking  tobacco  of  Mr.  Wright 
which  was  not  marked  or  branded,  and  which  was  the  en- 
tire stock  Mr.  Wright  had  on  hand  when  he  left  the  coun- 
try.     (p.  120.) 

John  Barbee,  the  owner  of  the  farm  where  Mr.  Wright 
did  business,  testifies  as  follows  : 

"  I  know  Wesley  A.  Wright ;  he  put  up  tobacco  at  this 
place;  he  moved  from  here  and  put  up  tobacco  on  my  farm 
there.  *  *  j  j^^ow  he  manufactured  smoking  tobacco, 
and  continued  to  manufacture  plug  and  smoking  tobacco; 
this  tobacco  was  baled  up.  I  do  not  know  that  he  used  any- 
thing but  a  great  long  bean  ;  it  had  a  good  smell.  I  don't 
think  he  branded  or  marked  much  of  it  no  how.  I  hauled 
a  load  of  Mr.  Wright's  tobacco  to  Raleigh,  some  in  little 
bags  and  some  in  large  bags;  some  in  the  little  bags  were 
marked,  and  think  it  was  marked  '  Wright's  Best  Spanish 
Flavored  Smoking  Tobacco; '  this  was  marked  on  the  bags 
with  a  little  paint  brush."     (pp.  127,  128.) 

Mr.  Barbee's  homely  expression, "  I  don't  think  he  branded 
or  marked  much  of  it  no  how,"  tells  the  whole  story.  Clearly 
this  witness  ought  to  know,  if  any  one. 

The  evidence  submitted  in  rebuttal,  although  necessarily 
imperfect,  is  more  than  sufficient  to  overcome  that  presented 
by  applicant.  We  insist  that  the  fact  that  Mr.  Wright  de- 
clines to  make  oath  to  a  statement  upon  which  he  is  forced 
to  rely  must  be  held  to  be  sufficient  evidence  that  he  could 
not  swear  to  it.  And,  if  he  could  not  fail  to  know  of  the 
alleged  fact,  had  it  been  true,  not  to  swear  to  it  is  tantamount 
to  admitting  the  contrary.  But  he  has  substantially  sworn 
that  he  used  no  brand  at  all ;  and  whatever  may  be  shown 
in  another  direction,  there  is  nothing  except  the  young 
Wright,  who,  we  submit,  is  not  a  reliable  witness,  to  show  a 
use  of  the  word  Durham. 

Here,  too,  we  insist  the  evidence  preponderates  in  respon- 
dent's favor.  Upon  any  fair  hypothesis  it  must  be  held  that 
Mr.  Wright  has  failed.  Not  a  witness  to  whom  he  sold,  not 
a  person  with  whom  he  did  business,  not  one  of  his  neigh- 
bors, not  his  landlord,  in  whose  house  he  lived,  ever  saw  the 


The  Black  well  Litigation.  71 

word  Durham  on  liis  tobacco,  or  heard  of  his  usiug  it  as  a 
brand.  Certainly  it  cannot  be  insisted,  under  sucli  facts, 
that  he  has  established  any  definite  user,  much  less  such  as 
identified  the  brand  as  his. 

With  the  onus  upon  him,  the  applicant  should  have  been 
able  to  produce  at  least  one  disinierested  witness  to  substan- 
tiate Q  fact  which  is  of  such  vital  consequence  to  him.  That 
he  attempted  a  great  deal  more,  we  cannot  doubt.  And  yet, 
why  should  he  fail  ?  Here  was  his  landlord,  whom  he  saw 
every  day  ;  here  were  his  neighbors,  whom  he  met  almost  as 
often;  here  were  the  parties  who  bought  and  sold  his  tobacco  ; 
here  were  those  who  must  know  the  fact,  if  any  one  could 
know  it,  and  yet  not  one  of  them  to  prove  an  allegation,  to 
which  even  he  himself  will  not  swear. 

Can  he  hope  that  any  impartial  mind  will  be  convinced 
by  so  palpable  an  inconsistency?  It  is  worse,  if  possible, 
than  the  fraudulent  certificate,  signed  by  the  gentleman  of 
high  standing,  which  was  the  cause  of  this  interference.  It 
is  too  gross,  your  honor,  to  admit  of  explanation;  and,  if  it 
is  not  the  grandest  ignoiauce,  it  is  the  most  brazen  fraud. 

From  Barbee's,  as  stated,  Mr.  Wright  went  into  the  army, 
so  that  in  the  above  we  have  the  full  history  of  his  alleged 
manufacture  of  Durham  Smoking  Tobacco. 

We  think  it  is  shown  beyond  any  reasonable  doubt,  that 
during  this  entire  period  he  never  used  the  word  Durham 
at  all.  We  think  the  evidence  proves  conclusively  that  the 
word  "  Durham  "  was  not  used  as  a  mark  either  by  the  firm 
of  Morris  &  Wright  or  by  Mr.  Wright  individually. 

If  it  was  not,  Mr.  Armistead's  case  falls  of  its  own  weight. 

commissioner's  decision. 

The  decision  of  the  Commissioner  was  as  follows: 

Washington,  D.  C,  June  5th,  1872. 

Sir  : — In  the  matter  of  the  interference  of  Armistead  vs. 
Blackwell,  for  improvement  in  "  Trade-Marks,"  on  whicli 
an  appeal  was  taken  to  tne  Commissioner  of  Patents  from 
the  Primary  Examiner  by  W.  T.  Blackwell,  you  are  informed 
that  the  decision  of  the  Pritnary  Examiner  is  reversed  by 
the  Commissioner.         Very  Respectfully, 

M.  D.  Leggett,  Commissioner. 
W.  T,  Blackwell,  care  W.  W.  Leggett,  Present. 

72  History  op  Durham. 

The  Commissioner's  opinion  is  as  follows,  obiter  dicta  alone 
being  omitted  : 

Leggett,  Commissioner : — Blackwell  obtained,  October  3, 
1871,  the  registry  of  the  following  as  a  trade-mark:  "Dur- 
ham Smoking  Tobacco,  manufactured  by  W.  T.  Blackwell, 
Durham,  North  Carolina."  December  G,  1871,  Armistead 
applied  for  tlje  registry  of  the  following  as  a  trade-mark  : 
"  Durham  Smoking  Tobacco;"  and  as  he  claimed  the  exclu- 
sive right  to  the  use  of  these  words,  his  application  was 
placed  in  interference  with  the  registered  trade-mark  of 
Blackwell  for  the  purpose  of  determining  who  first  adopted 
and  used  on  packages  of  smoking  tobacco  the  words  "  Dur- 
ham Smoking  Tobacco." 

Blackwell  manufactures  his  tobacco  at  Durham,  North 
Carolina;  Armistead  at  Lynchburg,  Virginia.  Armistead 
claims  the  right  to  use  the  label  mark  under  an  assignment 
from  one  Wesley  A.  Wright,  who  formerly  manufactured 
smoking  tobacco  at  Durham,  North  Carolina.  The  evidence 
shows  that  Wright  invented  a  flavoring  compound  for  smok- 
ing tobacco  as  early  as  1860,  for  which  he  has  since  ob- 
tained a  patent,  and,  in  company  with  one  T.  B.  Morris, 
under  the  firm  name  of  Morris  &  Wright,  manufactured 
smoking  tobacco  at  Durham,  and  that  the  tobacco  obtained 
some  reputation  under  tlie  name  "  Best  Spanish  Flavored 
Durham  Smoking  Tobacco."  It  is  by  no  means  clear,  how- 
ever, whether  this  name  was  first  given  use  by  the  manu- 
facturers, or  by  the  merchants  who  retailed  it,  or  by  the 
consumers  who  bought  and  used  it.  This  tobacco,  on  ac- 
count of  its  flavor,  has  become  a  favorite,  and  the  distinc- 
tive words  in  the  name  adopted  must  have  been  "  Best  Span- 
ish Flavored,"  and  not  "  Durham."  In  1861  Morris  & 
Wright  seem  to  have  dissolved  partnership,  and  Wright 
moved  about  two  miles  from  Durham,  where  he  continued 
to  manufacture  smoking  tobacco  for  a  few  months,  and  then 
gave  up  his  business  and  Vv'ent  into  the  rebel  army.  There 
is  no  pretense  that  he  resumed  this  business  before  1869, 
when  he  again  commenced  the  manufacture  of  smoking  to- 
bacco at  Libert}^  Virginia,  using  the  following  brand: 
"  Original  Durham,  W.  A.  Wright,  Originator,"  the  label 
also  embracing  the  representation  of  a  bull's  head  looking 
to  the  left.  In  1870  said  Wright,  in  company  with  J.  R. 
Stewart,  manufactured  smoking  tobacco  at  Stewartville, 
Virginia,  and  branded  it  "  Durham   Smoking  Tobacco." 

The  Blackwell  Litigation. 


After  this  he  assigned  the  right  to  raanufacture  under  his 
patent,  and  also  the  right  to  use  the  brand  "  Durham  Smok- 
ing Tobacco,"  to  Armistead,  the  applicant.  If  Wright  had 
an  exclusive  right  to  this  brand,  then  Armistead  is  entitled 
to  have  it  registered  ;  otlierwise  not. 

Armistead  attempts  to  fix  the  origin  of  this  label  ba^k  as 
far  as  1860,  when  it  was  used  in  connection  with  the  words 
"  Best  Spanish  Flavored  ;"  but  in  doing  so  he  shows  that  it 
was  first  used  by  Morris  &  Wright,  and  by  proving  this  he 
proves  that  Wright  did  not  have  the  exclusive  title  to  the 
label.  If  this  is  the  origin  of  the  mark  claimed,  then,  to 
make  Armistead's  title  to  the  same  good,  he  should  be  able 
to  show  that  he  holds  under  Morris  as  well  as  under  Wright. 
Wright  could  not  convey  to  Armistead  the  exclusive  right 
to  use  what  belonged  to  Morris  &  Wright.  But  there  is 
nothing  of  record  to  show  that  Armistead  holds  or  claims 
to  hold  anything,  directl}^  or  indirectly,  from  Morris.  An 
exclusive  right  to  use  is  necessary,  under  the  statute,  to  se- 
cure registration. 

Wright  used  the  word  "Durham"  upon  a  small  portion 
of  the  smoking  tobacco  he  manufactured  during  the  year 
18G1  near  Durham,  North  Carolina.  This  is  the  utmost  that 
can  be  claimed,  from  the  testimony,  as  to  any  use  of  the 
word  by  him  alone  before  1869.  That  such  use  of  the  name 
of  a  town  where  he  did  business  should  give  him  the  right 
to  carry  such  name  into  another  State,  and  to  use  it  to  the 
exclusion  of  all  other  people  in  the  United  States,  even  the 
citizens  of  the  town  of  Durham,  is  too  preposterous  to  re- 
quire more  than  a  simple  statement  for  its  refutation. 

Blackwell  claims  under  an  assignment  from  one  J.  R. 
Green,  and  proves  that  Green  first  used  the  word  "Durham" 
upon  smoking  tobacco  in  ISGo.  ***** 
The  words  "Durham  Smoking  Tobacco"  cannot  constitute 
a  legal  trade-mark,  and  therefore  cannot  be  registered. 
Neither  would  adding  the  name  and  place  of  business  of  the 
manufacturer  help  the  matter.  There  is  nothing  registera- 
ble  in  either  Blackwell's  or  Armistead's  labels,  and  the 
Ofiice  blundered  when  it  gave  a  certificate  of  registration  to 
Blackwell.  It  should  not  repeat  that  blunder  by  giving  a 
like  certificate  to  Armistead. 

The  Examiner,  it  seems,  refused  to  register  for  Blackwell 
the  words  "  Durham  Smoking  Tobacco;"  but,  when  the 
words  "  Manufactured  by  W.  T.  Blackwell,  Durham,  N.  C.," 

74  History  of  Durham. 

were  added  b}"  ameiidraent,  registry  was  admitted.  Tliere 
is  Dothiug  in  this  label  except  the  name  "  W.  T.  Blackwell" 
to  which  Blackwell  had  any  exclusive  right,  and  this  name 
cannot  be  regarded  as  any  part  of  the  trade-mark.  The 
parties  have  evidently  been  misled  as  to  their  rights  by  mis- 
reading some  court  decisions.  Courts  of  equity  have  often 
grantedinjunctionsagainstthefraudulent  use  of  words  which 
the  same  courts  would  not  for  a  moment  sustain  as  trade- 
marks. An  example  of  this  is  found  in  what  is  known  as 
"  the  Akron  Cement  Case,"  or  Newman  v.  Alvord,Cox,  417. 
Newman  lived  at  Akron  and  manufactured  from  the  quar- 
ries of  that  neighborhood  water  cement,  which  he  put  up  in 
barrels  and  labeled  "  Akron  Water  Lime,"  and  added  his 
own  name  as  manufacturer.  Many  of  his  neighbors  were 
engaged  in  the  same  business,  all  using  the  words  "  Akron 
Water-Lime,"  or  "Akron  Cement,"  but  each  attaching  his 
own  name.  This  lime,  under  the  brand  "Akron  Cement," 
became  popular,  and  one  Alvbrd,  living  and  doing  busi- 
ness in  Cleveland,  commenced  branding  his  water-lime 
"Akron  Cement,"  adding  his  name  and  proper  place  of 
manufacture.  Newman,  one  of  the  manufacturers  at  Akron, 
applied  for  and  obtained  an  injunction  enjoining  Alvord 
against  using  the  word  "Akron  "  as  any  portion  of  his  label. 
The  court  granted  the  injunction  solely  on  the  ground  that 
Alvord  used  the  word  "Akron"  for  the  purpose  of  making 
the  public  believe  that  it  was  the  genuine  Akron  cement, 
and  thereby  obtaining  by  fraud  trade  that  rightfully  be- 
longed to  Newman  and  others  in  Akron.  The  learned 
Judge  was  careful  to  say,  however,  that  Newman  had  no 
exclusive  right  to  the  use  of  the  words  "  Akron  Cement," 
but  that  the  same  might  be  used  by  any  citizen  of  Akron, 
thereby  holding  that  while  "Akron  Cement"  was  not  a 
legal  trade-mark,  yet  it  was  within  the  province  of  a  court 
of  equity  to  grant  an  injunction  against  its  fraudulent  use. 
The  same  doctrine  was  held  in  the  case  of  The  Brooklyn 
White  Lead  Company  v.  Masury.  In  this  case  Masury 
adopted  as  a  label  for  his  paint  "  Brooklyn  White  Lead  and 
Zinc  Company."  As  both  did  their  manufacturing  in  Brook- 
lyn, the  court  held  that  the  respondent  had  a  right  to  use 
the  words  "  Brooklyn  White  Lead;"  but  as  the  word  "Com- 
pany "  was  added  for  the  purposes  of  fraud,  a  decree  was 
entered  enjoining  Masury  from  using  the  word  "Company." 
No  one,  however,  would  hold  from  this  that  the  word  "  Com- 

The  Blackwell  Litigation.  75 

paiiy,"  as  attached  to  a  firm  or  corporation  name,  could  be 
regarded  as  a  trade-mark.  The  court  enjoined  against 
fraud,  but  with  no  intention  of  defining  a  trade-mark. 
Many  otlier  cases  to  the  same  effect  might  be  referred  to, 
but  these  are  enough. 

The  words  "Durham  Smoking  Tobacco  "  may  be  used 
with  imi)unity  by  any  person  engaged  in  manufacturing 
smoking  tobacco  at  Durham,  and  for  that  reason  no  one 
person  has  any  exclusive  riglit  to  their  use.  By  the  statute 
an  exclusive  right  to  use  the  proposed  trade-mark  must  be 
established  before  registry  can  be  allowed. 

Bv  application  of  the  doctrine  held  in  the  "  Akron  Ce- 
ment "  case,  any.  person  living  at  Durham,  and  engaged  in 
manufacturing  tobacco,  might  enjoin  any  person  not  living 
there  who  should  fraudulently  use  the  word  "Durham" 
on  tobacco  labels  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  trade  that 
otherwise  would  go  to  Durham.  This  may  be  true,  and  yet 
the  words  "Durham  Smoking  Tobacco"  not  be  a  legal 
trade-mark.  These  parties  have  already  had  adjudicated 
between  them  a  question  involving  nearly  all  of  the  points 
here  discussed.  In  the  case  of  Blackwell  v.  Armistead, 
lately  decided  in  the  United  States  Circuit  Court  for  the 
Western  District  of  Virginia,  Justice  Rives  very  fully  and 
ably  discusses  the  whole  matter  on  substantially  the  same 
testimony  submitted  in  this  case.  The  trade-marks,  as  dis- 
cussed by  him,  differed  from  the  marks  under  consideration 
here  in  this:  One  of  them  had,  in  addition  to  the  words 
"Durham  Smoking  Tobacco,"  the  representation  of  a  bull's 
head,  and  the  other  of  the  full  size  view  of  a  bull.  So  far 
as  the  questions  are  the  same,  I  believe  the  holdings  in  this 
are  substantially  the  same  as  held  by  the  learned  Judge  in 
that  case. 

As  neither  party  is  entitled  to  registration,  the  interfer- 
ence must  be  dissolved  and  registration  refused  to  Armi- 


The  following  is  the  decision  of  the  court  in  the  case  of 
\\\  T.  Blackwell  vs.  W.  E.  Dibrell,  heard  before  t,he  U.  S. 
Circuit  Court,  for  the  Eastern  District  of  Virginia,  held  in 
Richmond,  Va.,  Jan.  18th,  1878,  the  decision  being  rendered 
by  His  Honor  R.  \V.  Hughes,  Judge  presiding; 

76  History  of  Durham. 

W.  T.  Blackwell  &  Co.,     ^  Circuit  Court  United  States, 

vs.  y     Eastern  District  of  Virginia. 

W.  E.  DiBRELL  &  Co.        j      —In  Equity. 

This  cause  came  on  this  day  to  be  heard  upon  the  bill  and 
answered  with  the  exhibits  and  depositions,  and  was  argued 
by  counsel,  and  thereupon  the  Court  doth  consider  that  the 
said  complainants,  Wm.  T,  Blackwell,  Jas.  R.  Day  and  Ju- 
lian S.  Carr,  trading  under  the  name  and  style  of  W.  T. 
Blackwell  &  Co.,  have  the  sole  and  exclusive  right  to  use 
and  employ  the  word  Durham  to  designate  and  distinguish 
the  smoking  tobacco  manufactured  by  them,  and  also  to 
use  and  employ  in  conjunction  with  the  said  word  Durham, 
the  side  view  representation  of  a  Durham  Ball  as  and  for 
their  trade-mark,  and  that  the  said  respondents,  W.  E.  Dib- 
rell  and  W.  W.  Phillips,  trading  under  the  name  and  style 
of  W.  E.  Dibrell  &  Co.,  have  wrongfully  infringed  and  in- 
vaded the  said  right  and  trade-mark  of  the  said  complain- 
ants, by  designating  and  distinguishing  Smoking  Tobacco 
sold  by  them  as  Durham  Smoking  Tobacco,  and  by  using  in 
conjunction  with  the  said  words  the  representation  of  the 
head  of  a  Durham  Bull. 

Wherefore,  the  Court  doth  order,  adjudge  and  decree  that 
the  said  W.  E.  Dibrell  and  the  said  W.  W.  Phillips,  and 
their,  and  each  of  their,  servants  and  agents,  be  and  they 
and  each  of  them  are  and  is  hereby  enjoined  and  restrained 
from  using  and  employing  the  word  Durham  to  mark  and 
distinguish  Smoking  Tobacco,  and  from  using  and  employ- 
ing for  the  said  purpose  the  representation  of  the  head  of  a 
Durham  Bull,orany  other\^ord, symbol, representation  or  de- 
vice, of  acharacter  to  deceive  thepublic  by  inducingthe  belief 
that  the  Smoking  Tobacco  sold  by  them,  the  said  respondents, 
is  the  same  as  the  Smoking  Tobacco  manufactured  and  sold 
by  the  said  complainants  ;  and  it  is  farther  ordered,  adjudged 
and  decreed  that  this  cause  be  and  the  same  is  hereby  refer- 
red to  Thomas  S.  Atkins,  as  Master,  to  take  an  account  of 
all  and  singular  the  earnings,  gains  and  profits  made  and 
acquired  by  the  said  respondents,  by  and  from  the  sale  of 
Smoking  Tobacco  marked  and  designated  Durham  Smoking 
Tobacco,  and  marked  and  designated  by  tlie  representation 
of  the  head  of  a  Durham  Bull,  and  to  make  a  report  to  the 
Court  here  of  all  and  singular  he  shall  do  in  the  premises, 
and  that  the  said  respondents  do  and  shall  pay  to  the  said 

The  Blackwell  Litigation. 


complainants  all  and  singular  their  costs  by  them  laid  out 
and  expended  in  and  about  the  prosecution  of  their  suit, 

Richmond,  ISth  January,  1878.  Ro.  W.  Hughes,  Judge. 

A  true  copy.     Teste :       M.  F.  Pleasants,  Clerk. 

THE  result. 

The  foregoing  will  show  the  fact  that  Mr.  Blackwell  has 
an  irrefragable  right  to  this  trade-mark.  He  has  proved  it 
so  conclusively  that  no  one  will  longer  doubt  it. 

It  will  be  observed  that  the  contest  between  Arraistead 
and  Blackwell  in  the  Patent  Office  arose  from  an  attempt  by 
Armistead  to  register  the  words  "Durham  Smoking  Tobac- 
co." To  prevent  this  registration  was  BlackwelTs  object. 
He  succeeded  not  only  in  this,  but  in  eliciting  an  opinion 
so  positive  that  under  it  there  is  no  possibility  of  doubt. 
Ko  one  not  a  resident  of  the  town  of  Durham  can  call  his 
tobacco  Durham  tobacco,  and  no  one  but  W.  T.  Blackwell 
has  a  shadow  of  claim  to  the  renowned  brand  of  the 




ID  "cr  :i^  21 -^  2j: 

(trade  mark.) 



jSmoking  TobaccoJi 

f  I 


DURHAM,  n.   G 

78  History  of  Durham. 


Durham  Fires — The  Methodist  Female  Seminary — 
The  Lyceum — The  Post  Office — The  Revenue  Of- 
fice— Newspapers. 

It  is  an  ill  wind  that  blows  no  one  good.  Five  or  six 
years  ago,  the  people  of  North  Carolina  thought  Durham  an 
unhealthy  place,  attributing  the  fact  to  surface  wells,  char- 
acter of  soil,  tobacco  dust  and  absence  of  shade  trees. 

While  we  admit  that  Durham  was  not  healtiiy  then,  we 
do  not  admit  the  causes  assigned,  for  the  following  reasons : 

A  few  of  the  first  wells  dug  were  shallow  and  surface  wa- 
ter was  the  result,  but  the  great  mass  of  water  used  by  pri- 
vate families  comes  from  streams  struck  below  the  lime  stone 
formations  which  characterize  the  soil,  and  the  water  is, 
therefore,  mineral,  free  from  the  dangers  of  surface  and  rot- 
ten lime  stone  waters.  It  is  conceded,  however,  that  Dur- 
ham has  some  bad  wells,  and  if  this  were  not  the  case,  it 
would  be  different  in  this  respect  from  any  other  town. 

tobacco  dust. 

Could  its  unhealthfulness  be  attributed  to  tobacco  dust? 
Certainly  not.  A  stranger  entering  the  town  can  smell  to- 
bacco because  the  air  is  tainted  with  it,  from  the  immense 
volume  of  dust  that  quits  the  windows  of  the  factories,  but 
so  far  from  being  an  injury  to  the  town  it  is  a  blessing,  en- 
joyed b}'  few  of  the  places  in  North  Carolina  which  boast  of 
their  healthfulness  compared  with  that  of  Durham.  These 
minute  particles  of  dust  diffused  through  the  atmosphere 
are  not  calculated  to  be  deleterious  to  any  individual ;  on  the 
other  hand,  it  is  well  known  that  they  tend  to  destroy  to  a 
great  extent  germs  of  fever  and  miasma  generally.  The  fact 
may  be  partly  demonstrated  by  the  comparatively  few  cases 
of  fever  known  among  those  who  use  tobacco. 

shade  trees. 

HoW'  often  have  we  heard  it  remarked  that  Durham  is 
the  hottest  place  this  side  his  Satanic  Majestie's  dominion  ! 
an  opinion  largely  imaginative. 

Shade  Trees.  79 

Old  towns  such  as  Raleigh,  Fayetteville,  Hillsboro  and 
Chapel  Hill  are  made  beautiful  in  Spring  and  Summer  by 
the  spreading  branches  and  dense  foliage  of  oaks  and  elms. 
These  afford  abundant  shade,  but  they  prevent  a  free  circu- 
lation' of  air,  the  Southern  zephyrs  being  literally  stopped 
on  the  outskirts  of  the  town.  Beauty  is  thus  enjoyed  at  the 
expense  of  comfort,  for  the  overage  citizen  fairly  melts  in 
the  shade.    How  is  it  with  Durham? 

The  time  was  when  scarcely'  a  tree  could  be  seen  within 
its  corporate  limits,  unless  it  were  a  stra\'  pine  or  male  per- 
simmon. To-day— May  1st,  18S4— nearly  every  street  in  town 
is  marked  on  either  side  by  green  lines  of  aspens  and  elms, 
and  fifty  years  will  have  elapsed  before  our  people  will  be 
called  upon  to  suffer  from  excessive  shade. 

'Further,  if  any  one  will  take  time  to  look  at  an  accurate 
map  of  North  Carolina,  they  can  readily  note  that  Durham 
is  peculiarly  situated  to  enjoy  the  breezes  which  sweep  up 
the  interior  from  Onslow  Bay.  A  range  of  high  hills  en- 
compass it  on  the  North  and  West,  extending  from  Townes- 
ville,  near  the  Virginia  line,  in  a  South-westerly  direction, 
touching  Knapp  of  Reeds,  in  Granville  county.  Orange  Fac- 
tory, in  Durham  county,  and  Chapel  Hill.  Another  range 
on  the  South  and  East  extends  from  Wake  Forest  College 
to  Morrisville  and  on  until  intercepted  by  the  first  men- 
tioned range,  in  Chatham  county,  and  there  they  both  ap- 
pear to  unite  in  forming  Tyrrell's  Mountains. 

Durham  is  the  only  place  of  note  located  in  the  basin  or 
valley  between  these  hilly  ranges,  and  the  months  of  .June, 
July  and  August  are  rendered  truly  enjoyable  by  the  South- 
easterly winds  from  the  sea  playing  up  and  down  this 
valley,  having  been  cooled  by  the  elevation  in  their  path- 

We  say,  then,  that  the  former  unheallhfulnessof  Durham 
could  not  be  attributed  to  the  causes  assigned  by  out.^iders 
and  casual  observers,  but  it  was  almost  solely  due  to  uu- 
cleanliness,  resulting  from  rotten  shanties  and  back-lot  ex- 
cavations, which  causes  have  since  been  effectually  removed. 

We  would  not  undertake  to  describe  the  suffering,  and 
oftimes  death,  caused  by  the  inability  of  our  local  govern- 
ment, a  few  years  since,  to  remedy  this  evil.  The  town  was 
so  constructed  that  all  sanitary  measures,  however  faithfully 
they  might  be  executed,  were  in  vain.  A  better  state  of  af- 
fairs was  soon  to  follow. 

80  History  of  Durham. 


On  the  night  of  December  1st,  1880,  a  fire  started  in  a 
bar-room  situated  on  Ch»3\  near  Willard  street,  occupied  by 
W.  R.  Vickers — cause  of  fire  unknown.  Owing  to  the  fear- 
ful condition  of  the  streets,  caused  b}'  incessant  rains  and 
freezes,  the  Fire  Company  could  not  move  its  engine  and 
the  town  was  left  helpless.  The  flames,  as  if  recognizing 
their  power,  crossed  Chiy  street  and  entered  Block  10, 
(Southgate's  Map  of  Durham,)  and,  as  all  the  buildings  of 
the  block  were  frame,  were  all  soon  consumed,  save  one — 
Angler's  old  store  on  the  north-west  corner  of  Main  and 
Mangum  streets. 

Thurber's  Tobacco  Factory,  Planters'  \A^arehouse  and  M. 
A.  Angler  &  Son's  large  store  were  the  principal  buildings 
destroyed.  $60,000  worth  of  property  consumed  in  an 
hour ! 

January  1st,  1881,  the  furniture  store  of  B.  L.  Duke  & 
Co.,  situated  on  south  side  of  Main,  between  Mangum  and 
Church  streets,  took  fire  and  burned  to  the  ground,  together 
with  the  large  four  story  brick  store  adjoining  it.  Another 
loss  of  $12,500.  .  ^    ■ 

January  15th,  2881,  the  alarm  v>'as  sounded,  and  the  fire 
was  discovered  to  be  in  the  centre  of  the  range  of  framed 
stores  on  north  side  of  Main,  between  Mangum  and  Church 
streets.  In  a  short  time  the  flames  had  made  such  progress 
that  all  efforts  to  check  them  were  useless.  With  a  stiff 
north  wind  blowing,  the  fire  crossed  and  burnt  all  the 
wooden  buildings  on  south  side  of  the  street.  In  two  hours 
nearly  two  blocks  of  buildings  were  in  ashes.  A  $50,000 
fire ! 

Fortunately,  with  but  few  exceptions,  all  the  sufferers 
were  partly  protected  b}''  insurance.  At  least  $75,000  was 
distributed  among  policy  holders  by  the  Companies  repre- 
sented in  Mr.  James  Southgate's  Agency.  It  gives  us  pleas- 
ure to  state  that  every  claim  was  satisfactorily  adjusted  and 

With  $75,000  to  start  with,  Durham,  Phoenix  like,  rose 
proudly  from  her  ashes  and  within  a  few  months  substan- 
tial brick  buildings  appeared  where  once  stood  a  mushroom 
growth  of  frames.  Since  the  fiies  the  streets  have  been 
graded  and  paved,  tiie  sanitary  condition  of  the  town  is 
excellent,  the  rate  of  mortality  is  as  low  as  that  of  any  town 

The  Methodist  Female  Seminary.  81 

in  the  Slate  with  the  same  population  in  point  of  numbers, 
and  we  know  of  no  reason  why  Durham  should  now  be 
considered  unhealthy. 


This  institution  of  learning  is  one  of  the  most  substan- 
tial and  attractive  features  of  Durham.  It  was  founded 
September  4th,  18S1,  by  prominent  members  of  Trinity  M. 
E.  Church.  The  following  gentlemen  composed  the  first 
Board  of  Trustees  apjiointed  for  the  school: 

Julian  S.  Carr, President;  Edward  J.  Parrish,  Treasurer; 
J.  B.  Whitaker,  Jr.,  Secretary;  W.  Duke  and  J.  E.  Lvon. 

On  January  12th,  1882,  Mr.  W.  Duke  resigned,  and  Mr. 
B.  L.  Duke  was  elected  in  his  place.  In  June  of  the  same 
year,  Mr.  J.  B.  Whitaker,  Jr.,  having  been  appointed  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Durham  Board  of  Education,  also  resigned,  and 
Mr.  J.  S.  Lockhart  was  chosen  to  fill  the  vacancy. 

Mrs.  Julia  R.  Williams,  an  accomplished  lady,  late  of 
the  AVesleyan  Female  Institute,  Staunton,  Va.,  was  elected 
Principal,  under  whose  efficient  management  the  school  has 
steadily  increased  in  popularit}-  and  educational  standing. 
Miss  Addie  E.  Hoi  man  was  chosen  Director  of  Music  and 
Calisthenics,  a  thoroughly  competent  and  faithful  teacher. 

Thus  equipped,  the  school  entered  upon  a  career  of  use- 
fulness, far  surpassing  the  expectations  of  its  most  sanguine 
supporters;  and,  notwithstanding  much  opposition  with 
which  its  advocates  had  to  encounter  in  its  incipiency,  it  is 
accom[)lishing  a  work  whose  influences  and  effects  of  moral 
as  well  as  intellectual  training  are  achieving  for  it  a  high 
standard  among  the  educational  institutions  of  the  age. 
Such  has  been  its  rapid  progress  that  it  became  necessary 
to  enlarge  its  already  spacious  building,  and  increase  its 
able,  untiring  but  over-worked  Faculty.  The  Board,  ever 
mindful  of  the  best  interests  of  the  school,  and  anxious  for 
the  untrammeled  dissemination  of  sound  knowledge  and 
ethics,  were  prompt  to  meet  and  adequately  satisfy  this  de- 
mand. Hence,  Miss  Addie  Dean,  late  efficient  Assistant  of 
the  Graded  School  of  Mystic,  Conn.,  was  placed  on  the  Fac- 
ulty, and  assigned  control  of  the  Primary  Department. 
But,  unfortunately,  before  the  close  of  the  term,  her  health 
failed,  and  she  was  compelled  to  retire,  carrying  with  her 
the  unfeigned   sympathy  and  esteem  of  the  whole  school. 

82  History  of  Durham. 

Mrs.  S.  C.  Anderson,  a  thoroughly   competent  teacher,  was 
appointed  to  fill  the  vacancy. 

Daring  the  scholastic  term,  from  18S2  to  1883,  Mrs.  Wm. 
Lipscomb,  an  accomplished  and  experienced  educator,  liad 
charge  of  the  Musical  Department,  and  Miss  Minnie  Moore 
the  Calisthenics.  Miss  Moore  was  a  graduate  of  the  Wes- 
leyan  Female  Institute,  of  Virginia.  She  possessed,  to  an 
eminent  degree,  the  essential  qualifications  of  a  good 
teacher — amiabilit}',  fidelity  and  firmness.  But  the  charms 
of  Minerva  were  not  adequate  to  retain  her  sweet,  gentle 
spirit  in  its  tenement  of  clay,  when  the  precious  lips  of  Je- 
sus beckoned  her  away.  How  sad,  that  hopes,  just  budding 
and  filling  the  soul  with  ineff^ible  sweetness,  should  be  rudely 
blighted  by  the  dread  fiat  of  inexorable  destiny  ;  but  oh  how 
comforting  to  feel  that 

"  Angels  guarded  the  immortal 

Through  the  wonder-teeming  space 
To  the  everlasting  portal, 
To  the  spirit's  resting  place!" 

For  the  scholastic  year  1883-84,  Miss  Lessie  Southgate, 
one  of  the  most  gifted  daughters  of  Durham,  has  been  chosen 
as  Director  of  Music  and  Calisthenics.  This  young  lady, 
being  the  soul  of  music  and  possessing  other  rare  accom- 
plishments, is  pursuing  her  responsible  duties  with  an  effi- 
ciency and  fidelity  which  is  eliciting  the  admiration  and 
engendering  high  expectations  in  the  hearts  of  all  who  are 
directly  or  indirectly  interested  in  the  school. 

The  system  of  teaching  observed  here — and  we  esteem  it 
a  very  commendable  one — is  a  plenary  explanation  of  the 
text,  with  a  required  analysis  of  the  same.  The  teacher  who 
fails  to  impart  thoughts  beyond  the  dull  routine  of  text 
books,  loses  golden  opportunities,  and  fails  to  discharge  the 
duties  of  her  high  calling.  In  connection  with  the  subject, 
oral  and  written  instructions  are  given.  In  this  way  the 
mind  is  elevated,  its  faculties  enlarged  and  the  recitation 
becomes  both  pleasing  and  profitable. 

The  Primary  Department  is  taught  according  to  the  im- 
proved plans  of  the  Normal  system,  the  ample  experience 
of  the  Principal,  especially  in  the  State  Normal  School, 
crowning  her  services  in  this  Department  with  the  most 
beneficial  and  gratifying  effects.  The  Collegiate  Depart- 
ment is  conducted  on  the  plan  of  first-class  institutions. 

The  Methodist  Female  Seminary.  83 

The  text  books  used  in  this  institution  are  such  as  are 
used  by  our  most  prominent  higli  schools  and  colleges. 
The  discipline  of  the  school  is  firm,  yet  high-toned  and  gen- 
erous. Pupils  are  taught  to  emulate  all  that  is  lovely  and 
beautiful  in  female  character,  and  to  act  always  from  a  high 
sense  of  honor  and  duty.  The  duties  of  each  day  begin  with 
divine  worship, — reading  the  Scriptures,  singing  and  prayer. 
Without  the  taint  of  sectarian  bias,  religious  instruction 
constitutes  the  basis  ot  all  sound,  faithful  teaching.  It  is 
religion,  without  regard  to  sect  or  creed,  which  imparts  lo 
learning  its  intrinsic  value  and  character,  its  crowning 
glory  for  time  and  for  eternity. 

Having  all  the  modern  im{)rovements  and  appliances  for 
systematic  and  efficient  teaching,  the  Seminary  is  now  on 
the  highway  of  prosperity  and  usefulness.  The  pupils  are 
studious,  healthy  and  happ3\  The  school  is  receiving  a 
liberal  patronage  from  the  surrounding  country.  The  fol- 
lowing ladies  and  gentlemen  compose  the  present 


Mrs.  Julia  R.  Williams,  Principal — Drawing,  Painting, 
French  and  Latin. 

Miss  Addie  Holman  and  Miss  Minnie  MoorD — Music  and 

Mrs.  L.  C.  Lipscomb— Vocal  and  Instrumental  Music. 

Miss  Lessie  Southgate — Vocal  and  Instrumental  Music. 

Trustees: — Julian  S.  Carr,  President;  Edward  J.  Parrisb, 
J.  Ed.  Lyon,  John  S.  Lockhart  and  B.  L.  Duke. 

TERMS — session   OF   TWENTY   WEEKS. 

Primary  Department, §10.00 

English  Course, 12.50  to  15.00 

Drawing, 10  00 

Painting, , 15.00 

Latin  and  French,  each, 5.00 

Music, Free. 

Tuition  payable  one-half  at  the  middle  of  the  session,  re- 
mainder at  the  close. 

Positively  no  deduction  made  for  loss  of  time,  after  the 
pupil  enters,  except  in  case  of  protracted  illness. 

84  History  of  Durham. 


A  mong  other  interesting  institutions  ofoiir  town,  remarked 
with  pride  and  pleasure,  is  the  Lyceum.  Early  in  the  win- 
ter of  1880,  a  few  kindred  spirits,  feeling  the  necessity  for 
some  organization  where  professional  and  literary  men 
might  interchange  thought  and  opinion,  met  together  and 
formed  themselves  into  an  association,  the  main  ohject  being 
their  own  mutual  improvement  in  the  discussion  of  histori- 
cal, literary  and  scientific  subjects,  with  the  ultimate  pur- 
pose of  establishing  a  Public  Library  and  Reading   Roona. 

For  the  past  three  and  a  half  years  they  have  held  their 
meetings  weekly,  in  a  spacious  and  very  tastefully  arranged 
Hall,  in  Robinson  Block.  Their  membership  now  numbers 
about  fifty  persons.  Both  ladies  and  gentlemen  are  admit- 
ted, and  the  bod}'  comprises  some  of  the  most  cultivated 
literary  talent  of  our  city.  The  highest  order  of  etiquette 
and  refinement  characterizes  all  their  deliberations,  and  it  is 
quite  an  intellectual  treat  to  attend  one  of  their  meetings 
and  listen  to  the  debates,  essays,  poems,  etc.,  making  its 
sessions  both  interesting  and  instructive  to  all  who  attend. 

Soon  after  the  organization  of  this  literar}^  brotherhood, 
the  Hon.  Ba.rtholomev.'  Fuller  was  unanimously  chosen 
as  its  presiding  ofiicer,  under  whose  trained  and  skillful 
hand  it  began  at  once  to  attain  a  high  literary  standard. 
Mr.  Fuller  was  so  eminently  fitted  for  the  position  that  he 
was  continuously  re-elected  to  the  Presidency  of  the  body  un- 
til his  deeply  lamented  death,  which  occurred  Nov.  28, 1882. 
His  loss  was  very  keenly  felt,  not  only  by  the  Lyceum,  but 
bj'-  the  entire  community.  All  felt  that  not  only  a  wise 
counsellor,  but  that  a  christian  gentleman,  a  faithful  friend 
and  a  most  affable  companion,  had  passed  o'er  the  chilly 
waters  to  bask  amid  the  spiritual  fragrance  and  elixir  of  the 
Tree  of  Life,  leaving  behind  beautiful  footprints  upon  the 
shores  of  time  that  the  storms  and  complex  ado  of  life's 
little  day  will  be  utterl}^  unable  to  efface.  As  a  faint  token 
of  the  profound  admiration  and  love  entertained  for  him 
bj'  his  literary  brethren,  a  life-size  portrait  of  him  was 
secured  and  placed  in  the  Hall  of  the  Lyceum. 

After  the  death  of  Mr.  Fuller,  the  Chair  was  filled  by 
Mr.  J  AS.  H.  SouTHGAXE,  who,  though  comparatively  young, 
filled  the  requirements  of  the  position  with  great  accepta- 
bility.    The  ofiice  has  since  been  ably  filled  by  Mr.   Eu- 

The  Post  Office.  85 

GENE  MoREHEAD,  a  leading  banker  of  this  city ;  Rev.  H.  T. 
Darnall,  a  most  accomplished  christian  gentleman  and 
pastor  of  the  Presbyterian  church,  and  by  Mr.  Geo.  W. 
Watts,  one  of  our  most  worthy  and  enterprising  business 

The  exercises  of  theLx^ceum  consist  in  Readings,  Recita- 
tions, Essays  and  Debates  of  important  questions,  and  have 
been  a  source  of  very  great  entertainment  and  profit.  A 
small  library  has  been  purchased,  to  which  additions  are 
constantly  being  made.  A  deep  interest  in  literary  pursuits 
has  been  engendered,  and  is  rapidly  pervading  the  whole 
town,  and  the  Lyceum  is  now  considered  one  of  the  fixed 
institutions  of  Durham. 

The  Post  Office — Origin  and  Present  Status. 

The  first  postal  facilities  of  Durham  were  established  at 
Prattsburg,  about  the  year  1845,  with  William  Pratt  as 
Postmaster,  who  was  succeeded  by  Mr.  Solomon  Shepherd\ 
in  the  year  1852  soon  after  the  erection  of  the  N.  C.  R. 
R.  Depot,  \vhen  the  office  was  moved  to  Durham  Station, 
and  located  at  the  "  Old  Angler  corner,"  now  corner  of  Main 
and  Mangum  streets.  Mr.  Shepherd  held  the  office  until 
the  beginning  of  the  late  civil  war,  and  was  succeeded  b}' 
Mr.  J.  P.  Mangum,  who  served  until  1873.  The  present 
incumbent,  Mr.  D.  C.  Mangum,  was  appointed  September, 
1873,  and  assumed  control  of  the  office  in  the  following 
November,  At  that  time  Durham  rated  as  fourth  class, 
and  the  Postmaster  was  allowed  a  salary  of  only  $480  per 
annum.  The  business  of  the  office  so  rapidly  increased 
that,  on  Julv  1st,  1875,  it  was  constituted  a  Money  Order 
office.  In  1877,  the  office  was  raised  to  the  third  class,  and 
Mr.  D.  C.  Mangum  re-appointed  by  President  Hayes,  his 
commission  dating  from  May  1st,  1877,  and  his  salary  in- 
creased to  $1,300.  All  third  class  Postmasters  are  appointed 
for  a  term  of  four  3'ears.  Mr.  Mangum  was  re-appointed' 
by  President  Arthur,  his  commission  dating  from  May  1st, 
1887.  Since  Mr.  Mangum  assumed  control  the  average 
increase  of  postal  receipts  per  annum  is  about  20  per  cent. 
Receipts  from  the  sale  of  stamps,  &c.,  for  the  year  ending 
September  31st,  18S3,  were  $4,850.  Taking  the  first  three 
months  of  1884,  as  a  basis,  it  is  estimated  that  the  receipts 
during  the  present  year  will  considerably  exceed  $5,000, 

86  History  of  Durham. 

notwithstanding  the  reduction  in  letter  postage.  The  money 
order  business  shows  a  healthy  increase,  although  not  so 
great  as  compared  with  the  postal  receipts,  owing  to  the 
late  establishing  of  superior  banking  facilities  in  our  midst. 
If  the  present  rate  of  increase  is  maintained,  it  will  only 
require  about  two  years  to  bring  the  Durham  Postoffice  up 
to  the  second  class,  when  it  will  rank  with  Raleigh,  Wil- 
mington and  Charlotte,  the  only  second  class  postotfices  in 
North  Carolina  at  present.  Mr.  Mangum  makes  a  faithful 
and  efficient  officer  and  is  very  popular  among  our  citizens. 

The  Revenue  Office. 

The  Internal  Revenue  Stamp  Office,  situated  in  the  Post- 
office  building,  Main  street,  was  established  October  1st, 
1878,  through  the  influence  and  indefatigable  efforts  of 
the  manufacturers  of  Durham  and  Eugene  Morehead,  Esq., 
who  was  appointed  Stamp  Clerk.  The  grateful  thanks  of 
the  citizens  of  Durham,  and  especiall}''  our  tobacco  men, 
are  due  this  enterprising,  cultivated  and  affable  gentleman, 
jnot  only  for  the  existence  of  this  great  convenience,  but 
■also  for  the  establishment  of  the  first  banking  facilities  at 
"this  place.  Prior  to  the  establishtnent  of  these  important 
facilities,  our  business  men  were  compelled  to  transact  all 
itheir  revenue  and  banking  business  in  Raleigh — a  distance 
of  21  miles — a  great  inconvenience  and  hardship.  Mr. 
Morehead  held  the  position  of  Collector,  to  the  entire  satis- 
faction of  all,  until  June,  1879,  when  he  resigned  in  order 
to  devote  his  undivided  attention  to  the  banking  house  of 
which  he  is  President.  The  receipts  for  the  past  five  years, 
kindly  furnished  us  by  Mr.  George  L.  Tinker,  the  present 
courteoiss  and  efficient  Deputy,  are  as  follows : 

For  the  months  of  October,  November  and   December, 
1878,  $142,053.64. 

May  1st,  1879,  the  tax  on  manufactured  tobacco  was  re- 
.  duced  to  16  cents  per  pound. 

Receipts  for  1880— $627,118.21. 

"    1881—  827,269.54. 

«        "   1882—  733,817.80. 

"   1883—  618,444.34. 

The  tax  was  ,  again  reduced,  May  1st,  1883,  to  8  cts.  per 

Newpapers.  87 

pound  on  manufactured  tobacco,  and  to  50  cts.  per  thousand 
on  cigarettes. 

The  following  is  a  comparative  statement  of  the  number 
of  pounds  of  mauufiictured  tobacco  sold  during  the  years 
1882  and  1883  : 


Xo.  lbs.  Tobacco. 

Xo.  lbs.  Snuflf. 

Xo.  Cigarettes. 





An  increase  of  Tobacco  1,879,975  lbs.,  SnufF  4,005  lbs., 
and  26,023,000  Cigarettes. 

Total  amount  of  revenue  paid  by  the  manufacturers  of 
Durham  from  Oct.  1st,  1S78  to  Jan.  1st,  1884— §3,545,589.08. 


The  Church  Messenger. — This  is  an  ably  edited  relig- 
ous  journal,  published  in  the  interest  of  the  Protestant 
Episcopal  church  in  North  Carolina.  It  was  established  at 
Winston,  N.  C,  in  1879,  by  the  Rev.  Wm.  S.  Bynum,  and 
subsequently  purchased  by  Rev.  Chas.  J.  Curtis  and  moved 
to  Durham  in  January,  1882.  In  February,  1883,  it  was 
purchased  by  Rev.  E.  N.  Joyxer,  who  placed  Mr.  C.  B. 
Denson  on  the  Editorial  Staff.  The  paper  is  now  in  a  flour- 
ishing condition,  and  accomplishing  great  good  in  the 
Master's  cause.  Weakly,  containing  32  columns.  Subscrip- 
tion price  $1.50  per  annum. 

The  Durham  Recorder. — This  is  one  of  the  oldest  news- 
papers in  the  State,  having  been  established  in  the  town  of 
Hillsboro  in  1820  by  Mr.  Dennis  Hart.  In  1881,  the  present 
editor  and  proprietor,  Mr.  E.  C.  Hackney,  purchased  Col. 
Cameron's  interest,  and,  together  with  Mr.  G.  E.  Webb,  con- 
ducted the  paper  for  one  year,  during  which  time  it  was 
enlarged  from  2§  to  32  columns.  In  1882  Mr.  Webb  sold 
his  interest  to  Mr.  Hackney,  who  is  now  sole  proprietor. 
Democratic  in  politics,  and  published  weekly  at  §1.50  per 
annum.     A  live,  aggressive  and  interesting  journal. 

The  Durham  Tobacco  Plant. — Established  in  1872,  by 
C.  B.  Green,  the  present  editor  and  proprietor.  At  that  time 
the  number  of  inhabitants  of  Durham  did  not  exceed  200. 
Older  heads  looked  upon  the  enterprise  as  premature,  and 


88  History  of  Durham. 

thought  young  Green,  then  but  a  mere  boy,  could  never 
make  it  a  success.  But  he  had  strong  faitli  in  a  brighter 
future  for  Durham;  that  it  would  be  one  da}'',  not  far  dis- 
tant, one  of  the  leading  tobacco  marts  of  the  State;  and  thus 
animated  he  toiled  manfull}^  at  the  case  to  build  up  his  pa- 
per. The  Plant  has  surmounted  many  storms  of  adversit}'', 
and  is  to-day  one  of  the  leading  newspapers  of  the  State. 
Mr.  Green  is  still  quite  a  young  man,  but  he  wields  great 
influence  in  the  formation  of  public  sentiment.  A  bold, 
aggressive  and  able  exponent  of  the  people's  interests.  His 
paper  is  and  has  always  been  thoroughly  Democratic,  and 
has  added  largely  to  the  success  of  the  Democratic  party  in 
Central  North  Carolina.  It  has  a  wide  and  increasing  cir- 
culation. Contains  32  columns  of  choice  reading  matter, 
at  the  very  moderate  sum  of  81.50  per  annum. 

The  Daily  Evening  Reporter. — Established  in  Janu- 
ary, 1884,  b}''  Mr.  D.  W.  Whitaker,  a  gentleman  of  large  ex- 
perience both  as  an  editor  and  printer — non-political.  De- 
voted to  the  material  and  educational  interests  of  Durham. 
Neat,  newsy  and  ably  edited,  it  is  rapidly  becoming  an  ob- 
ject of  interest  among  our  business  men.  Imbibing  the 
spirit  of  the  town,  it  is  full  of  push,  pith  and  brain,  and  is 
destined  to  rank  among  the  first  newspapers  of  the  State. 
Friend  V\''hitaker  is  an  old  "  typo"  of  sterling  qualities  and 
deserves  success.     Subscription,  $4.00  per  annum. 

The  Truth — A  monthly  historical  and  literary  paper, 
established  February  25th,  1884,  its  mission  being,  mainly, 
to  exhume  important  historical  matters  in  reference  to  Or- 
ange county.  Hon.  Josiah  Turner,  editor.  Subscription 
price  $1.50  per  annum. 

CHAPTER  IV.       . 
Religious  Denominations. 

TRINITY   M:    E.    church. 

In  the  early  part  of  1830,  a  little  school  was  estab- 
lished, about  one  mile  east  of  Durham,  on  the  line  of  the 
N.  C.  Railroad,  at  a  place  known  as  Orange  Grove.     The 

Trinity  M.  E.  Chukch.  89 

only  surviving  student  of  that  school  the  writer  has  been 
able  to  find,  is  our  esteemed  and  venerable  townsman,  M, 
A.  Angier,  Esq.,  who  was  then  about  ten  years  of  age.  In 
1832  or  '33,  a  protracted  meeting  was  conducted  at  this  lit- 
tle school  house,  under  the  able  and  eloquent  ministrations 
of  the  Rev.  Willis  Haynes,  the  first  Methodist  Circuit  rider 
known  in  th^s  vicinity,  assisted  by  the  Rev.  David  Nichol- 
son, Presiding  Elder.  Many  souls  were  happily  converted, 
and  a  church  was  established,  numbering  about  80  mem- 
bers, with  brother  Haynes  as  pastor.  The  school  house  and 
its  site  was  donated  to  the  church  by  one  of  its  members, 
Mr.  William  Herndon.  The  writer  has  been  unable  to 
gather  data  for  a  consecutive  historj'.  About  the  year  1834, 
the  church  was  burned  by  one  Jefferson  Dillard,  who  enter- 
tained great  antij)athy  toward  the  church  and  the  school. 
It  is  said  that  he  used  the  books  and  papers  about  the  school 
to  start  the  conflagration.  After  the  perpetration  of  this 
diabolical  deed,  and  finding  his  life  placed  in  jeopard}'^  l>y 
an  outraged  and  incensed  community,  he  ran  away,  and 
has  not  since  been  heard  of.  But  the  little  church  was  re- 
built, and  prospered.  In  1858,  Orange  Grove  church  was 
moved  to  Durham,  and  a  church  built  on  the  site  now  oc- 
cupied by  Trinity  M.  E.  Church.  This  building  was  erected 
by  Mr.  AVilliam  Mangum,  who,  for  ?>650,  furnished  both 
material  and  labor,  besides  contributing  825,  although  not 
a  member. 

This  church  remained  in  connection  with  Orange  Circuit 
until  1874,  when  it  was  made  a  Station,  Rev.  J.  J.  Renn 
being  pastor,  having  served  the  church  from  1872  in  con- 
nection with  the  Orange  Circuit.  The  trustees  of  the  prop- 
erty were  J.  T.  Driver,  James  Stagg,  William  Halliburton, 
Julian  S.  Carr,  William  Watts,  William  Guess,  Washington 
Duke,  Alexander  Walker,  W.  B.  Proctor,  and  Archibald 
Nichols.  From  1858  to  J8G8,  there  is  a  serious  hiatus  in  the 
history  of  the  church.  Rev.  R.  S.  Webb  was  pastor  in  'GS 
and  'G9.  Rev.  Jno.  Tillett  pastor  in  '70  and  '71,  and  followed 
b}'  Rev.  J.  J.  Renn  in  '72,  who  remained  in  charge  of  the 
church  four  years,  laying  broad  and  deep  the  foundations  of 
truth  as  held  by  Methodists — redemption  for  all  men  who 
will  believe — christian  perfection — and  a  life  without  sin. 

In  1873,  on  the  28th  of  August,  the  Hillsboro  District 
Conference  held  its  annual  session  in  Trinity  church,  Col. 
D.  C.  Parrish  being  the  lay  delegate,  Rev.  J.  P.  Moore,  Pres- 

90  History  of  Durham. 

ident,  and  J.  S.  Harris,  Secretary.  Rev.  W.  H.  Moore  held 
the  pastorate  for  75  and  '7G.  Rev.  William  Call  succeeded 
him,  and  remained  during  the  year  '77.  Rev.  F.  H.  Wood 
was  appointed  to  the  pastorate  in  '7S.  He  remained  three 
years.  During  his  ministry  was  originated  the  enterprise 
which  culminated  in  the  completion,  under  the  ministry  of 
Rev.  J.  A.  Cunninggim.  the  present  elegant  church  build- 
ing, which  is  an  imposing  ornament  to  our  town  and  a 
credit  to  the  Methodist  congregation. 

Mrs.  Mary  Moon  held  a  series  of  meetings  in  Trinity 
Church  in  1879,  continuing  about  four  weeks,  resulting  in  a 
great  awakening  and  many  conversions,  and  about  seventy 
additions  to  the  churches  of  Durham.  Two  prayer  meet- 
ings were  organized  to  meet  every  Sunday  evening,  one  in 
the  church  and  the  other  in  the  Female  Seminary,  one  for 
young  men  and  the  other  for  females.  These  meetings  are 
still  kept  up  with  interest  and  profit  to  the  church.  Tiiis 
church  paid  the  pastor  and  Presiding  Elder  for  last  year 

Rev.  Jesse  A.  Cunninggim  succeeded  Rev.  Mr.  Wood  in 
1881,  who  did  a  good  work  for  the  cause  of  truth  during  a 
ministry  of  two  years.  He  raised  several  thousand  dollars 
for  the  work  on  the  church  and  carried  it  througjh  to  its 
completion.  He  left  the  impress  of  his  character  engraved 
upon  the  community,  and,  as  it  were,  engraved  in  the  or- 
ganic life  of  the  church.  He  gave  system  to  the  work  of 
the  church,  and  thus  gave  it  strength  and  permanency. 
The  ladies  of  this  church  did  a  large  and  important  work 
in  aiding  the  pastors  to  bring  up  the  church  out  of  the 
wilderness  and  to  settle  it  on  its  present  firm  foundation. 

Rev.  T.  A.  Boone  came  to  the  pastoral  care  of  this 
church  as  the  successor  of  Rev.  Mr.  Cunninggim.  This  is 
his  second  year.  Since  Mr.  Boone's  connection  with  this 
church,  great  advancement  has  been  made  in  all  her  de- 
partments. He  is  an  eloquent,  able  and  assiduous  worker, 
and  is  loved  devotedl}^  not  only  by  his  flock,  but  by  the 
citizens  of  Durham  generally.    • 


This  Church  was  organized  August  12th,  1845,  in  Piny 
Grove  School  House,  about  one  mile  west  of  this  place. 
Rev.  Jesse  Howell  was  assisting  the  pastor  of  Eno  Baptist 

Durham  Baptist  Church.  91 

church  ill  a  revival  meeting,  and,  when  some  of  the  mem- 
bers objected  to  his  preachiuf^  in  their  house  of  worshif),  he 
left,  and  soon  began  to  preach  monthl}'  at  the  above  named 
School  House,  and  the  result  was  the  organization  of  this 
church.  He  was  pastor  of  the  church  for  more  than  twenty- 
five  years. 

The  first  house  of  worship  built  by  this  church  was  the 
buiUling  now  used  by  Mr.  A.  D.  Markliam  as  a  residence. 

The  railroad  was  built  and  the  depot  was  located  so  near 
them  that  they  thought  it  wise  to  sell  out  and  re-build. 

The  second  house  of  worship  was  built  on  what  is  now 
Roxboro  Street,  and  it  stood  over  the  same  spot  of  ground 
now  covered  by  the  residence  of  John  L.  Markham. 

The  third  and  present  house  of  worship  was  begun  in 
1877,  and  was  finished,  and  entered  free  of  debt,  and  dedi- 
cated by  the  pastor  and  congregation  on  Tiiursday  night 
before  the  1st  Sabbath  in  November,  1878.  A  simple  hour 
of  thanksgiving  and  joy  was  the  only  service  of  dedication. 
This  house  cost  812,400.  Five  persons  gave  $1,000  each  for 
this  purpose  ;  viz :  \V.  T.  Blackwell,  Jas.  R.  Day,  F.  C.  Green, 
A.  M.  Rigsbee  and  Mrs.  A.  D.  Markham. 

The  church  owns  a  parsonage.  It  cost,  besides  ihe  lot  of 
about  one  acre  upon  whirh  it  is  located,  about  $2,100.  This 
was  begun  in  1879,  and  finished  free  of  debt  and  occupied 
April  1st,  1880. 

The  present  membership  of  the  church  is  about  three 
hundred,  and  their  Sunday  School  numbers  over  three  hun- 

Rev.  C.  Durham,  the  pastor  of  this  church,  was  a  soldier 
in  the  late  war  from  April,  '01,  to  the  surrender.  He  grad- 
uated from  Wake  Forest  College  in  '71,  and  was  pastor  in 
Goldsboro  four  and  a  half  years.  He  has  been  pastor  of 
this  church  since  Jan.,  '7G,  and  hence  is  now  in  the  ninth 
year  of  his  pastorate. 

The  contributions  of  this  congregation  to  all  religious 
objects  during  his  pastorate  is  about  1$34,000. 

There  have  been  two  churches  organized  out  of  this  one 
in  the  past  eight  years — Yates  Baptist  church,  and  Rose  of 
Sharon,  six  miles  north  of  Durham,  both  churches  being 
built  from  contributions  raised  by  the  Durham  Baptist 

]\Ir.  Durham,  pastor  of  the  church  in  this  city,  is  an  able, 
pious    and    hard-working   laborer  in   the  vine3'ard  of  the 

92  History  of  Durham. 

blessed  Master,  and  is  doing  much  good  in  promoting  the 
cause  of  Christ  in  this  city. 


This  church  was  organized  on  theSlstof  December,  1871, 
by  a  committee  of  the  Orange  Presbytery,  consisting  of  Revs. 
A.  G.  Hughes,  Thomas  W.  Faucett  and  Calvin  H.  Morrow, 
and  embraced  eleven  members  in  its  organization.  It  was 
ministered  to  for  a  while  by  Mr.  Faucett,  but  on  the  31st  of 
March  following  called,  as  its  Srst  pastor,  Rev.  Drury  Lacy, 
D.  D.,  who  served  the  church  for  two  years.  Rev.  Pleasant 
H.  Dalton  was  then  called  and  officiated  as  pastor  for  two 
years.  The  Rev.  Jas.  H.  Fitzgerald  succeeded  Mr.  Dalton 
in  the  fall  of  1876,  and  continued  with  the  church  until  the 
spring  of  1880,  when  he  resigned,  and  the  present  pastor, 
Rev.  H.  T.  Darnall,  was  called  to  the  pastorate  in  the  fall  of 
1880.  At  present  the  register  contains  seventy-five  names 
of  members,  with  a  steady  increase.  In  1882  the  congre- 
gation erected  a  neat  and  comfortable  mause  on  the  lot  next 
the  church,  which  was  occupied  in  October  of  that  3'ear. 
The  church  and  mause  are  located  on  Main  street,  below 
Church  street. 

In  April,  1884,  the  Presbyterian  Synod  of  North  Carolina 
convened  in  this  church,  whose  sessions  proved  pleasant  and 
instructive,  not  onl}'  to  the  members  of  that  church,  but  also 
to  our  citizens  generally,  whose  hospitable  doors  were  thrown 
wide  open  to  the  members  of  the  Synod.  The  pastor  is  an 
able  and  earnest  worker,  watching  faithfully  over  his  pious 
and  devoted  fiock. 

v"inBh:L*'rrBf  ■fr^^^n^^'vrJ^^ '?j^^"-''^™?'yj«-' "I  "^'^^''■''''^'"■^  *■'■-'■  "'a^w.^^i'-.T^TC*'^ 

ASSETS,  -  -  -         $769,  J  47, 

J.  SOUTHGATE  &  SON,  Agts.,  Durham,  N.  C. 

FliLerLi^s  Zris-L:Lra..32Lce  Oioicn-peiiciy, 

Of  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. 
ASSETS,  ^3»749»036. 

J.  SOUTHGATE  &  SON,  Agents,  Durham,  N.  C. 

Tobacco  Board  of  Trade.  93 

Tobacco  Board  of  Trade— Warehouses. 


The  Durham  Tobacco  Board  of  Trade  was  organized  in 
the  year  1872,  by  the  election  of  the  follow  officers  : 

Capt.  Alexander  Walker,  President, 

Robert  F.  Morris,  Vice-President, 

R.  C.  Barksdale,  Secretary  and  Treasurer. 

Since  that  time  there  have  been  many  additions,  and 
much  good  has  been  accomplished,  mutuall}'  between  its 
members,  and  towards  establishing  the  tobacco  market  of 
Durham.  Its  meetings  are  held  once  a  month.  There  are 
now  40  names  upon  the  roll.  The  following  is  a  list  of  the 
present  officers  and  members: 

Capt.  Alex.  "Walker,  President, 

R.  F.  Webb,  Vice-President, 

Albert  Kramer,  Secretary  and  Treasurer. 

W.  T.  Black  well,  J.  S.  Carr,  A.  B.  Cox,  John  Walker,  W. 
Duke,  Sons  &  Co.,  Edward  Dal  by,  W.  A.  Day,  A  H.  Stokes, 
R.  T.  Faucett,  Lucius  Green,  W.  A.  Gattis,  \V.  H.  Osborn, 
R.  li.  Jones,  Thos.  D.  Jones,  Lea  &  Warren,  T.  B.  Lyon.  J. 
S.  Lockhiirt,  Z  I.  Lyon  &  Co  ,  R.  T.  Morris  &  Sons  Mfg.  Co., 
J.  T.  Pinnix,  Blackwell  &  Goodson,  T.  L  Peav,  E.  H.  Pogue 
&  Son,  E  J.  Parrish,  L  M.  Reams,  W.  H.  Rowland,  M.  A. 
Walker,  L  T.  Smith,  Jno.  W.  Smith.  R.  K.  Smith,  A.  K. 
Umstead  &  Co.,  Webb  &  Kramer,  Robt.  Burton,  11.  A. 
Reams,  R.  E.  Lyon,  E.  E.  Seay,  Dr.  J.  L.  Watkins,  T.  B. 
Mosely,  W.  R.  Cooper,  and  J.  B.  Hazel. 


Previous  to  the  war,  the  medium  of  Warehouses  to  facili- 
tate the  business  of  the  planter  and  buyer  was  so  little 
known  as  to  be  exceptional.  Danville  in  Virginia  and  Mil- 
ton in  North  Carolina  had  each  made  some  progress  in  this 
direction.  But  the  common  practice  was  to  sell  to  mer- 
chants, manufacturers,  or  buyers,  of  any  class,  in  modes 
most  convenient  to  all  parties.  Much  was  shipped  to  factors 
in  Richmond  and  Pete-^sburg.     A  great  deal  was  bought  by 

94  HisTOKY  OF  Durham. 

merchants,  who  were  in  the  habit  of  keeping  annual  ac- 
counts with  the  phinters,  furnishing  them  with  plantation 
supplies,  and  making  settlements  at  the  end  of  the  year. 
The  war  effectually  destroyed  this  system.  Neither  mer- 
chant nor  farmer  could  wait  a  whole  year.  The  capital  of 
the  first  could  not  endure  it;  the  credit  of  the.other  was  de- 
stroyed by  the  loss  of  his  slave  property.  He  was  compelled 
to  live,  as  it  were,  from  hand  to' mouth.  He  had  to  make 
frequent  small  sales  to  meet  family  necessities,  to  pay  his 
laborers  or  to  pay  his  taxes.  He  liad  to  find  a  market  often. 
This  demand  was  met  by  the  opening  of  sales  houses  at 
points  on  railroads  principally,  because  on  railroads  could 
more  readily  be  met  the  requisitions  of  the  revenue  service, 
the  ready  and  convenient  supply  of  stamps  being  essential 
to  manufacturers,  and  these  becoming  the  great  patrons  of 
the  warehouses.  Tlie  two  have  become  indispensable  com- 
plements of  each  other,  as  illustrated  by  Danville,  Durham, 
Reidsville,  Winston,  Henderson,  Oxford,  and  other  points, 
the  centres  of  the  tobacco  industry. 

The  warehouses  are  invariably  large  buildings  with  great 
floor  capacity,  and  perfectly  lighted  by  ample  skylights,  so 
that  thu  color  and  quality  of  the  tobacco  are  faithfully  ex- 
posed. The  tobacco,  taken  from  the  wagons,  where  it  had 
been  packed  down  while  in  "  good  order,"  is  carefully  placed 
in  piles,  after  having  been  weighed,  each  pile  of  uniform 
grade.  A  tag  fixed  upon  a  cleft  stick  is  placed  upon  each 
pile,  on  which  is  the  name  of  the  owner  of  the  tobacco,  and 
also  the  weight.  At  the  hour  of  sale,  outcry  is  made  at  each 
pile,  the  price  bid  attached  to  the  tag,  and  also  entered  upon 
a  book,  and  so  until  the  whole  is  sold.  A  planter,  dissatisfied 
with  a  bid,  is  entitled  to  "take  in  "  his  tobacco.  The  com- 
pensation of  the  warehousemen  is  a  commission  of  from  2^ 
to  3  per  cent,  on  sales.  Where  there  are  several  warehouses 
in  a  market,  by  arrangement  each  one  is  entitled  to  the  first 
sale  in  turn.  In  most  of  the  markets  the  sales  are  held 
daily  except  in  the  duller  months  of  the  season. 

The  six  warehouses  formerly  occupied  here  have  been 
converged  into  three  of  the  largest  and  best  arranged  houses 
of  the  kind  in  North  Carolina,  which  annually  sell  from 
twelve  to  fifteen  million  pounds  of  tobacco,  which  is  distrib- 
uted in  well  nigh  every  hamlet,  town  and  city  on  the  globe, 
and  the  factories  here  manufacture  from  eight  to  twelve 
million  pounds  of  the  fragrant  weed  annually. 

Tobacco  Warehouses.  95 

The  da}'  is  not  far  distant  when  the  magnitude  of  the  to- 
bacco interests  of  North  Carolina  will  be  fully  acknowl- 
edged and  appreciated,  and  she  will  take  her  rightful  posi- 
tion as  one  of  the  most  important  tobacco  States  in  the  Union, 
not  only  as  to  quantity  but  quality  of  tobacco  produced. 
Aye,  even  now,  the  silver}^  streaks  of  dawn  are  becoming 
brighter  and  brighter — inspiring  new  hope,  and  zeal,  and 
energy,  and  infallibly  prognosticating  a  future  greatness 
and  prosperity  second  to  no  section  on  the  habitable  globe. 
To-day  there  is  more  assiduous  push  and  enterprise  in  Dur- 
ham than  in  any  other  town  or  city  in  the  State.  The  in- 
flux of  labor  and  capital  is  continually  on  the  increase. 
Kew  dwellings,  stores,  warehouses,  prize-houses,  and  facto- 
ries, are  s])ontancously  springing  into  existence  in  every  di- 
rection. Wherever  the  eye  turns,  some  new  building  in 
process  of  erection  is  visible.  I  will  relate  one  amusing  oc- 
currence, which  tends  to  show  the  great  demand  for  house- 
room  here.  It  was  Saturday  evening ;  one  load  of  lumber 
had  been  emptied  upon  a  vacant  lot  by  one  of  Mr.  Black- 
well's  teams.  Earl}'  Sunday  morning  a  gentleman  called 
upon  Mr.  Harding,  Mr.  Blackwcll's  agent,  and,  after  apol- 
ogizing for  calling  on  the  Sabbath,  said  that  he  wished  to 
engage  the  house  for  which  tJtat  lumber  was  inlcnded,  stating  that 
he  feared  to  delay  until  Monday  lest  he  might  be  too  late  I 
Mr.  Blackwell  and  other  gentlemen  are  erecting  dwelling 
houses  with  all  possible  speed,  but  they  are  utterly  unable 
to  finish  them  fast  enough  to  supply  the  constantly  aug- 
menting stream  of  immigration.  The  picture  is  bj*  no  means 
over-wrought.  The  writer  lias  met  with  many  instances 
where  several  families  are  cramped  and  packed  up  in  houses 
intended  only  for  one  family. 

In  noting  in  detail  the  wonderful  improvements  and 
growth  of  the  city,  the  writer  will  begin  with  the  Ware- 


This  house  takes  its  natne  and  extensive  popularity  from 
its  founder,  Mr.  H.  A.  Reams,  the  pioneer  warehouseman  of 
Durham.  The  first  sale  of  leaf  that  ever  occurred  in  Dur- 
ham was  C'inducted  by  this  gentleman  in  a  small  fictory 
building,  on  the  ISi.h  of  May,  1871.  He  continued  in  the 
small  building  until  the  autumn  of  1872,  when,  his  busi- 
ness having  so  rapidly  increased,  much   greater  floorage 


96  History  of  Durham. 

capacity  was  required.  Accordingly,  in  that  year,  be  moved 
to  a  wareliouse  building  erected  by  W.  T.  Blackwell  &  Co., 
in  which  he  remained  until  the  latter  part  of  1877.  During 
that  year  he  erected  the  present  Reams  Warehouse.  This 
building  is  on  one  of  the  most  eligible  lots  in  the  cit}',  being 
near  its  centre,  on  Main  street  and  within  speaking  dis- 
tance of  the  depot  and  the  mammoth  Bull  factory.  It  is 
80  by  175  feet.  But  his  trade  continued  to  increase  so 
rapidly,  that  in  1879  he  was  compelled  to  enlarge  his 
building,  giving  it  a  flooraga  area  of  14,000  feet  for  sales- 
room with  a  basement  of  the  same  size.  This  house  has  32 
skylights,  with  64  10x20  glass  to  each  skylight,  thus  mak- 
ing 2,048  square  feet  of  light.  There  are  435  feet  of  wagon 
shelter,  making  the  whole  wareliouse  one  of  the  largest  and 
most  conveniently  arrajjged  houses  of  the  kind  in  the  State. 
Mr.  Reams  was  succeeded  in  1880  by  Messrs.  W.  A.  Lea  & 
T,  JJ.  Jones,  who  conducted  the  business  until  1882,  when 
Mr.  Jones  withdrew,  in  order  to  pay  especial  attention  to 
leaf  brokerage.  Mr.  J.  S.  Lockhart  v»'as  next  admitted  as 
a  partner  under  the  firm  name  of  Lea  &  Lockhart.  Mr. 
Lockhart  remained  a  member  of  the  firm  until  January, 
1884,  when  he  also  withdrew  to  take  charge  of  the  Banner 
Warehouse,  which  has  been  moved  from  its  old  site  and 
located  next  to  At  water  &  Wyatt's  large  brick  grocery, 
v;here  it  has  been  thoroughly  renovated  and  extensively 
enlarged.  About  the  1st  of  April,  1884,  Mr.  J.  B.  Warren, 
of  Caswell  county,  was  admitted  as  a  partner,  and  the  firm 
is  now  known  as  Lea  &  Warren,  who  are  doing  a  very  ex- 
tensive business. 


This  is  one  of  the  largest  and  best  equipped  ware- 
houses in  the  State,  formerly  owned  by  the  firm  of  Parrish 
&  Blackwell,  but  now  the  property  of  Mr.  E.  J.  Parrish. 
Mr.  Parrish  commenced  the  tobacco  business  in  1871  as 
auctioneer,  in  the  fir.~t  tobacco  warehouse  established  in 
Durham,  and  continued  as  such  until  1873,  when  he  became 
proprietor  of  the  new  warehouse  known  as  "The  Farmer's." 
In  1876,  he  was  the  successful  bidder  for  the  "  Durham 
Warehouse,"  which  he  occupied  at  an  annual  rental  of 
$2,000  for  three  years,  and  his  business  increased  rapidly ; 
in  1879  he  erected  his  present  fine  building,  at  a  cost  of 

Tobacco   Warehouses.  97 

$32,000,  and  which  is  confessedly  the  best  structure  of  its 
kind  in  Nortli  Carolina.  It  is  of  brick,  56x225  feet,  with  a 
deep  and  commodious  basement  used  for  storage,  and  with 
apartments  for  farmers.  The  roof  is  a  suspension  structure, 
pierced  along  its  whole  length  by  four  rows  of  solid  glass 
sk}  h'ghts.  Along  the  sides  run  covered  sheds  the  whole 
length  of  the  building,  on  one  side  225x16,  and  on  the 
otiier  225x10,  with  a  park-shed  41x150,  with  two  rows  of 
skylights,  large  enough  to  hold  one  hundred  wagons.  Ele- 
gantly appointed  offices  give  pleasant  places  of  business  to 
the  eight  or  ten  young  men  necessary  for  the  duties  of  the 
house;  these  offices,  like  all  other  parts  of  the  building, 
being  lighted  with  gas.  The  opening  day, September  29th, 
1879,  was  a  prominent  one  in  the  annals  of  Durham,  many 
hundred  farmers  with  their  wagons  loaded  with  the  tobacco 
of  the  adjoining  counties  congregating  to  take  advantage 
of  the  animation  of  the  auspicious  day.  Upwards  of  80,- 
000  pounds  were  sold  at  this  warehouse  on  that  day,  for  an 
aggregate  sum  of  $15,000;  and  the  happy  fortune  of  go 
favorable  a  beginning  has  never  deserted  the  house.  Mr. 
J.  W.  Blackwell  was  admitted  as  a  partner  in  the  business 
in  April,  1880 ;  and  under  the  firm  name  of  Parrish.cfe 
Blackwell,  the  house  has  continued  to  enlarge  in  its  opera- 
tions, and  claims,  and  with  reason,  to  transact  a  larger 
amount  of  business  than  any  similar  house  in  North  Car- 
olina, and  has  established  a  national  reputation  among  the 
leaf-tobacco  markets  of  the  country  for  the  uniformity  of 
its  classification  and  the  honesty  of  its  prizing.  Mr.  Par- 
rish  does  not  buy  on  order,  but  solely  on  his  own  account. 
He  is  probably  the  largest  tobacco  buyer  iu  the  State. 
During  the  month  of  February,  1884,  he  paid  out  to  farm- 
ers for  tobacco  sold  on  his  warehouse  floor  the  enormous 
sum  of  $96,000.  His  auction  and  prizing  houses  are,  per- 
haps, the  best  equipped  in  the  State.  During  the  year 
1881,  he  sold  8,388,660  pounds  of  leaf  tobacco,  realizing 
$940,063.98.  In  1882,  his  sales  amounted  to  5,370,488  lbs., 
and  in  1883  his  sales  reached  6.797,542  lbs.,  amounting  to 
$851,958.25.  His  principal  prize  house  is  constructed  of 
brick,  three  stories  high  and  about  56x125  feet.  The  front 
is  used  for  the  banking  and  reception  rooms  of  "  The  Bank 
of  Durham,"  of  which  W.  T.  Blackwell,  Esq.,  is  President. 
The  other  portion  of  the  building  is  filled  with  all  grades  of 
North  Carolina  leaf  tobacco  in  process  of  prizing  or  prepar- 

98  History  of  Durham. 

ation  for  shipment.  Two  other  large  buildings  for  prizing 
and  storing,  together  with  an  establishment  where  his  hogs- 
heads and  tierces  are  made,  are  included  in  his  extensive 
warehouse  business.  His  exhibits  at  the  Cincinnati  Expo- 
sitions have  uniformly  drawn  first  prizes,  one  lot  shown 
there  having  afterwards  sold  for  $126  per  100  pounds.  Mr. 
Blackwell's  interest  in  this  warehouse  was  purchased  in 
January,  1884,  by  Mr.  Parrish  for  $80,000.  It  has  only 
been  a  few  years  since  Capt.  Parrish  engaged  in  business 
hereon  a  very  small  capital, but  through  indomitable  energy 
and  superior  business  abilities,  he  has  amassed  a  handsome 
fortune.  There  are  but  few  men  in  the  State  more  success- 
ful or  more  deserving  of  success,  than  Captain  Edward  J. 


This  handsome  and  commodious  house  was  opened  April 
9th,  1879,  by  Messrs.  Lea,  Corbett  &  Co.  In  1880  Mr.  Cor- 
bett  withdrew  and  Mr.  J.  T.  Lea  was  admitted  as  a  partner, 
and  the  business  conducted  under  the  name  and  style  of 
Lea  Brothers.  The  old  building,  before  its  removal,  (in 
1§84)  renovation  and  enlargement,  contained  a  floorage 
area  of  40x150,  with  extensive  grounds  and  conveniences 
for  wagons  and  horses.  The  principal  supplies  of  the  house 
are  from  the  counties  of  Durham,  Orange,  Alamance,  Cas- 
well, Person  and  Granville,  and  comprise  bright  wrappers, 
smokers  and  fillers  of  the  highest  grades.  Mr.  J.  Q.  A.  Bar- 
ham,  auctioneer,  who  is  one  of  the  best  we  have  ever  met. 
Sales  occur  daily.  In  1881,  Mr.  Thomas  D.  Jones  became 
a  partner  and  continued  as  one  of  the  firm  for  one  year, 
when  the  management  passed  into  the  hands  of  Messrs. 
Cooper,  Hutchings  &  Co.,  who  conducted  the  business  until 
the  early  part  of  1884,  when  the  house  was  moved,  as  above 
noted,  and  Mr.  J.  S.  Lockhart  became  proprietor.  The 
house  now  has  an  area  of  50x273  feet,  is  fully  equipped  and 
is  doing  a  lucrative  business. 



ASSETS    -    -    -    - $1,837,729. 

J.  SOUTHGATE  &  SON,  Agents, 
Durham,  N.  C. 

Blackwell's  Factory.  99 

Tobacco  Factories. 


Tobacco  has  made  Durham  famous  the  world  over.  Her 
celebrated  smoking  tobacco,  because  of  the  superiority  iu 
both  quality  and  texture  of  the  article  from  which  it  is 
manufactured,  is  unequalled  anywhere  on  the  habitable 
<2;lobe.  By  critical  chemical  analysis,  by  the  most  celebrated 
chemist  in  the  world,*  it  has  been  clearl}'  demonstrated 
that  this  tobacco  contains  less  nitrates  and  nicotine  than 
any  other  tobacco  <;rovi'n  in  the  world.  Durham  is  the  bee- 
hive of  North  Carolina,  and  may  be  pertinently  termed  the 
Chicago  of  the  South.  Manufacturiiig  and  mercantile  en- 
terprises are  springing  into  existence  like  magic  on  every 
hand.  Here  the  song  of  human  industiy  and  progress  floats 
upon  the  balmy  bosom  of  every  zephvr,  gladdening  and 
inspiring  the  hearts  of  the  rich  and  the  poor — inspiring 
new  ho[)e  and  energy  in  the  dreary  soul  of  the  humble 
laborer,  wearily  plodding  his  way  in  search  of  a  comfortable 
home.  Here  all  classes  of  honest  and  industrious  mechan- 
ics and  laborers  find  profitable  employment,  kind  friends, 
and  are  surrounded  by  the  most  refined,  educational,  moral 
and  religious  influences  and  advantages.  Durham,  to  day, 
is  an  asylum  for  the  poor,  a   place  where   the  "  wandering 



Analytical  Laboratoky,  11  Salisbury  Square,  Fleet  Street.  E.  C, 

London,  December?,  1876. 
Mr.  .Tohn  Ott,  Sec  etary  Southern  Fertilizing  Company,  Richmond,  Va.: 

Mil  Dear  ffir  :—\on  will  remember  liavinir  sent  me,  some  lime  ago,  a  packet 
of  Tol>acco  loaf,  l:ibelle<l  "  Fancy  Brijrbt  Tobacco,  from  Granville  county.  North 
rarolina,"  which  you  desired  mc  to  analyse.  I  have  now  completed  the  exami- 
nation, and  have  much  pleasure  in  handinjr  you  the  result.s  obtained,  botli  in 
the  analysis  of  th?  organic  and  the  inorganic  parts  of  this  magnificent  Tobacco. 
The  dried  leaf,  wlieu  analyzed,  had  the  following  general  composition  : 

Moisture H.68 

Organic  matter 72.07 

Mineral  mutter  (ash), 13.25 

In  comparing  this  general  statement  with  the  result-s  which  Pro.  Johnson,  of 
Yale  colli'ge.t  obtained  some  years  ago,  in  the  examination  of  a  specimen  of 
Fancy  Krighi  T<il)acci).  from  Granville  county.  X.  C.,you  will  notice  that  whilst 
the  Frof(>ss(>r  found  only  S..V?  per  cent,  of  a.-h."the  sample  you  sent  mecontained 
18.2.")  percent.  Now,  whilst  1  do  not  doubt,  for  a  moment,  the  correctness  of 
I'rof.  .Iohns<iii"s  determination,  I  may  be  allowed  to  say  that.S'4  per  cent,  is  an 

tAnalysis  of  sample  from  crop  1872,  of  E.  E.  Lyon,  Granville  county,  S. 
C:  Sillcia.  0.12  (per  cent.);  Chlorine,  0.20;  Sulphuric  .\cid,0.86;  Phosphoric  Acid, 
0.7;{;  Lime,  2.1);  Magnesia.  I  05;  Potash,  3..54 ;  Soda,  0.09;  Ash,  S.Si;  Organic  mat- 
ter, sand  and  nitric  acid,  01.47;  Nitrogen,  2.S3.  Sample  furnished  by  the  South- 
ern Kcrl  ili/iiii.' ('(impany,  Richmond,  Va. 

100  History  of  Durham. 

Jew" — the  illustrious  cosmopolite,  whose  ancient  prestige 
and  glory,  richly  embellishing  the  ethical  and  aesthetic 
pages  of  history,  though  buried  beneath  the  hoary  locks  of 
time,  yet  wield  a  salutary  influence  upon  the  morals  of  the 
world, — finds  a  peaceful  and  profitable  retreat.  And  the 
extraneous  fame  of  the  town,  as  well  as  its  internal  pros- 
perity and  wonderful  progress,  are  mainly  due  to  the  inde- 
fatigable zeal  and  sagacious  business  abilities  of  those  emi- 
nently worthy  gentlemen — W.  T.  Blackwell  aod  Julian  S. 
Carr — the  founders  of  the  great  manufacturing  enterprise 
which  is  the  subject  of  this  sketch.  These  gentlemen  not 
only  laid  the  foundation  of  Durham's  greatness,  but  are 
still  the  leading  builders,  polishing  and  fitting  stone  after 
stone  in  her  rapidly  towering  temple  of  fame.  Their  en- 
ergies, wisdom  and  money  have  been  freely  and  lavishly 
used  to  preserve  unsullied  her  illustrious  name,  which,  as 
the  very  synon3'm  of  success,  has  been  used  by  foreign  en- 
terprises, detracting  from  her  enviable  reputation  and  pros- 
perity, and  enhancing  the  value  of  the  spurious  products 
of  meaner  marts.  (See  Blackwell  Litigation  cases,  chap,  ii.) 
With  these  introductory  observations,  we  proceed  to  give 
the  reader  a  brief  delineation  of  Blackwell's  Durham  To- 
bacco Co.'s  Factory,  which  is  the  shrine  of  all  pilgrims  to 
Durham,  and  which,  like  Niagara  Falls,  the  Yosmite  Valley 
and  other  extraordinary  objects  of  interest  to  be  seen  in 
this  country,  amply  fills  the  measure  of  its  world-wide 

exceptionally  low  percentage  of  mineral  matter  in  Tobacco  leaves,  for,  in  all  of  the 
recorded  analyses  of  tobacco  which  I  could  lay  hold  of,— analyses  made  in  your 
country  as  well  as  in  others  mado  on  the  Continent,  I  do  not  findaiiy  other  specl- 
nienwliich  yielded  as  little  as  &]4  percent,  of  asli,  and  the  per  ceiitase  which  I  ob- 
tiiined  in  the  sample  you  sent  "me  agrees  better  with  the  average  amount  of 
mineral  matter  in  Tobacco.  The  proportion  of  ash  constituents  in  fobacco, 
however,  I  find  varies  considerably,  and  usually  amouuts  to  over  12  per  cent., 
and  in  some  instances  reaches  to  20  per  cent  in  round  numbers. 

I  have  made  a  complete  analysis  of  the  ash  of  the  sample  you  sent  me,  and 
embody  the  results  in  the  lollowing  tabulated  statement  showing  the  composi- 
tion of  the  Mineral  portion  (ash)  of  a  sample  Fancy  Bright  Tobacco,  grown  in 
Granville  county,  N.  ('.,  and  sent  to  Dr.  Voelclcer,  by  Mr.  ,lohr.  Ott,  Secretary, 
&c.,  of  Richmond  : 

Lime 2^M 

Magnesia, 4  05 

Oxide  of  Iron, wi 

Potash, ; 18.55 

Chloride  of  Potassium, 5.82 

(!^hloride  of  Sodium, 7.17 

Phosphoric  Acid, S.'W 

Sulphuric  Acid, 3.37 

Soluble    Silica,    1':.80 

Fine  Sand 5.72 

Carbonic  Acid  and  Loss, I3.9> 


Blackwell's  Factory.  101 

The  factory  and  its  adjuncts  cover  fifteen  acres  of  ground, 
and  is  the  largest  and  most  attractive  smoking  tobacco  fac- 
tory in  the  world.  It  is  composed  of  brick  and  granite 
stone  equally  combined  and  hnrmoniousl}'  blended.  The 
windows,  which  are  almost  innumerable,  are  set  in  frames 
of  granite,  and  throughout  the  whole' exterior  this  substan- 
tial material  is  seen  ornamenting  and  supporting  the  struc- 

The  factor}^  has  a  frontage  of  200  feet — to  which  another 
100  feet  will  soon  be  added,  as  a  consequence  of  increasing 
business — a  height  of  four  stories,  and  two  connecting 
wings,  each  four  stories  high  and  IGO  feet  in  length.  Within 
the  grounds  are  all  kinds  of  supplementary  structures,  such 
as  storage  houses  for  leaf  tobacco  and  other  things,  print- 
ing establishments,  box-making  factories,  machine  shops, 
lire  apparatus,  etc.  In  addition  to  the  buildings  in  the  en- 
closure, the  Company  have  several  other  large  warehouses 
used  for  storing  leaf.  They  constantly  carry  from  three  to 
five  million  pounds  of  leaf  tobacco  adapted  to  their  require- 

The  factory  is  located  in  the  immediate  country  known 
as  "The  Golden  Belt,"  or  bright  tobacco  region,  which  pro- 
duces a  grade  of  tobacco  that  in  texture,  flavor  and  quality 
is  not  equaled  elsewhere.  The  popularity  of  their  goods  is 
limited  only  by  the  quantity  produced,  and  they  are  in  a 
position  to  command  the  choice  of  all  offerings  upon  our 

Deducting  Sand  and  Carbonic  Acid,  and  the  composition  of  the  pure  Tobacco 
Is  as  follows  ; 

Lime, 29.12 

aiagnesia 5.04 

Oxide  of  Iron, 1.01 

Potiish,  „ 23.09 

Chloride  of  Potassium, „    7.2.5 

Chloride  Sodium, 8.93 

Phosplioric  Acid, 4.18 

Sulphuric  Acid, '. 4.bJ 

Soluble  Silicia,...-. 17.19 


I  find  merely  traces  of  nitrates  in  the  Fancy  Bright  Tobacco,  -which,  perhaps, 
is  one  of  the  reasons  why  this  Tobacco  has  a  very  mild  taste;  for,  in  all  biting, 
strong  Tobaccos,  I  find  invariably  nitrates  are  present  in  considerable  propor- 

Another,  and  still  more  Important  fact,  which  an  investigation  has  brought  to 
light,  is  tliat  the  Granville  county  Tobacco  you  sent  me  contains  little  nicotine, 
which  I  am  inclined  tu  regard  as  a  good  feature  of  this  kind  of  Tobacco.  In 
coarse,  strong  Tobaccos,  notably  the  inferior  Tobaccos  grown  in  the  Palatinate 
(Bavaria),  and  some  of  the  coarse  (liighlj-  manured)  Virgina  Tobaccos,  tliey  are 
found  to  contain  much  more  nicotine,  some  as  liigh  as  three  or  four  times  as 
much  as  I  find  in  the  "  Fancy  Bright." 

102  History  of  Durham. 

market,  thus  securing  to  the  trade  the  very  best.  Millions 
have  used  and  still  use  this  celebrated  smoking  tobacco,  who 
give  little  thought  to  its  manner  of  preparation,  or  the  vast 
dmountof  capital,  skill  and  energy  requisite  to  successfully 
manufacture  wliat  is  now  known,  ifrom  the  unique  and  orig- 
inal way  of  advertising  in  all  parts  of  the  habitable  globe. 
Who  has  not  seen  the  trade  mark  of  the  bull? — the  right  to 
use  which  has  been  awarded  solely  to  this  establishment  by 
the  United  States  Courts,  thereby  protecting  the  firm  in 
what  they  originated,  and  under  which  brand  their  fame 
has  become  absolute.  All  attempts  at  imitation  have  failed. 
Tl;e  goods  put  on  the  market  possess  a  charming  flavor  that 
no  one  can  even  imitate;  and  the  smoker  at  once  recognizes 
the  genuine  article. 

This  factory  has  been  one  of  the  most  potent  instrumen- 
talities in  the  building  up  of  Durham.  The  vast  amount  of 
money  it  distributes  finds  lodgment  in  the  hands  of  all 
classes,  and  is  an  ever  unfailing  source  of  revenue  to  the 
town.  So  much  for  its  home  benefits,  and  now  as  to  the 
world :  The  old  brands  of  smoking  tobacco  have  disap- 
peared from  the  marts  of  commerce,  and  in  their  stead  is 
the  celebrated  granulated  tobacco  manufactured  by  this 
firm,  and  possessing  a  superiority  born  of  the  result  of  pa- 

The  following  table  shows  the  detailed  composition  of  the  sample  of  Fancy 
Bright  Granville  county  Tobacco,  sent  by  Mr.  John  Ott,  Secretary,  &c.,  and  ana- 
lysed by  Dr.  Voelcker : 

Moisture, 14.68 

*Gum,  extractive  matters,  and  other  substances,  soluble  in  water,  36.17 

Mineral  matters,  soluble  in  water, 8.92 

Nicotine 1.30 

'    Resinous  compounds.  Oil  and  other  constituents,  solublein  ether 

and  alcohol, „  6.68 

(  Digestible  woody  fibre, 14.43 

jf\  Indigestible  woody  fibre  (pure  cellulose) 12.42 

(  Mineral  matter,  insoluble  in  water, 4.33=  32.18 


♦Containing  Nitrogen .47 

fNitrogen  in  portion  insoluble  in  water, .44 

Total  per  centage  of  Nitrogen, .91 

In  other  recorded  Tobacco  analyses,  I  find  the  proportion  of  nitrogen  is  given 
much  higher;  and  for  this  reason  I  was  particularly  anxious  to  verify  my  re- 
sults by  repeated  determinations,  which  closely  agreed  in  the  second  decimals, 
and  leave  no  doubt  in  my  mind  that  the  Fancy  Bright  Granville  Tobacco  con- 
tains a  comparatively  very  small  amount  of  nitrogenous  (albuminous)  com- 
pounds. Perhaps  tliis  explains  the  delicate  flavor  of  the  Tobacco  smoke  of  this 
kind  of  Tobacco;  for  it  is  well  known  that  albuminous  and  other  nitrogenous 
compounds,  when  largely  present  in  materials  submitted  to  dry  distillation 
(and  smoking  is  a  familiar  illustration  of  destructive  dry  distillation)  give  off 
disagreeable-smelling  ammoniacal  vapours,  reminding  one  moreor  less  of  singed 
feathers  or  burnt  horn.    Be  this  as  it  may,  the  Fancy  Bright  Granville  county 

Blackwell's  Factory.  103 

tient  investigation^  experience  and  vast  outlays  of  capital. 
It  is  now  recognized  throughout  the  world,  and  most  de- 
servedly so. 

We  have  visited  many  huge  concerns  in  our  time,  but 
this  stands  pre-eminently  first  as  the  most  complete  in  all  its 
appointments  we  have  ever  seen,  and  we  question  if  its 
equal — no  matter  to  what  purpose  devoted — can  be  found 
in  this  country  or  any  other.  There  is  not  a  detail  con- 
nected with  the  business  but  what  is  covered,  and  the  entire 
establishment  is  a  vast  hive  of  industry.  The  history  of  this 
establishment  at  its  conception  is  patent  to  multitudes; 
hence  we  only  say  that  in  18G5,  Mr.  J.  R.  Green  was  manu- 
facturing tobacco  at  Durham  station.  He  was  joined  by 
Mr.  W.  T.  Blackwell  and  J.  R.  Day  in  1868,  but  soon  there- 
after his  death  occurred  and  his  interest  was  purchased  by 
the  gentlemen  named  above.  In  1870  Mr.  Julian  S.  Carp, 
of  Chapel  Hill,  N.  C,  was  admitted  to  the  firm,  and  from 
that  time  the  business  and  the  town  began  to  thrive.  A  few 
years  after  Mr.  Day  retired,  and  in  January,  1883,  Mr. 
Blackwell  sold  out  his  interest,  thus  leaving  Mr.  Carr  alone. 

Tobacco  certainly  Is  one  of  the  finest  flavoured,  mild  Tobaccos  I  ever  smoked 
and  It  is  certainly  a  fact  that  it  is  poor  both  in  nicotine  and  albuminous  com 
pounds,  which  I  am  inclined  to  regard  as  a  good  and  distinguished  characteris- 
tic of  delicate  flavoured  mild  Tobaccos. 

How  variable  the  proportions  of  nitrogen  and  ash  are  in  Tobacco,  you  ■will 
notice  in  the  following  determinations  which  I  made  of  three  other  samples  of 
(prepared)  Tobacco  which  you  liiudly  sent  me: 

Percentage  of  Nitrogen  and  Ash  in  three  apecimens  of  Tobacco,  dried  at  212° 

Percentage  of  Nitrogen.    Percentage  of  Ash. 

"Lone  Jack"  Tobacco 1.65  li.% 

"Perfection  Straight  Cut  Matcli- 

less  Cavendish,"  prepared  by 

J.  F.  Allen  &  Co.,  Richmond,  1.68  16.48 

Louisiana  "  Perique  "  Tobacco, 

grown  in  St.  James  Parish 

(crop  of  1872), 3.(M  20.55 

You  will  observe  that  the  strong  Perique  Tobacco  is  much  richer  In  nitrogen 
and  ash  than  the  milder  kinds. 

Of  course,  I  merely  throw  oui,  byway  of  suggestion,  that  delicate  flavoured 
mild  Tobacco  is  likely  to  be  found  always  poor  in  nitrogen.  An  extended  series 
of  analyses  alone  would  be  required  to  establish  this  point.  If  my  engagements 
permitted  it,  I  should  feel  much  interested  in  following  up  this  line  of  investi- 
gation, but  I  have  my  hands  so  full  of  work,  and  the  subject  of  Tobacco-growth 
is  of  no  Immediate  interest  to  British  agriculturists,  that  I  am  obliged  to  leave 
so  important  and  interesting  a  work  as  that  of  a  thorough  Tobacco  investigation., 
to  others  more  favorably  situated  than  I  am. 

Believe  me,  my  dear  sir,  yours  faithfully, 

104  History  op  Durham. 

On  the  24tb  of  January,  1883,  Blackwell's  Durham  Tobacco 
Company  was  chartered,  with  an  authorized  capital  of  $1,- 
000,000  and  a  paid  up  capital  of  $500,000.  Mr.  Julian  S. 
Carr  is  the  President;  M.  E  McDowell,  Vice-President,  and 
J,  A.  McDowell,  Secretary  and  Treasurer.  All  the  rights 
belonging  to  the  business  are  now  the  property  of  the  pres- 
ent company;  and  dealers  will  be  protected  every  way  as 
heretofore.  This  house  does  business  with  wholesale  dealers 
only,  and  have  their  representatives  everywhere,  both  in 
this  and  foreign  countries. 

On  the  Main  Front  are  two  pictures  of  a  magnificent  Dur- 
ham bull,  well  executed,  which  engrosses  the  attention  of 
all.  An  interesting  feature,  also,  of  this  establishment  is  a 
steam  whistle,  so  constructed  that  it  imitates  the  bellow  of 
a  bull.  The  imitation  is  so  perfect  that  a  stranger  would 
be  slow  to  detect  the  deception.  It  is  said  that  it  costs  $6 
each  time  tins  bull  whistle  bellows.  It  can  be  heard  a  dis- 
tance of  thirteen  miles. 

A  short  time  since  it  became  necessary  to  enlarge,  and 
two  L's  were  built,  160x40,  five  stories  high.  The  only  way 
to  realize  the  stupendous  magnitude  of  these  buildings  is  to 
view  them  from  the  rear.  There  are  two  engines,  one  of  75 
horse-power  and  one  of  40,  supplied  by  a  battery  of  four 
boilers  of  21G  horse-power.  The  boilers  are  fed  with  wood 
now,  but  soon  only  coal  will  be  used.  A  switch  runs  from 
the  main  track  of  the  railroad,  on  which  stands  the  cars  to 
be  loaded,  directly  in  front  of  the  salesroom.  The  company 
is  shipping  about  25,000  pounds  a  day,  running  to  the  full 
capacity  of  the  stamping  room  ;  and  this  year  they  intend 
to  ship  5,000,000  pounds,  being  two  and  a  half  million  more 
than  ever  heretofore,  thus  exemplifying  the  wonderful  rep- 
utation of  the  tobacco  and  the  immense  increasing  demand. 
Some  idea  of  their  great  business  for  the  past  four  years  can 
be  gathered  from  the  fact  that  in  that  time  they  paid  to  the 
government  $2,076,665.81  for  stamps  on  their  genuine  bull 
Durham  tobacco,  and  this  does  not  include  the  amount  paid 
on  cigarettes.  This  is  about  $44,000  per  month  on  the 
average.  Truly  a  most  remarkable  showing,  and  one  that 
cannot  be  denied,  as  it  is  taken  from  the  books  of  the  gov- 
ernment officer.  In  1881  this  firm  paid  $645,591.33  of  a 
total  of  $727,269.54.  This  shows  most  plainly  the  verdict 
of  the  public ;  and  if  their  goods  are  not  popular,  reliable 
and  standard,  why  should  an  unprejudiced  public  use  eight 

Blackwell's  Factory. 


times  as  much  of  them  as  all  the  rest  combined  ?  Facts  are 
stubborn  things,  and  herein  are  they  exemplified.  About 
1,000  cases  of  25  pounds  each  are  shipped  daily,  with  20,000 
pounds  allowed  to  a  car  load,  and  these  shipments  are  des- 
tined to  all  parts  of  the  world.  They  employ  altogether 
nearly  1,000  hands,  GS5  of  whom  are  in  the  factory  and  250 
outside,  engaged  in  manufacturing  the  various  sizes  of  bags 
in  which  the  tobacco  is  packed. 

Those  emplo3'ed  in  the  factory  are  systematically  classi- 
fied and  distributed  as  follows: 


A — Mixing  and  Shipping, 
B — Handling  Leaf, 
D— Cutting  Leaf, 
E — Stamping,  Labeling,  etc., 
F — Flavoring  and  Packing, 
G — Cigarette  Factory, 
H — Cutting,  etc.,  of  Long  Cut, 
I — Engines,  Machinery,  etc., 
J — Wooden  Box  Factory, 
K — Paper  Box  Factory, 
L— Printing  Office, 
N— Stables,  Mills,  Watch- 
men, etc., 
Outside  Work, 



G.  W.  Burch, 


J.  M.  Blackwood, 


J.  U.  Goodwin, 


Z.  M.  Pearman, 


Geo.  C.  Scruggs, 
W.  T.  Speed, 
C.  J.  O'Brien, 




W.  H.  Hanks, 


R.  W.  Denny, 
J.  C.  Rogers, 


C.  D.  Whitaker, 


M.  C.  McCown. 


Tobacco  Sack  Makers,  etc., 


Total  number  of  hands  employed, 


The  company  use  over  110,000  yards  of  cloth  a  month  for 
this  purpose,  or  a  total,  probably,  of  1,400,000  yards  per 
annum,  representing  about  one-fourth  of  the  annual  pro- 
duction of  the  celebrated  Augusta  Factory  of  Georgia. 

On  the  first  floor  are  the  offices,  and  they  are  elaborately 
furnished  with  all  modeVn  appliances  to  simplify  and  save 
time.  The  walls  are  hung  with  the  various  diplomas,  med- 
als, etc.,  awarded  the  bull  brand  of  tobacco,  embracing  such 
from  all  parts  of  the  world,  even  including  New  Zealand, 
while  the  numerous  chromos,  paintings  and  lithographs  that 
are  conversant  to  the  public  at  large,  are  also  displayed. 
Adjoining  is  the  salesroom,  filled  with  goods  ready  to  ship. 
A  most  complete  vault  is  attached  to  the  chashier's  depart- 
ment, having  an  outer  wall  four  feet  thick,  with  two  stone 
walls  and  one  of  brick  twelve  inches  each,  and  two  double 

106  History  of  Durham. 

six-inch  air  chambers.  It  is  fifteen  feet  high  and  12x15, 
with  double  doors.  The  arrangements  throughout  the  build- 
ings for  protection  against  fire  are  very  perfect.  Two 
chemical  engines  outside,  and  fort3'-five  tanks  holding  1,000 
gallons  each,  are  located  at  the  top  of  the  edifice  inside,  with 
pipe  and  hose  leading  to  every  floor.  In  the  rear  grounds 
another  very  large  tank  has  been  erected,  which  contains 
many  thousand  gallons,  accessible  by  pipes  to  all  parts  of 
the  premises.  Also  barrels  of  water,  all  headed  up,  but 
with  mallets  ready,  buckets,  axes  and  iron  doors  on  each 
floor,  form  quite  valuable  assistants.  There  are  elevators  at 
each  end  of  the  building,  which  are  in  constant  use. 

The  second  floor  is  the  stamping  department,  and  here 
can  be  seen  the  numerous  bags  receiving  their  labels,  stamps, 
cautionary  notices,  etc  ,  put  on  in  the  most  rapid  manner  by 
negro  boj^s.  This  room  is  a  curiosity,  the  work  being  so 
deftly  executed.  In  other  rooms  is  put  up  their  celebrated 
"  Durham  Long  Cut,"  in  silver  paper  and  tin-foil  packages, 
and  elaborately  embellished.  For  cigarette  and  pipesmoking, 
it  is  superior  to  any  tobacco  made  in  the  world,  and  is  manu- 
factured from  pure  leaf,  free  from  nitrates  and  narcotics. 
The  cigars  that  the  late  Emperor  of  France,*  Louis  Napoleon, 
smoked,  and  which  cost  one  dollar  each  in  Havana,  were 
made  from  the  same  leaf  that  is  now  used  in  Blackwell's 
Durham  Long  Cut  and  Blackwell's  Durham  cigarettes.  It 
is  identical.  Prof.  Horsford,  when  in  Cuba,  procured  some 
of  the  same  cigars,  and  there  learned  that  thej'  were  made 
from  leaf  grown  in  North  Carolina,  and  in  the  section  where 
this  factory  is  situated.  The  manufacturer  of  the  Napoleon 
cigars'  remarked  that  it  was  impossible  to  make  any  better 
goods,  and  no  other  leaf  would  equal  that  used  for  the 

The  machinery  used  is  of  the  latest  and  most  perfect  con- 
struction. There  are  two  pasting  machines,  the  invention 
of  one  of  the  superintendents,  that  do  the  work  as  fast  as 
the  speed  of  the  hand  allows.  They  are  small  machines 
run  by  steaim,  as  is  all  the  machinery  employed.  There 
is  also  a  machine  for  printing  labels  on  bags  and  on  wood. 

«XoTE.— In  reply  to  a  direct  question  as  to  the  trsth  of  this  claim,  put  by  a  rep- 
resentative of  the  U.  S.  Tobacco  Journal,  :Mr.  Carr  said: 

"  Well,  that's  a  leading  question;  I  don't  suppose  I  am  capable  of  judging  In 
the  matter.  Professor  Horsford  is  an  authority  on  the  subject,  and  I  have  his 
word  for  it  that  the  cigars  he  procured  in  Havana  were  made  of  North  Carolina 
bright  tobacco." 

Black  well's  Factory.  107 

A  nailing  machine,  by  the  aid  of  which  a  man  will  nail 
1,000  boxes  a  da}',  is  employed.  There  are  two  Pease  To- 
bacco Cutters  that  make  1,400  revolutions  a  minute,  with 
twenty  Granulating  Tobacco  Cutters,  all  of  the  best.  There 
are  also  Separators  and  Bolters  used,  similar  to  flour  mills, 
with  drying  rooms  on  each  floor,  one  of  which  is  85x40  feet, 
in  which  hundreds  of  trays  are  used.  It  will  be  seen  that 
everything  that  enters  into  the  manufacture  of  tobacco  is 
of  the  very  best  and  bought  solely  with  the  idea  of  enhan- 
cing the  value  of  the  bull  brand  of  tobacco.  The  room 
devoted  to  the  packing  department  contains  seventeen 
presses,  worked  by  five  hands  to  a  machine,  which  produce 
7,200  bags  each  a  day.  They  are  run  by  steam,  and  are  the 
invention  of  a  Durhamite,  and  considered  the  most  complete 
ever  invented.  They  certainly  do  the  work  most  expedi- 
tiously. Every  package  of  tobacco  or  cigarettes  is  carefully 
inspected,  and  nothing  leaves  the  factory  of  a  poor  quality 
or  condition,  hence  its  wonderful  reputation. 

An  interesting  feature  of  the  business  is  the  great  artesian 
well,  which  is  1,750  feet  deep.  The  object  in  view  in  boring 
out  this  subterraneous  passage  is  to  strike  sea  level,  in  order 
to  secure  a  more  bountiful  suppl}''  of  water,  the  ordinary 
wells  being  inadequate  to  furnish  the  necessary  supply  du- 
ring the  summer  months.  The  company  are  often  compelled 
to  haul  water,  at  considerable  expense,  from  other  localities. 
The  engines  and  boilers  are  first-class  and  of  large  size. 
There  are  two  elevators  in  the  factory.  The  heating,  lighting 
and  ventilating  provisions  of  the  premises  are,  as  may 
readily  be  imagined,  as  perfect  as  it  is  possible  to  make  them. 

The  company  uses  two  barrels  of  the  best  New  England 
rum,  or  eighty  gallons  a  day,  together  with  the  tonka  bean 
and  other  aromatics,  the  secret  of  their  preparation  being 
known  only  to  the  firm.  The  aroma  known  as  the  bull 
Durham  flavor  is  thus  preserved,  that  probably  other  manu- 
facturers would  give  thousands  of  dollars  to  learn.  The 
cigarette  department  is  unable  to  keep  up  with  orders,  owing 
to  the  difficulty  of  procuring  the  right  kind  of  labor.  Ail 
such  now  employed  in  this  department  were  educated  by 
the  firm  ;  and  they  produce  what  is  known  as  the  Durham 
cigarette,  nicely  put  up  and  in  great  demand. 

At  the  rear  end  of  the  left  wine:,  on  the  fourth  floor,  is  a 
drying  room  with  a  capacity  of  40,000  pounds.  In  this 
compartment   this   large  quantity  may  be  dried  iu  a  few 


108  History  of  Durham. 

hours.  On  the  same  floor,  at  the  front,  the  "  Genuine  Dur- 
ham Smokii^g  Tobacco"  is  seen  unpacked.  With  the  ex- 
ception of  the  drying  department  just  referred  to,  this  entire 
floor,  front  and  both  wings,  is  filled  with  granulated  tobacco 
ready  for  packing  processes.  In  this  vast  space  almost  a 
million  pounds  are  distributed,  and  in  looking  at  the  tow- 
ering heaps  an  observer  is  reminded  of  mountains  of  shining 
gold.  The  sight  is  a  beautiful  and  unequalled  one.  After 
viewing  it  one  no  longer  wonders  how  it  is  that  the  "Genu- 
ine Durham  Smoking  Tobacco"  has  sellers  and  buyers  in 
every  little  and  big  tobacco  establishment  throughout  the 
world.  The  factory  has  the  facilities  for  supplying  the  uni- 
versal demand,  and  the  tobacco  is  distributed  with  as  much 
skill  as  it  is  manufactured. 

The  cutting  room  is  on  the  first  floor  of  the  left  wing, 
where  twelve  and  sometimes  fourteen  cutting  machines  are 
in  continual  daily  operation.  In  the  basement  of  the  same 
floor  is  a  compartment  where  the  iron  hoops  used  to  bind 
cases  of  goods  are  punched.  Next  to  it  is  a  machine  shop, 
where  the  machinery  of  the  factory  is  repaired.  A  grist 
mill  adjoins;  and  beyond  is  a  paper  box  factory,  in  which 
all  the  pasteboard  boxes  used  in  the  factory  are  made.  Over 
this  is  the  printing  establishment,  in  which  every  variet}^ 
of  printing,  plain,  gilt  and  in  colors,  seen  on  the  goods 
emanating  from  this  factory,  including  bands  and  labels, 
large  and  small,  is  effected.  Adjacent  is  a  planing  and  box- 
making  shop. 

In  conclusion,  to  give  some  idea  of  the  immensity  of  this 
establishment,  we  subjoin  a  few  facts  and  figures  from  the 
President,  Julian  S.  Carr,  Esq.,  in  the  form  of  an  interview  : 

"  I  want  to  know  something  about  the  methods  which  has 
made  Bull  Durham  the  popular  brand  of  smoking  tobacco." 

'•  Having  a  good  thing,  we  have  extensively  advertised  it." 

"You  believe  in  extensive  advertising." 

"  Yes,  sir;  as  long  as  I  have  a  dollar  to  spare,  I  will  in- 
vest it  in  advertising." 

"  How  much  do  you  spend  annually  in  that  way?" 

"  You  can  see  for  yourself.  Here  is  a  contract  for  adver- 
tising in  country  newspapers." 

The  contract  dated  September  27,  was  made  with  N.  W. 
Ayer  &  Son,  advertising  agents  of  Philadelphia,  and  the 
amount  was  $100,000. 

"  With  the  large  dailies,"  continued  Mr.  Carr,  "  we  make 

Blackwell's  Factory.  109 

special  contracts,  amounting  this  year  to  about  850,000. 
That  will  make  ^150,000.  Our  clocks  wliich  have  made  a 
hit  cost  us  W.OOO.  That  is  §210,000.  Now,  in  addition  to 
this,  we  have  four  gangs  of  painters  working  through  (lie 
country.  One  gang  is  following  the  railroads  through  the 
South  to  New  Orleans  and  Texas,  and  later  on  to  Mexico, 
One  gang  is  painting  from  New  York  to  Washington,  and 
later  on  will  go  to  New  England.  Another  gang  is  at  work 
between  New  York  and  Philadelphia,  on  the  Pennsylvania 
and  Bound  Brook  railroads.  The  fourth  gang  has  started 
from  Chicago,  and  will  paint  all  through  the  West  and  over 
the  Northern  Pacific  Railroad  clear  to  Seattle,  Washington 
Territory.  This  work  is  partly  done  by  contract  and  partly 
by  hiring  men  by  the  day.  We  have  one  man  who  has 
made  a  great  reputation  as  a  painter.  His  real  name  is  .J. 
Gilmer  Kerner,  of  Kernersville,  this  State.  His  artist  vjom 
dc  7)^a7ne  is  Reuben  Rink.  Reuben  Rink's  bulls  are  noted 
for  their  fire  and  spirit.  You  see  ordinary  signs  are  played 
out.  We  have  to  have  something  striking.  Every  sign  that 
Reuben  Rink  paints  creates  a  sensation.  They  are  generally 
80x150  feet  in  size,  and  the  papers  in  the  small  town  do  not 
fail  to  criticise  their  artistic  merits.  We  receive  a  record 
every  day  from  the  painters  in  our  direct  employ,  showing' 
what  they  have  daily  performed.  We  have  covered  every 
State  in  the  Union,  Manitoba  and  part  of  Canada,  but  we 
have  to  go  over  the  work  every  two  years.  We  lose  money 
unless  we  keep  the  signs  fresh.  You  can  make  your  own 
estimate  of  what  this  all  costs." 

During  the  year  1883  the  Company  manufactured  into 
smoking  tobacco  and  cigarettes  about  5,000,000  pounds  of 
tobacco, as  follows: 

Genuine  Bull  Durham,  4,371,032  pounds. 

Banner  Durham,  296,905        " 

Blackwell's  Long  Cut  Durham,  25,207        " 

Durham  Long  Cut,  43,400 

Total,  4,737,250 

Number  of  Cigarettes,  14,407,200. 

Having  served  as  manager  of  one  of  the  departments  in 
this  factory  for  several  months,  and  having  on  all  occasions 
received  such  marked  courtesy  and  kind  consideration  irom 
its  President  and  his  corps  of  efficient  lieutenants,  the  writer 

110  History  of  Durham. 

cannot  justify  himself  in  taking  leave  of  the  subject  without 
tendering  his  most  grateful  acknowledgments.  While  he 
does  not  intend  any  invidious  discrimination,  he  would 
acknowledge  the  kind  offices  of  Mr.  H.  N.  Snow%  especially, 
in  valuable  assistance  cheerfully  rendered  him  in  the  col- 
lection of  statistics  and  other  important  data.  This  gentle- 
man is  Mr.  Carr's  private  secretary',  and  is  one  of  the  most 
industriou.^,  sapient  and  affable  business  men  connected 
with  the  factory. 

M.    E.    m'dOWELL  &  CO. — PHILADELPHIA. 

This  firm,  although  not  residents  of  Durham,  are  so  inti- 
mately connec-ted  with  its  tobacco  interests  as  to  deserve 
mention,  forming  as  they  do  quite  a  financial  desideratum 
in  the  prosperity  of  our  people.  They  are  the  sole  agents,  in 
Philadelphia,  of  Bhtckwell's  Durham  Tobacco  Company, 
and,  as  is  well  known,  have  ample  and  unequalled  facilities 
for  the  distribution  of  their  goods  throughout  the  country 
and  the  world.  They  have  large  capital,  and  have  business 
connections  in  all  the  principal  cities  and  towns  in  the 
United  States  and  Europe.  Their  export  trade  is  constantly 
augmenting,  and  their  domestic  business  embraces  all  the 
United  States  and  Territories.  Tiiey  have  purchased,  altered 
and  superbly  embellished  a  large  brown-stone  warehouse  in 
Chesnut  street,  Philadelphia,  in  which  a  large  portion  of 
their  rapidly  increasing  business  is  transacted.  This  acqui- 
sition, together  with  their  other  warehouse  in  the  same  city 
and  their  large  branch-houses  in  New  York,  Chicago  and 
other  places,  enable  them  to  place  the  goods  they  handle  as 
fast  as  they  can  be  manufactured. 

W.  DUKE   SONS  &  CO. 

This  is  one  of  the  largest  smoking  tobacco  and  cigarette 
factories  in  America,  and  the  goods  produced  are  of  a  supe- 
rior quality  and  elicit  ready  reception  wherever  introduced. 
This  manufacturing  enterprise  has  grown  up  into  gigantic 
proportions  in  a  remarkably  short  space  of  time  and  from 
very  unpretentious  beginnings.  Mr.  W.  Duke  came  out  of 
the  late  civil  war,  like  thousands  of  others,  an  almost  bank- 
rupt, the  only  property  surviving  the  devastation  of"  grim- 
visaged  war"  being  a  wagon  and  pair  of  mules.  With  these 

Duke's  Factory.  Ill 

he  began  an  itinerant  tobacco  traffic.  By  dint  of. indefati- 
gable energy  and  keen  business  sagacity  he  wrung  success 
from  the  very  jaws  of  adversity,  and  was  enabled  in  the  fall 
of  1865  to  engage  in  the  manufacture  of  smoking  tobacco  in 
the  vicinity  of  Durham,  and  soon  moved  his  business  into 
the  town.  Since  this  transfer  of  localit}'  his  business  has  so 
rapidly  expanded  as  to  require  increased  facilities,  from  time 
to  time,  until  now,  when  his  new  four-story  brick  factory — 
which  will  front  184  feet  on  R.  R.  street,  running  84  feet 
back,  containing  40,000  square  feet  of  floorage — shall  have 
been  completed,  it  will  be  one  of  the  largest  smoking  to- 
bacco and  cigarette  enterprises  in  the  United  States.  In 
1878  he  took  into  copartnership  three  enterprising  and  ex- 
perienced members  of  his  family,  and  now  occupy  two  large 
wood  buildings  for  manufacturing  purposes, — one  for  smok- 
ing tobacco,  shipping  rooms,  offices,  etc.,  three  stories  high, 
70  feet  long,  with  a  frontage  of  80  feet,  the  other  being  used 
principally  for  the  manufacture  of  their  deservedly  popular 
cigarettes,  known  as  "  The  Duke  of  Durham."  This  building 
also  contains  a  superbly  equipped  job  printing  office,  where 
the  company's  printing  is  most  artistically  and  expedi- 
ciouly  executed,  under  the  supervision  of  an  experienced 
printer,  Mr.  John  T.  Britt,  assisted  by  a  corps  of  gentle- 
manly and  thoroughly  competent  compositors.  On  the 
premises  are  several  other  buildings — box  shops,  engine 
house,  and  (recently  erected)  a  very  large  four  story  storage 
house.  The  trade  of  this  house  extends  throuahout  the 
United  States,  and  large  shipments  are  made  to  sixteen  for- 
eign countries.  The  stock  used  is  bought  on  the  Durham 
market,  and  is  the  finest  tobacco  for  the  purpose  grown  in 
any  country. 

This  firm  commenced  the  manufacture  of  cigarettes  in 
1881.  There  being  several  brands  of  very  excellent  ciga- 
rettes on  the  market,  popular  prejudice,  to  a  large  extent, 
had  to  be  combatted  and  supplanted.  Keenly  alive  to  the 
importance  of  these  as  well  as  other  difficulties  which  inevi- 
tably and  formidably  confront  the  introduction  of  "anew 
thing,"  these  gentlemen  wisely  determined  that  the  only 
medium  of  successful  competition  consisted  in  the  use  only 
of  the  very  best  material  on  the  market,  and  hence  the  to- 
bacco used  is  selected  with  the  most  scru[)ulous  care.  Their 
"  Duke  of  Durham  "  cigarettes  have  elicited  such  grjat  pop- 
ularity and  increasing  demand  in  this  and  foreign  coun- 

112  History  of  Durham. 

tries,  as  to  necessitate  greatl}'  enhanced  manufacturing  fa-, 
cilities;  hence  the  pending  erection  of  their  new  brick  fac- 
tory. It  now  requires  the  manufacture  of  250,000  cigarettes 
per  day  :o  supply  tlie  constantly  augmenting  demand.  The 
new  building  will  be  amply  furnished  with  all  the  modern 
and  most  approved  appurtenances  and  conveniences  em- 
ployed in  the  manufacture  of  smoking  tobacco  and  ciga- 
rettes. The  enviable  reputation  of  this  enterprising  firm, 
achieved  through  assiduous  application  to  business,  in  all 
its  ramifications,  permeated  by  a  sincere  desire  not  only  to 
please  their  customers,  but  by  a  pertinacious  determination 
to  produce  goods  that  will  bear  the  most  hypercritical  anal- 
ysis and  stand  upon  their  intrinsic  merits  alone,  is  a  suffi- 
cient guaranty  to  the  smoking  public  that  W.  Duke,  Sons 
&  Co.  do  not  intend  in  future  to  be  excelled  in  any  of  the 
details  constituting  a  pleasant,  healthful  and  uniform  quality 
of  goods. 

While  Mr.  Duke  was  nominated  for  State  Treasurer  by 
the  present  political  amalgamation,  known  as  the  Anti- 
Prohibition-Republican  Party,  he  is  nevertheless  an  in- 
veterate opponent  of  the  Whiskey  Traffic.  He  is  a  true  and 
tried  Republican  upon  republican  principles — the  principles 
which  have  endeared  that  party  to  the  hearts  of  the  people 
for  twenty  years,  and  is  one  of  those  pure  patriots  who  have 
worked  earnestly  to  preserve  ils  escutcheon  undefiled.  Tiie 
Chronicle  in  speaking  of  his  nomination,  says  :  "  Mr.  Duke 
is  the  father  of  the  famous  and  enterprising  tobacco  and  cig- 
arette manufacturing  firm  which  bears  his  name — W. 
Duke  Sons  &  Co.,  of  Durham.  He  is  between  fifty  and  sixty 
years  of  age,  a  vigorous,  well  preserved  man,  a  man  wlio 
has  led  an  industrious  and  successful  life,  and  been  highly 
esteemed  by  all  who  have  known  him.  He  has  trained  his 
sons  10  be  business  men  of  uncommon  ability  and  enter- 
prise, as  their  gigantic  success  demonstrates.  A  man  that 
has  such  a  record  in  private  life  is,  of  course,  worthy  of  the 
confidence  of  the  public,  and  the  Republicans  could  not 
have  nominated  a  man  in  their  party  in  whose  integrity  the 
people  would  have  greater  confidence.  Mr.  Duke  has  had 
no  political  experience  and  no  experience  of  any  kind  in 
public  affairs.  He  has  never  been  a  politician,  and  though 
he  is  a  staunch  Republican,  it  is  well  understood  that  he 
preferred  to  be  left  off  the  ticket  and  will  take  no  active  in- 
terest in  the  campaign." 

Morris  &  Son  Manufacturing  Co.  11; 

THE   R.    F.    morris   &   SON    MANUFACTURING    CO. 

Robert  F.  Morris,  the  founder  of  this  enteprise,  was  one  of 
the  earliest  settlers  at  Durham,  removing  here  from  Gran- 
ville county  in  1858.  Ho  was  the  pioneer  in  the  tobacco 
business  at  Durham,  and  did  much  towards  building  up 
the  town  and  making  it  a  tobacco  market. 

Prior  to  the  late  war,  he  set  his  son  (G.  B.  Morris)  up  in 
the  smoking  tobacco  business,  in  company  with  a  Mr. 
Wright;  and  during  the  war  Mr.  Morris  manufactured  to- 
bacco himself,  but  before  the  close  of  it  he  and  Morris  &, 
Wright  sold  out  to  Mr.  J.  R.  Green.  Early  in  1865  he  put 
up  another  factory  and  began  the  manufacture  of  the  cele- 
brated "Spanish  Flavored  Eureka  Smoking  Tobacco,"  which 
gave  notoriety  and  popularity  to  the  Durham  tobacco,  and 
up  to  within  two  or  three  years  of  his  death,  which  occurred 
in  1872,  this  was  one  of  the  leading  brands  of  tubacco  manu- 
factured at  Durham. 

Mr.  Morris  entertained  the  idea  that  Durham  was  one  da}' 
to  be  a  large  and  flourishing  town  ;  and,  incited  by  this  idea, 
he  invested  largely  in  real  estate  in  the  future  Chicago  of 
the  South.  In  consequence  of  his  real  estate  investuients, 
he  cramped  his  tobacco  business,  which  was  rapidly  growintr. 
There  was  nothing  selfish  in  his  nature,  but  he  felt  a  great 
pride  in  seeing  Durham  grow  and  prosper.  He  was  gener- 
ous to  all. 

Mr.  Morris  did  not  live  long  enough  to  see  his  pre-con- 
ceived  ideas  of  Durham's  greatness  fulfilled,  as  it  has  been 
within  the  past  seven  or  eight  years  that  she  has  made  her 
greatest  progress  and  developed  into  a  young  city  and  a 
great  tobacco  mart. 

The  R.  F.  Morris  &  Son  Manufacturing  Co.,  of  which  W. 
H.  Willard  is  president,  and  S.  F.  Touilinson,  Secretary  and 
Treasurer,  are  the  successors  of  R.  F.  Morris  &  Son,  and 
under  their  supervision  the  "Eureka  Durham"  has  sus- 
tained its  high  reputation  as  a  smoker,  helping  to  give  the 
smoking  tobaccos  of  Durham  a  world-wide  reputation. 

Their  brands  continue  to  grow  in  favor  and  their  busi- 
ness is  annually  on  the  increase.  Besides  the  celebrated 
"Eureka  Durham"  they  manufacture  the  "Bear"  and 
"  Gold  Leaf  Durham  ;"  the  latter  being  of  a  beautiful  golden 
color  and  made  from  the  very  finest  tobacco  grown  in  North 
Carolina,  and  only  in  a  certain  locality  of  the  State.     This 

114  History  of  Durham. 

tobacco,  like  the  "Vuelta  Abass,"  is  of  extra  fine  quality 
and  has  a  flavor  peculiar  to  itself,  which  no  other  tobacco 

This  firm  manufactures  also  a  superior  article  of  Scotch 
Snulf,  equal  to  any  brand  on  the  market.  The  name  of  their 
brand  is  "  Ladies'  Clioice  Scotch  Snuff."  It  is  made  from 
the  very  best  North  Carolina  sun  cured  tobacco,  being 
entirely  free  from  adulterations  and  injurious  drugs  or 
chemicals.  This  is  a  comparatively  new  enterprise,  but  a 
growing  one.  This  firm  is  one  of  the  leading  manufactures 
of  the  town. 

E.   T.   FAUCETT. 

If  perfect  system,  superior  goods,  the  best  and  most  im- 
proved modern  aj>pliances  in  the  manufacture  of  cigarettes 
and  smoking  tobacco,  are  the  prerequisites  of  a  first  class 
manufacturing  establishment,  then  this  factory  is  justly 
entitled  to  prominence  among  the  leading  institutions  of 
the  kind  in  North  Carolina.  Mr.  Faucett  is  a  gentleman  of 
large  and  varied  experience  in  the  business,  and  spares  no 
pains  nor  expense  to  produce  a  quality  of  goods  which  will 
stand  upon  their  merits  and  compete  favorably  with  the 
best  brands  manufactured.  He  engaged  in  business  herein 
1871.  In  1877  his  factory  was  destroyed  by  fire,  but  he 
immediately  re-built  in  another  locality.  He  now  occupies 
a  wood  building  80x40  feet,  two  and  a  half  stories  high. 
His  products  are  granulated  and  long-cut  smoking  tobaccos 
and  cigarettes,  his  special  brands  being  "Little  Oronoka," 
"  Favorite  Durham  "  and  "  Ten  Cent  Durham,"  and  his  trade 
covers  the  entire  Union,  and  is  still  rapidly  increasing.  In 
October,  1883,  he  entered  as  a  partner  in  and  was  chosen 
president  of  "  The  Durham  Cigarette  Company."  The  ex- 
cellent quality  of  their  goods  created  so  great  a  demand  that 
enlarged  facilities  became  indispensable.  Their  new  quar- 
ters are  now  completed,  giving  employment  to  a  greatly 
increased  number  of  skilled  operatives.  "Little  Oronoka" 
is  undoubtedly  one  of  the  finest  cigarettes  manufactured  in 
this  or  any  other  State.  It  is  manufactured  only  from  the 
quality  of  tobacco  from  which  it  derives  its  name.  It  pro- 
duces a  sweet,  mild  smoke,  and  does  not  bite  the  tongue, 
being  almost  entirely  free  from  nicotine.  Smokers  of  long- 
cut  and  cigarettes  are  of  that  class,  mostly  young,  who  like 

Z.  I.  Lyon  &  Co.  115 

to  smoke  often  and  long,  and  who  are  ever  on  the  lookout 
for  goods  that  will  not  liite  the  tongue  or  nauseate.  The 
tobacco  known  as  the  *'  Little  Oronoka  "  is  grown  only  in  a 
few  counties  in  Middle  North  Carolina,  and  consequently 
cannot  be  obtained  by  all  manufacturers.  Mr.  Faucett  is 
rapidly  extending  his  sales,  which  could  be  greatly  acceler- 
ated, but  for  the  difficulty  in  securing  workmen.  He  has 
for  two  years  been  manufacturing  some  of  the  most  popular 
brands  of  smoking  tobacco,  and  his  reputation  for  producing 
none  but  goods  of  solid  merit  is  too  well  understood  and 
appreciated  to  need  iurther  comment,  here,  and  we  simply 
add  that  a  trial  package  of  his  cigarettes  or  smoking  tobacco, 
will  be  sufficient  to  convince  the  most  incredulous.  Mr. 
Faucett,  socially  is  one  of  the  most  entertaining  courteous 
and  high-toned  citizens  of  Durham.  In  business,  he  is  en- 
ergetic, sapient  and  honorable  in  all  his  dealings,  and  richly 
deserves  the  great  success  he  is  receiving. 

Z.   I.   LYON   &   CO. 

This  firm  is  composed  of  Messrs.  Z.  L  Lyon,  J.  W.  Cheek, 
F.  C.  Geer  and  J.  Ed.  Lyon,  and  was  formed  in  1SG8.  Mr. 
J.  Ed.  Lyon  is  the  oldest  surviving  manufacturer  of  tobacco 
in  Durham,  having  owned  an.  interest  in  the  celebrated 
Bull  brand  of  smoking  tobacco,  in  copartnership  with  Mr. 
J.  R.  Green,  in  1865.  In  1867  he  sold  his  interest  in  the 
Bull  brand,  and  commenced  the  manufacture  of  "  The  Pride 
of  Durham,"  in  copartnership  with  Z.  I.  Lyon,  under  the 
name  and  style  of  J.  Ed.  Lyon  &  Co.  In  the  early  part  of 
1868  he  again  purchased  an  interest  in  J.  R.  Green's  factory 
and  continued  with  him  until  the  latter  part  of  the  same 
year,  when  he  was  offered  and  again  secured  an  interest  in 
the  "Pride  of  Durham  "  brand  of  granulated  smoking  to- 
bacco. During  the  year  1868  Messrs.  J.  W.  Cheek  and  F. 
C.  Geer  were  admitted  as  partners,  and  the  firm  name  was 
changed  to  Z.  I.  Lyon  &  Co.  They  occupy  a  32x70  two  and 
a  half  story  wood  building,  where  they  are  doing  a  prosper- 
ous business,  their  excellent  productions  increasing  in  pop- 
ularity and  demand.  Their  sales  now  cover  the  entire  Union. 
They  use  steam  power  and  give  employment  to  a  large 
number  of  skilled  operatives.  The  factory  is  well  furnished 
witli  the  most  approved  manufacturing  appliances.  Their 
product  is  exclusively  granulated  and  their  annual  out-put 

116  History  of  Durham. 

is  over  two  hundred  thousand  pounds,  their  brand  being 
"  The  Pride  of  Darham,"  of  whicli  they  may  well  be  proud, 
for  it  is  certainly  a  very  excellent  quality  of  smoking  to- 
bacco, and  is  fast  becoming  one  of  the  leading  brands  of  the 
country.  If  indomitable  energy  coupled  with  rare  business 
qualifications  can  be  relied  on  as  essential  concomitants  of 
success,  then  these  gentlemen  richly  deserve,  and  will  un- 
questionably receive  their  full  meed.  Amid  all  the  ramifi- 
cations of  their  business  a  commendable  feature  is  every- 
where manifested,  even  to  the  most  casual  observer — a  fixed 
determination  to  please  their  customers,  not  only  in  the 
quality  of  their  goods,  but  in  all  their  business  transactions, 
and  this  is  one  of  the  most  important  pre-requisites  of  suc- 

ROULHAC   &   CO. 

Mr.  W.  S.  Roulhac  moved  to  Durham  in  1875,  and  man- 
ufactured the  "Tiger"  brand  of  granulated  smoking  tobacco, 
which  brand  he  had  been  operating,  in  copartnership  with 
Mr.  Webb,  in  Hillsboro,  since  1871.  In  1876  the  firm  name 
was  changed  to  Roulhac  &  Co.,  after  which  several  changes 
were  made  and  the  firm  was  finally  dissolved,  and  the  busi- 
ness discontinued. 

J.    R.    DAY   &   BRO. 

This  firm  began  the  manufacture  of  the  "Standard  of  tlie 
World"  brand  of  granulated  smoking  tobacco  in  November, 
1878,  the  firm  having  been  composed  of  J.  R.  and  W.  P. 
Day.  The  former  was  one  of  the  copartners  of  W.  T.  Black- 
well  &  Co.,  and  acquired  large  experience  as  a  manufacturer. 
They  occupied  a  two  and  a  half  story  wood  building,  located  in 
the  rear  of  Stokes  Building.  In  January,  1880,  the  business 
was  sold  to  H.  K.  and  F.  B.  Thurber,  of  New  York.  The 
factory  was  burned  in  December,  1880,  and  has  not  since 
been  rebuilt  or  the  business  resumed. 


Tliis  gentleman  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  tobacco  in 
Durham  in  1876,  succeeding  W.  R.  Hughes  &  Co.  His 
product  was  exclusively  granulated  tobacco,  his  sole  brand 
being  the  "  Dime  Durham."  The  factory  had  a  capacity  of 
about  one  thousand  pounds  per  day.     Its  principal  markets 

SiEGEL  Brothers.  117 

were  New  York,  Philadelphia,  Cincinnati  and  Chicago.  In 
the  latter  part  of  18S1  Mr.  Link  sold  out  his  business — in- 
cluding his  brand — to  Messrs.  W.  Duke  Sons  &  Co.,  by 
whom,  ever  since,  he  has  been  employed  as  book-keeper. 


These  courteous  and  enterprising  gentlemen  were  born  in 
Kovno,  Russia,  which  town  has  large  cigarette  factories,  and 
in  one  of  these  J.  M.  Siegel  served  his  apprenticeship,  and 
also  worked  in  St.  Petersburg.  He  says  that  every  fac- 
tory was  in  charge  of  a  government  officer,  who  remained 
in  it  all  the  time,  having  entire  control  of  it.  Every 
night  the  officer  superintended  the  closing  of  the  factory, 
and  put  the  government  seal  upon  the  door;  and  in  the 
morning  he  broke  the  seal,  and  opened  it.  At  night  the 
operatives  were  regularly  searched,  and  as  many  as  left  the 
factory  to  go  to  their  dinner  were  also  searched  at  noon. 
Turkish  tobacco  was  used  entirely,  the  cheapest  being  worth 
a  dollar,  and  the  dearest  nine  dollars  a  pound.  These  Rus- 
sian cigarettes  are  famous  the  world  over.  From  Russia, 
J.  M.  Siegel  went  to  London,  and  worked  there  in  the  largest 
factories  about  four  years.  On  coming  to  the  United  States, 
he  worked  with  Goodwin  &  Co.  several  years,  and  was  Su- 
perintendent of  W.  Duke  Sons  &  Co.'s  cigarette  department 
about  three  years,  when  he  went  into  his  present  firm. 

David  Siegel's  knowledge  and  skill  in  cigarette  making 
were  obtained  under  more  trying  circumstances  than  in 
his  brother's  case,  but  he  reaped  the  reward  of  indefatigable 
perseverance.  He  learned  the  trade  in  England,  where  he 
served  several  years  in  one  of  the  largest  factories  in  the 
city.  At  that  time  the  way  of  acquiring  proficiency  was  by 
serving  a  tedious  apprenticeship  of  years,  at  very  low  wages. 
At  the  expiration  of  his  apprenticeship  he  came  to  the 
United  States,  where  he  earned  from  $45  to  $55  per  week. 
He  worked  for  Kenny  Bros,  three  3'ears,  and  was  superin- 
tendent for  M.  H.  Ryders  eighteen  months.  He  was  then 
offered  a  situation  b}'-  the  two  largest  firms  in  the  country, 
one  of  which  was  W.  T.  Blackwell  &  Co.,  and  with  them  he 
held  a  position  as  superintendent  for  three  years.  While 
abroad  in  their  interest  he  was  notified  in  London  of  a 
change  in  the  partnership,  and  not  wishing  to  travel  further 
gave  up  his  situation  with  them.  It  was  on  this  trip  to  Eng- 

118  History  of  Durham. 

land,  that  he  narrowly  escaped  with  his  life,  being  ship- 
wrecked on  the  ill-fated  "  City  of  Brussels."  January  7th, 
1883.  Mr.  Siegel  then  made  arrangements  to  go  into  busi- 
ness for  himself,  which  arrangement  went  into  efiect  May 
.1st,  1883  ;  a  few  months  later  he  was  joined  by  his  brother, 
Mr.  J.  M.  Siegel.  They  began  with  a  capacity  of  5,000 
cigarettes  per  day,  and  made  their  first  shipment  July  19th, 
placing  their  goods  first  in  Raleigh  and  Goldsboro.  In 
October  last  Mr.  David  Siegel  made  a  trip,  placing  a  quan- 
tity of  his  goods  on  consignment  in  a  number  of  places. 
This  put  them  on  trial  onl}^  but  w^hen  these  very  dealers 
ordered  the  goods,  and  re-ordered  them  again  and  again,  in 
increasing  quantities,  it  proved  conclusively  that  their  cig- 
arettes were  becoming  appreciated. 

The  Siegel  Bros,  claim  to  be  pioneers  in  the  cigarette  bus- 
iness in  the  United  States,  for  very  good  reasons.  Mr.  J.  M. 
Siegel  was  the  15th  cigarette  maker  in  London,  and  Mr. 
David  Siegel  was  the  60th  in  London  and  the  4th  in  the 
United  States,  while  there  are  now  in  this  country  from  15,- 
000  to  17,000.  For  eighteen  years,  they  have  studied  this 
trade,  and  have  worked  in  the  largest  manufactories  in  the 
world ;  hence  they  are  thoroughly  conversant  with  every 
method  of  preparing  tobacco,  and  know  how  to  meet  the 
requirements  of  every  climate. 

The  selection  of  a  trade-mark  w^as  a  subject  of  much 
thought,  and  in  deciding  upon  "Cablegram"  they  made  a 
very  happy  hit.  As  the  fact  that  there  can  be  such  a  thing 
as  a  cablegram  denotes  a  triumph  in  modern  science,  so  in 
putting  the  results  of  their  nearly  twenty  years'  experience 
into  the  manufacture  of  their  "Cablegram  Cigarettes,"  they 
claim  to  offer  to  the  public  something  exceptionally  fine  in 

Their  sales  extend  over  the  United  States,  and  espe- 
cially in  Columbia,  Spartanburg  and  Greenville,  S.  C; 
Augusta,  Atlanta,  Macon,  Columbus  and  Eufaula,  Ga.;  Mont- 
gomery and  Selma,  Ala.;  Meridian,  Miss.;  New  Orleans,  La.; 
Galveston,  Houston,  Austin,  Dallas  and  otherpoints  in  Texas; 
Little  Rock,  Ark.;  Nashville  and  Knoxville,  Tenn.,  and  in 
numerous  other  places.  This  is  a  very  handsome  showing, 
and  when  it  is  added  that  within  six  months  from  the  plac- 
ing of  their  products  upon  the  market,  their  sales  in  a  single 
month  exceeded  570.000  cigarettes,  their  superior  qualit3% 
and  the  success  of  their  enterprise  are  established  beyond 

Durham  and  Franklinton  Railroad.  119 

The  Durham  and  Franklinton  Railroad. 

We  hail  with  profound  gratification  the  project  in  vogne 
for  the  speed}'  construction  of  a  railroad  from  FrankliiUon 
to  our  city.  On  the  1st  of  April,  1884,  a  large  and  enthusi- 
nstic  meeting  was  held  in  Franklinton  in  order  to  ascertain 
the  sentiment  of  the  people  along  the  proposed  line  in  re- 
gard to  the  movement,  and  to  take  initiatory  steps  in  rela- 
tion thereto.  The  meeting,  as  we  learn  from  an  eye  witness, 
was  largely  attended  by  influential  citizens  who  live  on  the 
route  between  the  two  points. 

Col.  W.  F.  Green,  in  an  able  and  exhaustive  speech, 
pointed  out  tlie  advantages  of  tapping  the  R.  &  G.  Road  at 
Franklinton.  After  liiss[ieech,  Hon.  C.  B.  Green,  editor  of 
the  Tobacco  Plant,  who  had  been  elected  chairman  ofi 
the  Durham  delegation,  spoke  at  length  proving  that  great 
beneficial  results  would  accrue  to  Franklinton,  Durham  and 
the  entire  country  through  which  it  would  pass.  This  was 
followed  by  speeches  from  representatives  of  Franklinton 
and  Louisburg.  Rev.  A.  Walker,  Capt.  T.  B.  Lyon,  IJ.  A. 
Reams  and  Jno.  C.  Angier,  President  of  the  Durham  Woolen 
Mills,  all  spoke.  Under  a  resolution  a  committee  was  ap- 
pointed to  raise  funds  to  make  a  survey  of  the  route,  which 
will  be  done  at  an  early  day.  The  people  who  have  the 
money  at  Franklinton  and  on  the  line  of  the  road  are  thor- 
oughly enthused,  and  everybody  knows  that  when  Durham- 
itcs  put  a  project  on  foot  they  never  stop  short  of  success. 

The  key  note  has  been  struck  and  soon  Durham  will  have 
a  competing  line.  From  reports  received  from  gentlemen 
who  visited  Franklinton,  and  from  what  we  know  of  the 
enterprise  and  liberality  of  the  Durham  people,  we  have  no 
hesitancy  in  saying  that  ^100,000  can  be  raised  in  a  week's 

The  delegates  who  attended  the  meeting,  report  a  deter- 
mination on  the  part  of  the  citizens  of  Franklinton,  and 
those  along  the  line  between  here  and  that  place,  that  means 
nothing  less  than  success.  There  was  also  present  a  delega- 
tion from  Louisburg  who  were  looking  after  the  extension 
of  the  road  to  that  point.  The  impression  made  upon  the 
minds  of  the  Durham  delegation  was  that  the  road  to  Frank- 
linton would  be  built.     We  trust  that  before  these  lines  are 

120  History  of  Durham. 

perused  by  the  reader  the  company  will  have  been  organ- 
ized, a  survey  made,  and  the  work  of  construction  com- 
menced. Franklinton  is  as  good  a  point  of  connection  as  can 
be  made.  It  undoubtedly  gives  us  a  competing  line  and  a 
decidedly  more  direct  outlet  to  the  northern  markets.  There 
is  no  necessity  for  Durham  remaining  a  mere  railroad  sta- 
tion, at  the  mercy  of  a  monopoly,  made  to  pay  the  most 
extravagant  freight  rates,  when  there  is  an  opportunity  for 
better  things. 

The  New  Banner  Warehouse. 

'Opening  Sales — Speeches  by  His  Excellency,  Governok 
Jarvis,  Capt.  S.  a.  Ashe,  Hon.  C.  B.  Green  and  others 
— A  Gala  Day. 

As  we  could  not  possibly  be  present  at  the '''Opening 
Sales"  of  ihis  mammoth  establishment,  being  detained  at 
Raleigh  superintending  the  publication  of  our  book,  we 
insert  the  following  description  of  the  same,  gleaned  from 
the  columns  of  the  News  Sc  Observer,  an  ably  edited  and 
leading  Democratic  paper,  published  at  Raleigh.  We  regret 
that  our  limited  space  will  not  permit  us  to  give  a  more 
•extended  notice,  but  the  following  will  give  a  tolerably 
accurate  idea  of  the  auspicious  occasion  : 

On  the  8th  of  May,  1884,  Gov.  Jarvis,  by  invitation, 
attended  the  formal  opening  of  the  new  Banner  Tobacco 
Warehouse  at  Durham,  of  which  J.  S.  Lockhart,  Esq.,  is  pro- 
prietor. The  evening  previous  he  had  been  the  recipient  of 
a  serenade,  and  in  response  to  calls  had  made  a  pleasant 
speech  to  the  Durham  Light  Infantry  and  a  large  assemblage. 
On  Thursday  morning  a  procession  formed  in  front  of  the  ho- 
tel and  under  escort  of  the  Mayor,  the  Board  of  Trade  and 
a  large  number  of  citizens,  the  Governor  was  conducted  to 
the  Banner  Warehouse,  where  a  galaxy  of  Durham's  lovely 
ladies  had  gathered.  After  delightful  music  by  the  Dur- 
•ham  brass  band,  Mr.  C.  B.  Green,  editor  of  the  Tobacco  Plant, 

Neu'  Banner  Warehouse,  121 

introduced  his  Excellency  in  appropriate  terms,  alluding 
particularly  to  the  interest  which  Governor  Jarvis  had  ever 
exhibited  in  developing  the  material  resources  of  the  State 
and  fostering  our  educational  institutions. 

Gov.  Jarvis  acknowledged  his  obligations  for  the  kind 
words  of  commendation  that  had  been  expressed  relative  to 
his  action  in  developing  the  resources  of  the  State.  He  had 
always  felt  a  pride  in  doing  his  duty,  and  if,  as  in  this  in- 
stance, good  had  resulted  from  his  labors,  it  was  still  more 
gratifying  to  him.  As  he  looked  over  the  State  and  saw 
the  people  in  every  section  happy,  living  in  peace  and  con- 
tentment and  showing  a  large  measure  of  prosperity,  he 
felt  grateful  that  he  had  been  in  some  degree  an  instrument 
iu  accomplishing  the  result.  It  was  a  peculiar  pleasure  to 
see  the  people  of  the  State  enjoying  these  blessings  to  such 
an  unusual  extent  as  the}'  do  to-day.  Casting  his  eye  over 
the  five  hundred  miles  from  the  sea  to  the  mountains,  sur- 
veying her  towns  and  communities,  he  found  nowhere  any 
people  more  prosperous,  more  happy,  more  to  be  envied  than 
the  people  of  the  marvellous  town  of  Durham.  He  spoke 
of  Durham's  growth  and  expanded  business  and  declared 
it  to  be  one  of  the  marked  features  of  development  and 
progress  of  our  State.  He  remarked  that  there  were  so 
many  elements  combining  to  make  up  prosperity  that  he 
would  not  undertake  to  discuss  them  all,  but  would  merely 
say  that  like  the  system  of  the  healthy  man,  they  must 
work  in  harmony  to  secure  perfect  action.  Each  element 
performs  its  own  function.  Tliere  were  two  main  elements 
in  societ}'  however — labor  and  capital — each  necessary  to 
the  other,  each  dependent  on  the  other.  Separated  they 
were  without  avail,  together  they  were  irresistible  for  the 
accomplishment  of  great  works.  He  would  never  under- 
rate those  who  made  the  brick  or  drove  the  saw  or  pushed 
the  plane,  the  men  who  had  put  together  those  structures 
which  adorn  and  ornament  this  beautiful  and  prosperous 
town.  It  is  the  labor  of  the  country  that  makes  its  wealth. 
It  is  the  business  of  capital  to  see  that  labor  is  employed 
and  that  it  is  cared  for.  And  he  said  "  if  I  was  called  on  to 
write  in  letters  of  gold  any  one  act  that  would  mark  the 
prosperity  of  your  town,  that  has  laid  deep  the  founda- 
tions of  a  just  connection  between  labor  and  capital,  to 
which  your  citizens  can  point  with  pride,  as  exhibiting  en- 
lightenment and  prosperity,  and  calculated  to  make  your 

122  History  of  Durham. 

population  harmonious  and  happy,  I  would  write  of  your 
'  Graded  School,'  that  noble  institution  where  the  children 
of  the  men  of  Durham  can  become  enlightened,  intelligent 
and  cultivated  men  and  women  of  North  Carolina."  He 
spoke  at  considerable  length  about  capital  and  referred  to 
its  tendency  to  withdraw  and  hide  itself  during  a  period  of 
bad  laws,  or  a  bad  administration  of  government.  jNIoney 
is  a  great  coward,  he  said,  and  continued  :  "  I  am  not  say- 
ing too  much  when  I  appeal  to  you  to  see  that  our  State, 
North  Carolina,  shall  live  in  the  future,  as  in  the  past,  un- 
der good  and  wholesome  laws,  well  and  wisely  administered 
by  good  and  true  men." 

He  then  dwelt  upon  the  relations  between  the  farming 
and  the  mercantile  elements  of  society.  Others  work,  but 
they  create  nothing,  merely  converting  old  material  into 
new  forms :  but  the  farmer  plants  his  seed  and  produces  that 
which  did  not  before  exist.  Without  this  all  other  employ- 
ment would  cease.  Every  interest  depended  on  the  agri- 
cultural, and  though  in  some  communities  there  was  irrita- 
tion between  the  farmers  and  the  merchants,  he  was  sure 
that  there  was  none  at  Durham;  that  the  gentlemen  com- 
posing the  Board  of  Trade  at  Durham  so  well  understood  the 
laws  of  trade  that  they  would  never  permit  anything  to 
occur  that  would  afford  just  ground  for  complaint.  He  de- 
picted the  great  progress  that  has  in  recent  years  been  made 
throughout  the  >State,  and  the  pride  that  our  citizens  now 
take  in  saying  that  they  are  North  Carolinians.  We  had 
much  to  be  proud  of  in  our  history,  and  still  more  in  the 
character  of  our  people  and  in  the  greatness  of  our  resources. 
In  conclusion  he  referred  to  the  fine  exhibits  at  Atlanta  and 
at  Boston,  and  he  urged  the  desirability  of  our  making  a 
splendid  display  of  our  State's  progress  and  resources  at 
Raleigh  tliis  fall  and  at  the  World's  Exposition  at  New  Or- 
leans. He  begged  the  people  of  Durham  county  not  to  be 
behind  their  sister  counties  in  this  matter,  but  to  make  a 
noble  exhibit  worthy  of  their  tovrn,  worthy  of  Durham 
county  and  of  the  State. 

The  speech  was  admirably  conceived,  forcibly  delivered 
and  was  received  with  warm  applause  and  much  satisfac- 
tion on  all  sides. 

Mr.  J.  S.  Lockhart,  the  proprietor  of  the  Warehouse 
then,  in  response  to  repeated  calls,  made  a  few  pleasant  re- 
marks, and  after  music  the  crowd  poured  into  the  capacious 
warehouse  to  witness  the  sales  of  tobacco. 

New  Banner  Warehouse.  123 

The  first  lots  sold  were  the  samples  exhibited  at  Boston. 
Those  from  Durham  county,  which  cost  the  Board  of  Agri- 
culture $1.00,  were  knocked  down  at  $1.30;  the  samples 
from  Winston  brought  $1.26;  from  Vance  county  $1.25,  and 
those  from  Asheville  were  knocked  down  to  Gov.  Jarvis  at 
$1.02.  The  break  was  large,  the  tobacco  very  fine,  and  the 
prices  realized  were  high. 

Gov.  .Jarvis  then  visited  the  splendid  Warehouse  of  Capt. 
E.  J.  Parrish,  who  has  on  hand  a  vast  amount  of  the 
weed,  much  of  it  of  the  finest  quality.  The  next  point 
of  interest  was  tlie  Graded  School,  and,  immediately  oppo- 
site, Duke's  cigarette  factory,  where  some  300  operatives  are 
employed  in  making  the  little  cigarettes.  The  Graded  School, 
under  the  efticient  management  of  Prof.  Kennedy  and  his 
accomplished  assistants,  is  certainly  a  credit  to  Durham  and 
North  Carolina.  It  is  a  very  admirable  institution.  Short 
addresses  were  made  to  the  pupils  by  Gov.  Jarvis  and  Capt. 
Ashe,  and  then  the  party  repaired  to  the  Hotel  Claiborn  for 
further  treatment  under  the  skilful  hands  of  that  most  ex- 
cellent caterer  and  hotel  manager,  Mr.  Rutjes.  Across  the 
way  towered  up  Mr.  Carr's  great  factory,  the  tobacco  works 
of  "  Blackwell  Durham  Tubacco  Company,"  whose  huge 
proportions  exemplify  what  native  ability  can  do  in  the 
way  of  accomplishing  success,  and  on  the  right  was  the  fac- 
tory of  the  Morris  &  Son  Company,  where  snufTas  well  as 
smoking  tobacco  is  made.  But  turn  where  one  might,  he 
would  see  evidences  of  thrift,  industry  and  enterprise,  and, 
as  the  product  of  these,  he  would  find  evidences  of  large 
fortunes  made  and  of  an  accumulation  of  wealth,  the  like  of 
which  but  few  other  Southern  communities  of  equal  size 
can  boast. 

Virginia  Home  Insurance  Company, 
'   richmoitd,  va. 

ASSETS,  -  -  -         $350,000. 

J.  SOUTHGATE  &  SON,  Agts.,  Durham,  N.  C. 

Georgia  Home  Insurance  Company; 

^^SSiJTS,         -        -        -        $750,000. 

J.  SOUTHGATE  &  SON,  Agents,  Durham,  N.  C. 


124  History  of  Durham. 

jp..^:E^rr  xx. 

mmmnmRh  smmms. 


The  subject  of  this  sketch  was  boru  in  the  couiitj'  of  Or- 
ange, N.  C,  ]\Iay  28th,  A.  D.  1807.  Died  in  the  city  of 
Durham  July  11th,  1883. 

Colonel  Parrish  was  a  member  of  the  M.  E.  Church  South, 
having  been  converted  and  received  into  that  church  dur- 
ing a  revival  of  religion  at  Moore's  Chapel,  Granville  county, 
in  the  year  1841.  In  1842  he  was  happily  united  in  mar- 
riage to  Miss  Ruth  A.  Ward,  a  most  estimable  lady,  richly 
endowed  with  rare  personal  and  christian  graces.  To  them 
were  born  seven  children,  six  of  whom  are  still  living,  one 
having  died  in  childhood.  Perhaps  no  union  was  ever 
blessed  by  more  refined,  exemplary  children,  who  to-day 
are  among  the  most  cultivated,  esteemed  and  religious  fam- 
ilies of  this  community.  Among  these  the  sainted  father 
and  grandfather  spent  his  latter  years,  honored  and  loved 
by  all  who  knew  him. 

Colonel  Parrish  was  in  the  highest  sense  a'  type  of  the 
old  school  of  Southern  chivalry  and  hospitality.  He  was 
the  soul  of  honor,  of  courtly  and  unobtrusive  dignity,  of 
lofty  bearing,  suave  manners,  tender,  refined  sympathies 
and  sublime  humility;  discreet  and  prudent,  yet  always 
candid.  For  thirty- four  years  he  was  a  consistent,  zealous 
and  brave  "  soldier  of  the  cross,  a  follower  of  the  Lamb." 
For  twenty-five  or  thirty  years  he  faithfully  discharged  the 

Biographical  Sketches.  125 

responsible  and  sacred  duties  of  Class-Leader  and  Steward 
in  the  church,  and  ma}'  truly  be  called  the  father  of  Meth- 
odism in  Durham.  His  usefulness  was  not  confined  to  the 
church,  although  the  christian  graces  which  so  beautifully 
adorned  his  life,  and  cast  about  him  an  irresistible,  indefi- 
nable charm,  permeated  all  his  dealings  with  men,  both 
private  and  public.  He  was  often  placed  by  his  country- 
men in  positions  of  public  trust  and  honor.  For  more  than 
forty  years  he  was  a  Justice  of  the  Peace.  He  was  also  a 
member  of  the  County  Court  of  Orange  for  many  years, 
always  discharging  his  public  duties  in  such  a  manner  as  to 
elicit  the  admiration  and  confidence  of  his  fellow-citizens. 
Seven  times  he  was  elected  Mayor  of  Durham,  dying  in  that 
office.  The  citizens  of  Durham  would  have  no  other  when- 
ever he  could  be  prevailed  upon  to  serve.  This  of  itself  was 
a  high  testimony  to  his  sterling  merits.  In  1850  he  was 
nominated  for  the  General  Assembl}'',  and  defeated  only, 
through  a  preponderance  of  anti-temperance  feeling,  by  a 
very  small  majority.  He  was  an  ardent,  indefatigable  worker 
in  the  temperance,  as  well  as  every  other  good  cause  which 
contemplated  the  moral,  material  and  spiritual  welfare  of 
mankind.  He  was  elected  Colonel  of  .the  Militia,  before  the 
war,  against  influential  opposition,  which  position  he  held 
many  years. 

Colonel  Parrish's  public,  as  well  as  private  character,  occu- 
pies a  bright  page  in  the  ephemeris  of  life,  and  will  be 
pointed  to  with  consummate  pride  and  pleasure,  as  a  guid- 
ing light  in  the  formation  and  development  of  a  patriotic, 
chivalrous,  phiIanthroj->ic  and  christian  character.  With 
him  there  was  none  of  the  haughtiness  so  often  born  of 
affluent  circumstances.  The  high  and  the  low,  the  rich  and 
the  poor,  had  equal  access  to  considerate  and  courteous  au- 
dience. No  one  in  trouble,  however  humble  and  obscure, 
ever  appealed  to  him  in  vain.  His  temporal  benefits  were 
always  coupled  with  spiritual  benedictions,  and  no  one  ever 

126  History  op  Durham. 

lingered  in  his  presence  without  feeling  the  elevating  influ- 
ence of  that  divine  love  which  burned  ablaze  in  the  deepest 
precincts  of  his  soul  and  shone  out  effulgeatly  in  all  his 
words  and  deeds.  Ah  how  gloriously  such  a  character  shines 
in  these  degenerate  days  of  simpering  cant  and  disgusting 
hypocrisy  !  He  left  beautiful,  imperishable  footprints  upon 
the  shores  of  time.  He  left  not  only  a  noble,  lofty  character, 
for  our  admiration  and  emulation,  but  living  evidences  and 
monuments  of  his  great  life's  work  in  the  refined  characters 
and  extensive  elevating  influence  of  his  bereaved  widow  and 
children.  In  them  he  still  liveth.  In  them  all  the  noble 
traits  of  his  truly  amiable  character  are  being  exemplified. 
In  these  latter  times  of  skeptici3,m  and  infidelity,  how  such 
living  epistles  lift  the  cause  of  the  Blessed  Master  toweringly 
above  the  insipid  vagaries  and  puny,  stultified  cant  of  such 
self-deluded  sycophants  as  Darwin  and  Ingersoll.  How 
such  lives  prove  that  religion  is  a  vital  principle — moral 
elixir — in  the  world  to-day.  Lot  the  weak  and  wavering 
consider  such  lives,  bless  God  and  take  courage. 

In  conclusion  we  cannot  refrain  quoting  the  following 
from  the  pen  of  one  of  our  most  gifted  divines,  the  present 
pastor  of  Trinity  M.  E.  Church,  so  replete  and  euphonious 
with  lofty  thought  and  diction.     Brother  Boone  says : 

"  God  gave  him  tiie  desire  of  his  heart  even  in  the  matter 
of  his  death.  In  relating  his  experience  in  the  social  meet- 
ings of  the  church,  he  vvould  often  say  that  if  it  were  God's 
will,  he  would  prefer  to  cease  to  live  when  he  ceased  to 
work — and  it  was  so,  for  his  life  and  his  labors  ended  to- 
gether. Like  Moses,  whose  strength  was  not  abated,  and 
whose  eye  was  not  dimmed,  when  he  ascended  Mount  Nebo's 
summit  to  meet  the  angelic  charioteers  and  ascend  with 
them  to  the  mount  of  God  :  so  with  this  servant  of  God, 
who  had  measured  more  than  three  score  years  and  ten  in 
serving  his  generation  b}'  the  will  of  God.  He  sat  at  the 
gate  to  administer  justice  and  give  counsel  until  the  setting 

Biographical  Sketches.  127 

sun  threw  its  mellow  light  across  the  bending  sky,  while 
the  soft  and  fleecy  clouds,  in  ample  folds  of  purple  and  of 
gold,  bade  a  sweet  good-bye  to  the  departing  day,  and 
threw  Uieir  lengthening  shadows,  tinted  with  the  glory  of 
eventide,  as  a  mantle  of  royalty  upon  the  shoulders  of  this 
servant  of  God,  as  he  withdrew  from  the  active  duties  of 
the  da}',  to  the  peace  and  quiet  of  his  home.  A  fitting 
scene  for  the  close  of  such  a  life." 

On  the  sad,  memorable  evening  prior  to  his  death,  he 
remained  with  his  family,  the  cheer  and  comfort  of  all, 
until  9  o'clock,  when  he  bade  them  good  night,  remarking 
that  he  would  retire  early,  as  he  was  suffering  with  pains 
in  his  body.  After  midnight  he  awoke  his  wife,  complain- 
ing of  severe  pains  in  his  shoulder  and  body.  Dr.  A.  G. 
Carr,  his  son-in-law,  was  called  and  was  soon  at  his  bed- 
side. All  the  remedial  agencies  that  could  be  suggested  by 
eminent  skill  and  prom{)led  by  the  most  sublime  devotion 
were  employed,  but  his  "  mansion  "  had  been  "  prepared  " 
in  the  Upper  and  Better  Sanctuary,  and  the  heavenly  car- 
avan was  hovering  about  his  bedside.  Jesus  was  waiting 
to  fold  him  to  his  arms,  and  neither  earthly  skill  nor  affec- 
tion could  detain  the  anxious  spirit. 

The  funeral  was  held  from  Trinity-  M.  E.  Church,  con- 
ducted b}'  Revs.  T.  A.  Boone  and  J.  J.  Renn.  Long  before 
the  hour  for  services  the  church  was  filled  to.  its  utmost 
capacity.  At  fifteen  minutes  to  4  o'clock  p.  ra.,  the  funeral 
procession  moved  off  from  the  residence  of  Capt.  E.  J.  Par- 
rish,  the  following  gentlemen  acting  as  pall-bearers  :  Jas. 
Southgate,  W.  Duke,  Wm:  Lipscomb,  T.  L.  Peay,  ^^^  W. 
Fuller,  Rev.  A.  Walker,  H.  A.  Reams,  C.  B.  Green,  AV.  L. 
Wall,  W.  H.  Rogers,  S.  F.  Tomlinson  and  R.  F.  Webb.  The 
fujieral  sermon  was  preached  by  Rev.  T.  A.  Boone,  preceded 
by  Rev.  J.  J.  Renn  in  a  few  appropriate  and  feeling  remarks. 
After  the  sermon,  which  was  feelingly  delivered  and  appro- 
priate in  thought,  portraying  lucidly  the  character  of  that 

12S  History  of  Durham. 

jTOod  and  noble  man,  all  that  was  mortal  of  our  beloved 
Ma3''or,  christian  citizen  and  true  friend  was  borne  to  the 
cemetery  and  deposited  in  a  vault  to  await  the  resurrection 
of  the  saints.  During  the  funeral  services  ever}--  business 
house  in  town  was  closed,  and  the  procession  of  carriages 
was  three-quarters  of  a  mile  long.  No  man  has  ever  lived 
among  us  who  so  entwined  the  affections  of  the  people 
around  him  as  did  Col.  Parrish.  He  was  a  friend  to  every 
body  and  everybody  was  his  friend.  During  Wednesday 
and  Thursday  hundreds  visited  the  residence  to  take  a  last 
look  at  him.  Strong  men  stood  by  and,  as  they  looked 
upon  that  noble  face,  tears  trickled  down  their  cheeks,  at- 
testing an  undying  affection  for  him  who  had  been  so  sud- 
denly taken  from  our  midst. 


Messrs.  Durham,  Angier  and  Mangum  brothers,  are  the 
only  surviving  original  settlers  of  Durham — the  venerable 
Pratts,  Redmonds  and  Vickers  having  passed  away.  Mr. 
William  Mangum,  the  subject  of  this  sketch,  was  born  four 
miles  from  Durham,  on  the  Fish  Dam  Road,  then  in  the 
county  of  Orange,  on  the  22d  of  September,  A.  D.  1824. 
Received  only  ten  months'  schooling,  but,  being  richly  en- 
dowed by  nature  with  a  high  order  of  intellectual  faculties, 
aided  by  an  indomitable  and  pertinacious  energy,  soon  ac- 
quired a  fair  business  education.  ,  In  those  ten  months  was 
laid  in  a  naturally  perspicacious  mind,  the  solid  foundation, 
of  future  success.  He  is  of  that  class  of  sterling  worth, 
usually  styled  self-made  men — light-houses  along  the  shores 
of  life — whose  lives  and  characters  never  shine  with  an 
uncertain  lustre,  but  are  eminently  worthy  of  emulation. 
As  an  evidence  of  his  sterling  qualities,  he  assumed,  when 
only  fifteen  years  of  age,  having  had  the  sad  misfortune 



to  lose  his  father  by  death,  the  responsibility  of  bri;ig  the 
chief  support  and  dependence  of  his  affectionate  and  doting 
mother  and  six  brothers  and  sisters.  Though  so  young 
and  inexperienced  in  the  care  of  so  weighty  a  charge,  yet 
he  faithfully  and  handsomely  supported  the  family  until 
he  was  24  years  of  age,  when  other  members  of  the  family 
became  old  enough  to  share  his  work  of  love  and  devotion. 
He  was  married  in  1849  to  Miss  Elizabeth  Proctor,  of  Orange 
county,  IMoved  to  Durham  in  1857,  and  erected  a  work- 
shop at  the  intersection  of  Maugum  street  and  the  N.  G. 
Railroad.  This  shop  has  since  been  moved  to  the  north 
side  of  the  railroad  and  is  now  occupied  by  Mr.  Seaman. 
This  was  the  first  workshop  ever  erected  in  Durham,  and 
is,  consequently,  one  of  the  oldest  buildings  in  the  town.  In 
1867,  he  erected  another  workshop  near  the  Trinity  Methodist 
church,  on  the  ground  now  occupied  by  the  new  Parrish 
Prize  House,  the  land  being  a  portion  of  the  old  Pratt  es- 
tate. Was  burned  out,  for  the  third  time,  in  1876,  but  im- 
mediately rebuilt  a  Blind  and  Sash  Factory,  grist  and  saw 
mills  and  a  cotton  gin  on  Green  street,  in  rear  of  Banner 
Warehouse.  From  these  works  he  is  constantly  turning 
out  the  very  best  qualities  of  work.  Has  been  elected  town 
commissioner  for  several  terms,  and  while  acting  in  that 
capacity  was  ever  mindful  of  the  best  interest  of  the  people. 
Furnished  material  from  his  own  mill  and  built  the  first 
Methodist  Church  ever  erected  in  Durham.  The  cost  of 
building  this  church  was  §650,  of  which  he  donated  §25, 
although  not  a  member.  He  also  built  the  first  Baptist 
Church  erected  after  Durham  became  a  Station,  taking  as 
compensation  the  old  Baptist  structure,  situated  at  the  in- 
tersection of  Mangum  street  and  the  railroad,  afterwards 
converting  said  structure  into  a  store  and  then  a  residence. 
Mr.  Maugum  is  one  of  those  affable  and  enterprising  busi- 
ness men  who, like  such  men  as  Blackwell,  Carr,  Angier  and 
Duke,  form  the  bone  and  sinew  of  Durham's  greatness,  and 

130  History  op  Durham. 

is  loved  and  venerated  by  all,  as  one  of  the  good  old  fathers 
of  Durham. 


To  undertake  a  faithful  history  of  Durham,  dissevered 
from  the  world-famed  name  of  Blackwell,  would  be  as 
unjust  and  incomplete  as  to  attempt  to  write  a  history  of 
the  American  Union,  the  heroic  struggles,  sacrifices,  and 
glorious  trophies  of  our  forefathers,  and  exclude  that  name 
of  all  other  names,  crowned  and  embalmed  with  imperish- 
able glor}^ — Washington;  a  name  that  fills  every  true 
patriot's  heart  with  sacred  pride,  love  and  veneration. 

This  deservedly  popular  gentleman  was  born  January 
12th,  1S39,  near  Woodsdale,  Person  county,  N.  C,  and  is 
the  son  of  Mr.  James  L.  Blackwell,  now  a  resident  of  this 
city.  In  his  youth  he  received  a  common  school  education. 
In  the  years  1862  and  1863  he  taught  school  in  his  native 
village,  He  began  life  as  a  broker  and  trader  in  every  de- 
scription of  merchandise.  He  early  began  to  devote  espe- 
cial attention  to  speculating  in  plug  tobacco,  and,  purchas- 
ing a  wagon  and  team,  traveled  through  the  country,  in 
conjunction  with  James  R.  Day,  peddling  tobacco  until  the 
close  of  the  war.  He  then,  in  copartnership  with  Mr.  Day, 
opened  a  jobbing  tobacco  house  in  Kinston,  continuing  his 
itinerant  trafHc.  The  principal  part  of  their  traffic  was  in 
the  tobacco  manufactured  by  J.  R.  Green,  at  Durham,  then 
an  obscure  water  station,  whose  brand  had  gained  consid- 
erable local  reputation.  It  soon  became  apparent  that  there 
was  a  greater  demand  for  this  tobacco  than  Mr.  Green  could 
supply,  and  arrangements  were  consummated  in  1868, 
whereby  the  capacity  of  the  factory  was  enlarged  and 
Messrs.  Blackwell  &  Day  became  partners  with  Mr.  Green. 
The  business  thus  received  a  new  impetus  and  began  to 
thrive;  but  Mr.  Green,  who  for  some  time  had  been  in  fail- 

Biographical  Sketches.  131 

ing  health,  died  in  1869,  and  his  interest  was  purchased 
from  his  heirs  by  the  remaining  partners.  In  1870,  Mr. 
Julian  S.  Carr  joined  the  firm,  and  since  that  time  Mr. 
Blackwell  has  been  senior  partner  of  the  celebrated  firm  of 
W.  T.  Blackwell  &  Co.  He  remained,  however,  sole  pro- 
prietor of  the  trade-mark,  until  his  interest  was  bought  by 
M.  E.  McDowell  &  Co.,  of  Philadelphia.  Mr.  Blackwell, 
as  a  judge  of  tobacco,  has  few  equals.  While  a  member  of 
the  firm,  he  gave  exclusive  attention  to  selecting  and  pur- 
chasing the  tobacco  manufactured  by  the  firm,ever3''  pound 
of  which  passed  under  his  inspection,  and  his  intelligence 
and  experience  as  a  buyer  was  an  important  factor  in  the 
extensive  popularity  of  the  Bull  Durham  Smoking  Tobacco. 
He  was  married  December  27th,  1877,  to  Miss  Emma  Exum, 
daughter  of  W.  J.  Exum,  an  extensive  planter  of  Hillsboro 
and  formerly  of  Wayne  county,  N.  C. 

To  W.  T.  Blackwell  mainly  belongs  the  honor  of  found- 
ing the  town  of  Durham  through  the  establishment  and 
successful  conduct  of  his  Tobacco  manufacture,  and  to  him 
equally  belongs  the  credit  and  renown  of  having  fostered 
and  sustained  a  communitj^  which  has  grown  from  a  strag- 
gling village  of  273  persons  to  a  busy  town  of  5,000  or  more 
inhabitants.  As  a  benefactor  of  his  kind,  as  the  promoter 
of  the  best  and  truest  interests  of  the  people  of  Durham 
county,  W.  T.  Blackwell  deserves  even  more  than  has  been 
conferred  by  a  partiall}'  appreciative  public.  And  the  uni- 
versal popularity  of  the  brand  of  tobacco  established  by 
him,  is  a  just  tribute  of  homage  to  one  of  the  most  illustrious 
representatives  of  American  industries.  By  assiduous 
energy  and  judiciously  applied  business  sagacity,  he  has 
worked  his  way  up  from  poverty  and  obscurity  to  great 
affluence  and  wealth.  He  has  wrought  out  for  himself  a 
name  and  fame  which  will  be  handed  down  with  pride 
from  generation  to  generation  so  long  as  Durham  occupies 
a  place  in  the  annals  of  history.    His  philanthropic  acts  and 

132  History  of  Durham. 

aims  in  protecting  the  cause  of  labor,  in  administering  to 
and  alleviating  the  wants  of  the  poor  has  enshrined  his 
name  deep  in  the  hearts  of  the  people.  Truly  may  be  ap- 
plied to  him  the  famous  encomium,  "  he  went  about  doing 
good."  An  example,  potent  with  the  results  of  enterprising 
devotion  to  business,  has  been  afforded  by  this  worthy  cus- 
todian of  the  natural  industries  of  North  Carolina,  where  is 
to  be  obtained  adequate  supplies  of  the  material,  which  has 
become  so  indispensable  to  manufacturers  of  tobacco,  and 
which  should  be  the  foundation  of  the  wealth  and  prosperity 
of  the  people.  "  Honor  to  whom  honor  is  due  "  must  be 
remembered  by  the  good  people  of  the  "  Old  North  State," 
and  the  full  meed  of  praise  be  rendered  to  W.  T.  Blackwell, 
the  Father  of  Durham  and  the  friend  of  the  people.  A  man 
who  has  attained  the  high  and  honorable  distinction  of  be- 
ing foremost  in  resuscitating  the  spirits  and  hopes  of  his 
race,  which  were  well  nigh  paralyzed  by  the  late  great  civil 
conflict;  who  has  taught  us  to  extract  precious  beams  of 
hope  from  the  darkest  clouds  of  despair;  who  has  demon- 
strated to  the  world  the  efficacy  of  close,  assiduous  vigilance 
to  all  the  minutest  ramifications  of  business;  who  has 
strengthened  and  fortified  the  foundations  of  a  future  posi- 
tion in  manufactures  pregnant  with  vital  interest  and  im- 
portance, should  and  will  receive  honorable  mention  by  the 
honest  historian  of  the  future,  and  the  hearty  thanks  of  the 
world.  Each  great  manipulator  of  material  resources,  as 
pandering  to  the  general  cause  of  industry,  should  be  ac- 
credited with  a  place  in  the  category  of  the  distinguished 
and  the  noble.  Within  the  unchecked  flow  of  the  genial 
current  that  animates  the  heart  of  W.  T.  Blackwell  is  to  be 
found  kindly  impulses  and  that  devotion  to  the  cause  of 
right  and  truth  and  justice,  which  invest  with  honor  and 
embellish  with  distinction.  Through  him  Durham  has  thus 
been  given  a  forward  move  in  the  tobacco  industry,  and  the 
example  has  been  productive  of  the  inauguration  of  other 


Biographical  Sketches.  133 

and  prominent  establishments.  Nowhere  on  the  American 
continent  is  better  tobacco  [»roduced  than  in  the  vicinity  of 
Durham,  and  nowhere  can  its  manufacture  be  more  success- 
fully conducted,  as  has  been  proven  by  W.  T.  Black  well  & 
Co.,  whose  reward  is  written  on  every  building  in  the  town, 
and  whose  namis  wiil  l)e  honored  in  grateful  remembrance 
as  long  as  time  holds  on  ilf>  tireless  flight. 


Mr.  Henry  Seeman  moved  to  Durham  in  1874,  and  en- 
gaged in  the  Coach,  Buggy,  Carriage  and  Wagon  manufac- 
ture. He  now  occupies  the  old  Baptist  Church  building, 
the  oldest  house  in  Durham,  having  been  erected  long  be- 
fore the  railroad  reached  Durham.  Messrs. Seeman  &  Son  are 
thoroughly  competent  and  skilled  workmen,  and  are  turn- 
ing out  some  of  the  fine.'sL  work  of  the  kind  we  have  seen 
in  the  State.  In  connection  with  their  factory  they  have  a 
first-class  Blacksmith  Shop,  where  work  of  unsurpassed 
excellence  is  being  executed.  By  close  application  to  busi- 
ness— exercising  the  most  scrupulous  care  in  all  its  details — 
they  have  earned  an  enviable  reputation  in  our  community 
as  honorable,  industrious  and  competent  workmen.  They 
well  deserve  this  reputation. 


This  gentleman  was  born  on  the  12th  day  of  October,  A. 
D.  1845,  at  Chapel  Hill,  Orange  county,  N.  C,  and  is  the 
son  of  John  W.Carr,  merchant,  of  that  place.  He  received 
his  early  education  at  a  school  in  the  vicinity  of  Chapel 
Hill,  and  entered  the  University  of  this  State  in  June,  1862, 

134  History  of  Durham. 

but  after  nearly  two  years'  study,  enlisted  in  the  3rd  N.  C. 
Cavalry  in  the  early  part  of  1864.  He  never  lost  a  single 
day's  ^uty  during  the  entire  period  of  his  service,  was  a 
general  favorite  among  his  comrades,  and  preferred  to  be 
simply  a  private,  in  order  to  be  among  "  the  boys,"  although 
he  carried  in  his  pocket  a  detail  as  an  officer  on  the  staff  of 
General  Barringer. 

After  the  war  Mr.  Carr  returned  to  Chapel  Hill  and  at- 
tended the  University  one  session,  and  in  June,  1867,  en- 
gaged in  a  general  mercantile  busine.^s.  In  1868  he  moved 
to  Little  Rock,  Ark,,  where  he  again  engaged  in  business, 
but  on  a  larger  scale,  with  his  uncle  and  another  gentleman, 
under  the  firm  name  of  Carr  &  Kingsburg.  After  residing 
eighteen  months  at  Little  Rock,  his  father  saw  an  oppor- 
tunity of  purchasing  a  third  interest  in  W.  T.  Black  well's 
Tobacco  Factory,  and  being  anxious  that  his  son  should 
settle  nearer  home,  insisted  and  prevailed  upon  him  to  re- 
turn. Accordingly  in  Septemher,  1870,  he  joined  that  firm 
and  has  ever  since  had  the  entire  control  of  its  mercantile 
and  financial  department.  He  is  unquestionably  one  of 
the  best  financiers  and  thorough  businessmen  in  this  State; 
and  to  his  far-sighted  and  liberal  policy  may  justly  be  at 
tributed  the  secret  of  the  v/onderful  success  of  his  firm.  His 
bold,  lavish  but  judicious  system  of  advertising  has  made 
the  Blackwell's  Durham  Smoking  Tobacco  a  household 
word  from  Maine  to  the  Gulf  and  from  the  Atlantic  to  the 
Pacific  slope,  and  in  many  foreign  countries.  Enterprising 
and  public-spirited,  Mr.  Carr  has  encouraged  and  fostered 
everything  tending  to  enhance  the  prosperity  of  our  city, 
and  the  comfort  and  best  interesis  of  its  citizens. 

Mr.  Carr  is  emphatically  a  man  of  the  people  and  for  the  peo- 
ple. The  humblest  and  most  illiterate  man  has  equal  access 
to  his  presence  with  the  wealthiest  and  most  learned,  and 
he  is  courteous  arnd  attentive  to  all.  He  is  constantly  be- 
sieged  by  scores  of    visitors  on   all  sorts  of   business — all 

Biographical  Sketches.   •  135 

leaving  his  presence  with  their  various  wishes  and  petitions, 
when  laudable,  favorably  considered.  The  writer  has  wit- 
nessed this  incessant  stream  of  visitors  for  many  months, 
and  has  never  in  all  his  life  seen  any  one  man  who  had  less 
time  to  devote  to  his  own  personal  or  public  affairs  than 
Mr.  Carr.  And  yet,  despite  of  this  great  burden  of  daily 
care,  he  keeps  fully  abreast  of  all  issues  and  enterprises  which 
contemplates  the  manufacturing,  agricultural  and  gen- 
eral advancement  of  the  people  as  a  State — aiding  and  abet- 
ting the  development  and  enhancement  of  her  varied  and 
multifarious  industrial,  intellectual  and  ethical  resources. 
As  an  evidence  of  his  interest  and  cooperation  in  various 
public  affairs,  we  meutioil  a  few  of  the  many  honorable 
positions  he  now  occupies: 

President  of  Blackwell's  Durham  Tobacco  Company,  Dur- 
ham, N.  C. ;  President  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  of  the 
Methodist  Female  Seminary,  Durham,  N.  C. ;  Vice  Presi- 
dent of  the  Cotton  Manufacturing  Company,  Durham,  N. 
C. ;  Vice  President  of  the  Durham  Woollen  and  Wooden 
Mills,  Durham,  N.  C. ;  Vice  President  of  the  N.  C.  State 
Exposition  Co.,  Raleigh,  N.  C. ;  member  of  the  Executive 
Committee  of  Board  of  Trustees  of  the  Slate  University; 
Chapel  Hill,  N.  C;  Trustee  of  Trinity  College,  Trinity  Col- 
lege, N.  C;  member  of  the  Executive  Committee  of  the  Na- 
tional Tobacco  Association  of  the  United  States ;  President 
Greensboro  Female  College  Association,  and  a  Director  of 
the  Oxford  Orphan  Asylum. 

There  are  few  minds  of  adequate  calibre  to  grapple  with 
and  do  plenary  justice  by  so  many  and  varied  enterprises. 
As  an  attestation  of  the  value  of  his  co-operation  the  list 
continues  to  increase.  Generous,  considerate  and  afiFable 
to  all,  no  worthy  object  ever  fails  to  enlist  his  sympathies, 
and  no  one  in  misfortune  has  ever  appealed  to  him  in  vain. 
He  is  a  constant  friend,  a  faithful  and  devoted  husband,  an 
affectionate  father,  a  zealous,  consistant  christian,  and  a 

136  History  op  Durham. 

patriotic,  exemplary  citizen.     We  know  of  no  man  in  North 
Carolina  held  in  higher  esteem,  or  whom  the  people  would 
be  more  delighted  to  entrust  with  any  position  within  their 
gift.     He  was  married  February  19th,  1873,  to  one  of  the 
most  amiable  and  accomplished  young  ladies  of  Durham, 
Nannie  Graham,  daughter  of  our  late  lamented   Mayor, 
Colonel  D.  C.  Parrish.     The  writer  always  finds  it  a  de- 
lightful task  to  delineate  the  virtues  of  the  truly  good  and 
great.     We  esteem  the   proposition  that  no  man  is  truly 
great  who  is  not  truly  good,  a  safe  foundation  upon  which 
to  predicate  a  just  estimate  of  the  intrinsic  virtues  of  any 
given  character,  whether  intellectually,  morally  or  politi- 
cally considered.     A  true,  manly  heart,  ever  actuated  by 
refined  and  elevating  sensibilities,  ennobling  the  intellect, 
aierving  and  inspiring  the  energies  of  the  soul  for  the  con- 
.-summation  of  deeds  of  love  and  kindness,  constitute  the  in- 
dispensable prerequisite  of  genuine  greatness.     Such  a  char- 
acter is  "the  light  of  the  world,"  "the  salt  of  the  earth,"  and 
"a  city  that  cannot  be  hid."     In  the  subject  of  this  sketch 
-we  find  these  qualities  of  head   and  heart  pre-eminently 
manifested,  which,  combined   with  wealth  and  influence, 
renders  his  life  a  great  blessing  in  many  ways,  to  the  church, 
society  and  the  world.     His  pocket-book  as  well  as  his  heart 
is  ever  open  to  worthy  objects.     His  donations  to  religious 
and  educational  institutions  amount  to  thousands  of  dollars 
annually.     The  writer  has  seen  something  of  the  inner  life 
of  this  gentleman  where  his  virtues  as  a  husband,  father  and 
friend  are  the  crowning  glory  of  his  domestic  and  social 
circles.    In  him  are  combined — beautifully  blended — wealth 
of  soul  with  wealth  of  estate.     About  "  the  rich  man,"  as  a 
rule  there  is  an  atmosphere  of  proud  austerity,  a  lack  of 
sympathy  and  the  "  milk  of  human  kindness  "  towards  the 
less  favored  sons  of  our  common  humanity.   The  "  almighty 
dollar"  is  too  often  the  shrine  of  human  worship  and  pre- 
; ferment,  while  the  real  treasures  of  this  world  are  trampled 


Biographical  Sketches.  137 

beneath  the  sacrilegious  feet  of  the  "  god  of  mammon." 
The  writer  does  not  wish  to  be  understood  as  making  an 
invidious  distinction  because  of  riclies.  Nay,  veril}' !  There 
are  many  rich  men  who  cheerfully  use  their  wealth  for  the 
glory  of  God  and  the  promotion  of  His  cause  in  the  world. 
But  wealth  of  estate  dissevered  from  wealth  of  soul  is  a 
great  curse.  The  treasures  of  earth  abused  and  misapplied 
breeds  moral  upas  which  poisons  and  blights  the  soul.  But 
here  wo  find  a  rich  man  who  recognizes  and  adequately  ap- 
preciates the  immutable  truth  that  "  the  earth  is  the  Lord's 
and  the  fulness  thereof,"  and  that  he  is  simply  His  agent. 
Our  soul  delights  in  the  contemplation  of  such  a  character 
and  in  holding  it  up  to  the  youth  of  our  land  as  eminently 
worthy  of  faithful  emulation. 


Is  the  son  of  Governor  Morehead,  one  of  North  Carolina's 
most  illustrious  Chief  Executives.  He  was  born  in  Greens- 
boro, N.  C,  September  12th,  1845.  He  was  educated  at 
Chapel  Hill,  where,  in  1868,  he  graduated  with  first  honors. 
In  1874  he  was  united  in  marriage  to  Miss  Lothrop,  one  of 
the  fairest  and  most  accomplished  daughters  of  Savannah, 
Ga.,  where  he  remained  four  years.  In  October,  1878,  he 
moved  to  Durham,  taking  charge  of  the  United  States 
Stamp  Department.  The  establishment  of  this  Revenue 
branch  is  due  to  the  efforts  of  this  gentleman,  and  it  has 
proved  a  great  convenience  and  saving  to  our  manufactur- 
ers. In  December,  1878,  Mr.  Morehead  began  the  first  bank- 
ing operations  in  Durham,  as  the  financial  agent  of  the  six 
warehouses  then  in  operation.  He  continued  the  banking 
business  alone  until  Januar}'  1st,  1884,  when  Gerrard  S. 
Watts,  of  Baltimore,  Md.,  was  admitted  as  a  partner.  Mr. 
Morehead  is  one  of  the  most  influential  members  of  the 
Presbyterian  church  in  this  city,  being  an  elder  in  said 

138  History  of  Durham. 

church.  He  is  one  of  nature's  noblemen,  of  dignified,  courtly 
bearing  and  suave  manners — a  gentleman,  christian  and 
scholar.  As  a  financier  he  has  no  superior  and  few  equals 
in  the  State.  As  a  christian  he  is  a  devout  and  assiduous 
worker  in  the  Master's  cause,  with  refined,  tender  sympa- 
thies for,  with  ever  ready  hand  to  help,  all  worthy  objects  of 
charity.  His  industry,  influence  and  abilities  have  consti- 
tuted no  small  concomitants,  in  the  moral,  educational  and 
material  advancement  of  Durham.  The  many  positions  of 
trust  and  honor  which  he  holds  attest  his  intrinsic  worth. 
He  is  Chairman  of  the  Board  of  Education  and  Learning, 
Director  of  the  Durham  Woolen  Mill ;  also  one  of  the  Direc- 
tors of  the  A.  &  N.  C.  and  the  C.  F.  &  Y.  V.  Railroads,  Vice- 
President  of  the  Durham  Fertilizer  Co.,  President  of  the 
Watts  Coal,  Coke  and  Iron  Company  of  Alabama,  and  Chair- 
man of  the  Board  of  the  County  Commissioners  of  Durham. 


A  prominent  citizen  of  Durham,  and  well  known  Southern 
Underwriter,  was  born  in  Gloucester  county,  Virginia,  of 
English  parentage,  1832.  Entering  the  University  of  Vir- 
ginia in  1850,  he  took  a  classical  and  mathematical  course 
of  study  in  view  of  becoming  a  teacher.  Having  acquitted 
himself  with  honor,  in  1853  he  opened  a  military  school  in 
the  city  of  Norfolk,  styled  the  "Norfolk  Male  Institute." 
Under  his  able  management  the  institution  enjoyed  an 
abundant  prosperity,  which  increased  with  the  years.  War 
was  the  signal  of  its  downfall. 

For  nearly  twenty  years  the  subject  of  this  sketch  was 
identified  with  the  educational  interests  of  Virginia  and 
North  Carolina.  As  an  instructor,  he  was  dignified  and 
firm,  always  commanding  the  highest  respect  of  his  pupils. 
His  profession  proving  unprofitable  after  the  war,  in  1872 
he  began  the  Insurance  business,  a  profession  which  is  fast 
growing  in  the  estimation  of  capitalists  and  the  people.  The 

:^^f«-  %'a-. 



Biographical  Sketches.  139 

once  prevalent  objectiftns  to  it,  based  upon  religious  prin- 
ciples, have  been  almost  totally  obliterated  b}'  facts,  figures 
and  results;  so  that,  to-day,  the  science  of  Underwriters 
stands  high  among  the  vast  enterprises  of  our  country,  af- 
fording a  wide  field  for  the  employment  of  capital  and  brain. 
At  that  time  Durham  was  young,  yet  the  eye  of  the  obser- 
vant could  see  that  where  such  energy  as  characterized  her 
people  existed,  prosperity  would  follow  in  its  wake. 

Mr.  Soutbgate  did  not  become  a  citizen  of  Durham  until 
1876,  although  many  of  her  people  were  numbered  among 
his  best  friends  and  patrons.  He  was  soon  recognized  as 
the  Insurance  man  of  the  town,  and  the  business  of  his 
agency  has  increased  until  in  point  of  premium  receipts  it 
occupies  a  position  second  to  none  in  the  State.  He  repre- 
sents twenty-five  of  the  thirty  Fire  Insurance  Companies 
located  in  North  Carolina,  and  his  business  extends  over 
several  counties.  Having  mastered  the  principles  of  Un- 
derwriting, he  industriously  applies  them,  and  we  do  not 
know  a  community  which  is  better  educated  to  the  impor- 
tance of  Insurance  in  all  its  phases  than  Durham  and  vi- 
cinity. He  maintains  the  confidence  of  his  companies  and 
patrons  by  his  recognized  ability,  strict  integrity  and  uni- 
form courtesy. 


This  gentleman  is  the  originator  and  founder  of  the  brands 
"  Genuine  Durham  "  and  "Genuine  Bull  Durham  "  Smok- 
ing Tobacco.  Mr.  Green  moved  to  Durham  Station  in  1860, 
where  he  continued  to  reside  until  his  death,  which  occurred 
in  1869.  Daring  the  late  war  he  purchased  of  Morris  & 
Wright  a  small  tobacco  factory  located  south  of  the  railroad 
on  the  site  now  occupied  by  the  mammoth  Tobacco  Works 
of  Blackwell's  Durham  Tobacco  Compan}',  and  commenced 
the  manufacture  of  the  celebrated  brand  of  "  Genuine  Dur- 

140  History  of  Durham. 

ham  Smoking  Tobacco,"  and  selected  as  a  trade-mark  the 
world-famed  "  Durham  Bull."  Morris  &  Wright  had  been 
manuiacturing,  in  a  small  way,  an  article  which  they  stj^led 
"  Best  Spanish  Flavored  Smoking  Tobacco."  But  the  word 
"  Durham  "  as  a  distinctive  feature,  or  brand,  in  connection 
with  smoking  tobacco,  was  first  used  by  Mr.  Green,  and 
subsequently,  by  right  of  purchase,  passed  into  the  hands 
of  W.  T.  Blackwell  &  Co.,  together  with  the  sole  and  exclu- 
sive right  to  the  trade-mark — "  Durham  Bull."  This  tobacco 
was  made  famous  through  the  advent  of  Sherman's  army, 
a  detailed  account  of  which  is  given  in  Chapter  I.  In  1865 
very  little  leaf  came  to  Durham,  and  Mr.  Green  was  com- 
pelled to  seek  the  principal  portion  of  his  supplies  from 
other  markets.  Being  a  man  of  indomitable  energy,  rare 
intellectual  endowments  and  business  tact,  his  manufacture 
and  sales  soon  assumed  huge  proportions  and  continued  to 
increase  until  1868,  when,  his  health  failing,  and  being  un- 
able to  give  the  business  his  personal  supervision,  Col.  W. 
T.  Blackwell  and  Mr.  J.  R.  Day,  were  admitted  as  partners 
But  a  broad  and  deep  foundation  had  been  laid  for  Durham's 
future  greatness.  In  the  selection  of  Mr.  Blackwell  he  dis- 
played, as  has  since  been  demonstrated  in  a  remarkable 
degree,  sound  business  sagacity  and  forethought.  The  bur- 
den of  management  soon  devolved  almost  entirely  upon 
Mr.  Blackwell,  who  proved  himself  eminently  capable  and 
worthy  in  every  sense  of  conducting  the  then  infant  enterprise 
to  a  success  surpassing  anything  in  the  annals  of  the  history 
of  Tobacco  in  this  or  any  other  country.  The  little  one- 
story  wood  factory  of  '65  has  grown  and  expanded  until 
to-day  it  is  the  largest  and  best  equipped  Smoking  Tobacco 
Factory  in  the  world,  and  the  excellencies  of  its  products 
have  rendered  the  names  of  Green,  Blackwell  and  Carr 
household  words  in  every  nich  and  corner  of  the  earth  where 
the  weed  is  used.  [As  a  tribute  to  the  merits  of  these  men, 
we  would  respectfully  suggest   the   following   design  :     A 

Biographical  Sketches.  141 

mounted  Car(r),  painted  Green,  with  the  picture  of  a  Black- 
well,  and  a  bull  in  a  drinking  posture,  in  the  centre,  encircled 
by  the  words  :  "  The  Genuine  BlackwelTs  (the  word  '  Black ' 
on  one  side  of  the  well  and  the  word  '  Well's  '  on  the  other) 
Durham  Smoking  Tobacco."]  Soon  the  hectic  flush  upon 
Mr.  Green's  cheek  grew  sadly  deeper,  his  elastic  step  became 
weaker  and  weaker,  and  his  many  friends  saw  with  sorrow 
that  the  fell-destroyer — consumption — had  marked  him  for 
an  early  victim.  Resuscitation  was  sought  at  the  most  cele- 
brated watering  places,  but  in  vain,  and  in  the  summer  of 
1869  he  quietly  passed  away.  Mr.  Green  always  maintained 
an  abiding  faith  that  Durham  would  one  day  be  a  great  and 
prosperous  city,  but  he  did  not  live  long  enough  to  see  his 
cherished  convictions  and  wishes  verified.  But  the  effect 
of  his  labors  and  wisdom  are  to  day  permeating  all  the  rami- 
fications of  business.  The  influence  of  the  enterprise  started 
by  him  is  a  concomitant  element  of  success  in  all  the  varied 
industrial  pursuits  of  the  city.  He  sleeps  in  peace,  but  his 
works  live  after  him. 


The  subject  of  this  sketch  was  born  in  Pittsylvania  county, 
about  ten  miles  west  of  Danville,  Va.,  on  the  19th  day  of 
October,  1852.  Educated  in  Virginia.  His  father,  Decatur 
Jones,  was  a  manufacturer  of  tobacco  at  Danville,  hence  he 
has  been  directly  and  indirectly  connected  with  the  tobacco 
business  all  of  his  life,  and  has  acquired  an  experience  and 
knowledge  in  the  various  aspects  of  the  tobacco  trade,  rarely 
equalled  and  perhaps  unsurpassed.  Worked  in  his  father's 
factory  a  considerable  portion  of  his  youth,  and  manufac- 
tured plug  tobacco  for  himself  in  Danville  from  1867  to 
1S77,  speculating  at  the  same  time  in  fine  leaf  tobacco. 
Moved  to  Durham  in  the  year  1S81,  and  engaged  in  the  fine 
wrapper  trade.     At  that  time  the  wrapper  trade  of  Durham 

142  History  of  Durham, 

was  quite  meagre.  In  the  latter  part  of  1881  be  entered 
into  copartnership  with  W.  A.  Lea  in  the  warehouse  busi- 
ness. Mr.  Jones  has  unquestionably  done  more  towards 
building  up  the  fine  tobacco  trade  of  Durham  than  any 
other  man  engaged  in  the  business.  Through  his  sapient 
manipulations  and  influence,  much  of  the  leaf  trade  of  the 
border  counties  of  the  State,  which  had  for  years  centred  at 
Danville,  was  diverted  to  the  Durham  market,  and  much  of 
this  came  from  his  old  friends  and  customers,  who,  perhaps, 
might  never  have  sought  this  market  if  Mr.  Jones  had  con- 
tinued his  business  at  Danville.  Of  course  these  brought 
their  friends,  and  all  receiving  such  hospitable  treatment 
and  good  prices,  continued  to  cling  to  this  market.  Mr. 
Jones  continued  one  year  in  the  warehouse  business,  mak- 
ing friends  everywhere  b}'  his  courteous  and  honorable 
dealing.  He  is  one  of  those  well-bred,  polished  gentlemen 
of  the  old  scliool  of  proverbial  Southern  hospitality  and 
chivalry.  Warm-hearted  and  generous  to  a  fault,  in  him 
the  poor  and  unfortunate  of  this  world  always  find  a  sym- 
pathetic friend,  adviser  and  helper.  No  worthy  object  of 
charity  turns  empty-handed  from  his  door.  Investing  largely 
in  real  estate  here,  and  being  one  of  the  most  important 
factors  in  the  building  up  of  our  cit}'',  it  is  generally  hoped 
that  Mr.  Jones  will  make  Durham  his  permanent  home.  In 
IMay,  1884,  Mr.  Jones  was  elected  one  of  the  Town  Commis- 
sioners of  Durham  by  a  very  flattering  vote. 

C.    B.    GREEN. 

The  name  of  this  gentleman  will  be  handed  down  to 
future  generations  as  one  who  has  contributed  largely  to 
the  material  and  intellectual  advancement  of  Durham.  He 
moved  to  Durham  in  1867,  then  a  boy  only  11  years  of 
age.  In  1870  he  established  a  job  printing  ofiice  and  was 
the  first  person  to  "  stick  "  a  type  in  Durham.  In  January, 
1882,  he  established  Tlie  Durham  lobacco  Plant,  and  since 
that  time  its  columns  have  been  earnestly  and  honestly  de- 

Biographical  Sketches.  143 

voted  to  the  political,  material,  moral  and  educational  inter- 
ests of  the  people  of  Durham  and  surrounding  country. 
Great  good  has  been  accomplished  through  the  medium  of 
this  abl}-  edited  journal.  In  1874  he  was  elected  a  County 
Commissioner  by  the  people  of  Orange, and  acquitted  him- 
self in  this  position  with  great  credit.  In  18S0  he  was 
almost  unanimously  nominated  by  the  Orange  County  Dem- 
ocratic Convention  as  a  candidate  for  a  seat  in  the  House  of 
Representatives.  He  was  opposed  by  Hon.  Josiah  Turner, 
one  of  the  shrewdest  canvassers  in  the  State,  and  who,  two 
years  previous,  had  defeated  one  of  tiie  best  men  in  the 
county  by  SOO  majorit}'.  The  contest  was  a  very  stirring 
and  interesting  one,  but  young  Green  proved  himself  a 
match  for  Mr.  Turner,  and  came  out  with  a  handsome  ma- 
jority. He  took  his  seat  in  the  General  Assembly  at  the 
session  of  188],  and  from  that  time  on  worked  faithfully 
for  Durham  and  his  county.  The  bill  introduced  by  hin) 
providing  for  the  formation  of  the  county  of  Durham  was 
confronted  by  a  most  determined  and  vehement  opposition, 
every  inch  of  ground  being  hotly  contested,  but  Mr.  Green 
fought  manfully  and  successfully  for  the  new  count}',  and 
the  bill  became  a  law.  While  his  time  was  largely  devoted 
to  the  material,  he  did  not  forget  the  educational  interests 
of  Durham.  In  the  latter  part  of  the  session,  he  intro- 
duced a  bill  providing  for  the  establishment  of  a  graded 
school  in  Durham,  whicii  also  became  a  law.  Under  the 
provisions  of  this  bill  the  school  was  soon  established,  and 
is  now  one  of  the  permanent  institutions  of  Durham,  which 
is  pointed  out  with  pride  and  pleasure.  Mr.  Julian  S.  Carr 
has  made  the  school  a  present  of  a  $3,000  site,  and  a  fine 
building  will  soon  be  erected,  and  adequately  furnished  with 
all  necessary  appliances.  Mr.  Green  not  only  advocated  in 
the  Legislature  the  establishment  of  this  school,  but  his 
paper  did  faithful  and  eflBcient  service  in  moulding  popular 
sentiment  in  favor  of  it.    But  his  w^ork  for  the  people  is  not 


144  History  of  Durham. 

yet  accomplished.  He  is  still  young  and  there  is  a  bright 
field  of  usefulness  before  him.  In  ]SS3-'S4:,he  was  a  member 
of  the  Board  of  County  Commissioners  and  of  the  Durham 
Board  of  Education  and  Learning.  His  paper  is  Democratic 
to  the  core,  and  an  useful  organ  in  that  party. 


This  gentleman,  the  leading  warehouseman  of  North 
Carolina,  was  born  in  the  county  of  Orange,  fourteen  miles 
from  Durham,  on  the  20th  of  October,  A.  D.  1846.  Is  a 
son  of  the  late  lamented  Mayor  of  Durham,  Col.  D.  C.  Par- 
rish,  whose  death  a  few  months  ago  cast  a  profound  gloom 
and  sadness  throughout  the  entire  community.  Attended 
school  at  Round  Hill,  Knap  of  Reeds,  South  Lowell  and 
Cedar  Grove,  and  when  prepared  for  college,  entered  the 
Sophomore  Class  at  Trinity,  under  the  late  Dr.  B.  Craven, 
but  owing  to  the  enforcement  of  the  "  Reserve  Act," 
passed  by  the  Confederate  Congress,  was  not  permitted 
to  remain.  Leaving  college,  he  went  to  Raleigh  and  ac- 
cepted the  position  of  Mailing  Clerk  on  the  Spirit  ofiheAge^ 
(newspaper)  which  was  subsequently  merged  into  The  Con- 
servative, the  organ  of  the  State  Administration,  when  he 
was  tendered  and  accepted  the  position  of  book-keeper.  In 
this  position  it  was  thought  he  would  be  exempt  from  mili- 
tary duty.  This  position  failing  to  secure  the  desired  relief, 
through  the  influence  of  the  many  friends  he  had  won 
while  in  Raleigh,  he  was  offered,  and  accepted,  a  position  in 
the  Roll  of  Honor  Office,  under  Major  James  H.  Foote.  He 
entertained  strong  aversion  to  taking  up  arms  against  the 
old  flag,  under  which  his  father,  as  Colonel,  had  so  often 
drilled.  Having  arrived  at  the  age  of  18,  however,  he  was 
placed  in  the  dilemma  of  either  entering  the  service  or  de- 
serting his  people.  He  did  not  hesitate  long,  his  State  pride 
and  love  of  home  and  the  "  boys  in  gray  " — the  cherished 

0^/yr^    t/yz^c^ 



Biographical  Sketches.  145 

playmates  of  yore,  counterbalanced  if  not  entirely  obliter- 
ated bis  prejudices,  and  be  enlisted,  being  assigned  lo  ibe 
4tb  N.  C.  Calvary,  where,  as  in  all  other  positions,  he  dis- 
charged his  duty  with  strict  fidelity,  as  many  old  comrades 
cheerfully  testify.  At  the  close  of  the  war,  he  came  home, 
finding  all  his  father's  property  devastated.  Accepting  the 
situation  iCf  good  faith,  he  immediately  took  hold  of  the 
plow  handles,  and,  as  it  were,  began  life  anew.  After  tilling 
the  soil  for  some  time,  he  concluded  to  embark  in  some  other 
enterprise.  Accordingly  he  sought  and  obtained  a  situation 
in  Raleigh  as  salesman  in  one  of  the  leading  dry  goods 
stores.  Possessing  keen  business  sagacity,  coupled  with 
indomitable  will  and  energy,  he  was  soon  recognized  as  one 
of  the  best  salesmen  in  the  city.  His  native  courtesy  and 
gentlemanly  bearing  soon  enlisted  around  him  man}'  warm 
friends  who,  feeling  interested  in  his  advancement,  secured 
for  him  a  position  under  the  government,  and  he  at  once 
entered  upon  the  discharge  of  the  duties  pertaining  thereto, 
proving  himself  faithful  and  eminently  worthy  of  all  trusts 
imposed  upon  him.  He  early  manifested  extraordinary 
talents  as  a  business  man  and  financier.  While  in  the  ser- 
vice of  the  government,  he  married,  October  5th,  1870,  Miss 
Rosa,  youngest  daughter  of  Capt.  E.  Bryan  Haywood,  of 
Chatham  county.  In  January,  1871,  he  resigned  his  posi- 
tion under  the  government  and  moved  to  Durham,  and 
opened  a  grocery  and  confectionery  store.  Durham  at  that 
time  being  but  a  small  railroad  station,  he  did  very  little 
business.  In  May,  1871,  he  accepted  the  position  of  auc- 
tioneer in  the  first  tobacco  warehouse  opened  in  Durham, 
under  Mr.  Henry  A.  Reams,  proprietor.  The  sales,  occur- 
ring then  only  about  twice  a  week,  did  not  interfere  much 
with  his  store.  He  continued  with  Mr.  Reams  until  1873 , 
when  the  Farmer's  Warehouse  was  completed  and  opened 
by  himself  and  Mr.  J.  E.  Lyon,  under  the  name  and  style 
of  Parrish  &  Lyon.    He  continued  business  with  Mr.  Lyon 


146  History  of  Durham. 

until  the  panic  of  1873,  when  the  warehouse  was  closed, 
the  firm  losing  about  all  they  had  made  since  the  opening 
of  the  house.  When  operations  were  again  resumed,  Mr. 
Lyon  concluded  to  withdraw,  and  Mr.  Parrish  became  sole 
proprietor,  and  despite  of  all  opposition  soon  built  up  a 
lucrative  trade  and  a  name  which  commands  respect  and 
confidence  in  ever}'  important  tobacco  market  i-n  America. 
In  1876  the  Old  Durham  Warehouse — the  first  warehouse 
built — was  rented  at  auction  for  a  term  of  three  years,  and 
was  bid  off  by  Mr.  Parrish  at  the  enormous  sum  of  S2,000 
per  annum.  During  these  years  he  pushed  onward  with 
great  vigor  and  deserved  success,  and  with  the  continued 
growth  of  the  town,  esteemed  it  prudent  to  select  a  more 
suitable  location  for  his  business;  hence  the  establishment 
of  the  imposing  and'commodious  brick  Warehouse  where 
he  is  at  present  doing  business  as  the  recognized  leading 
warehouseman  of  North  Carolina.  The  building  was  com- 
pleted, and  the  opening  sale  occurred  August  29th,  1879. 
This  was  one  of  the  most  important  occasions  in  the  history 
of  the  town — giving  Durham  a  new  and  powerful  impetus 
on  the  highway  of  prosperity  and  commercial  importance 
as  a  tobacco  market.  About  80,000  pounds  of  tobacco  were 
sold  by  this  warehouse  on  that  auspicious  day,  Mr.  Parrish 
paying  out  to  planters  the  aggregate  sum  of  $15,000,  and 
the  happpy  fortune  and  favorable  impressions  then  engen- 
dered have  never  deserted  the  house.  On  April  1st,  1880, 
Mr.  J.  W.  Blackwell  was  admitted  as  a  partner  in  the  busi- 
ness, which  was  conducted  under  the  name  and  style  of 
Parrish  &  Blackwell  until  the  1st  of  January,  1884,  when 
Mr.  Parrish  bought  out  Mr.  Blackwell's  interest,  paying  for 
the  same  the  sum  of  eighty  thousand  dollars  cash.  In  1881 
the  firm  built  a  large  three-story  brick  Prize  House,  44x120 
feet,  and  since  the  purchase  of  Mr.  Blackwell's  interest  Mr. 
Parrish  has  found  it  necessary  to  erect  another  large  Prize 
House  50x120  feet,  thus  giving  him  a  combined  Prize  House 
area  of  39,840  feet,  which,  with  his  warehouse  56x225  and 

Biographical  Sketches.  147 

basement  same  size,  gives  bim  larger  and  better  facilities 
for  operating  bis  immense  tobacco  trade  than  is  possessed 
by  any  other  warehouseman  in  the  State,  and  the  many 
advantages  which  he  possesses  are  all  utilized,  not  only  for 
the  advancement  of  Durham,  as  a  tobacco  mart,  but  also  to 
promote  the  bfst  interests  of  the  planters  who  seek  this  mar- 
ket from  all  directions — many  coming  even  from  within  a 
few  miles  of  other  markets.  Superior  prices  and  accommo- 
dations are  certainly  augmenting  the  tobacco  trade  of  the 
tcAv'n,  building  up  other  M'arehouses  and  other  interests. 

Mr.  Parrish  is,  and  has  ever  been  considered,  one  of  our 
most  enterprising  and  reliable  business  men,  and  is  very 
popular  among  all  classes.  Courteous,  affable  and  enter- 
taining,— unassuming,  yet  possessing  a  native  and  prepos- 
sessing dignity  and  grace  of  bearing  and  manner,  which 
draws  about  him — for  advice,  encouragement  and  assis- 
tance— all  classes  of  our  citizens  from  the  most  learned  and 
affluent  to  the  most  illiterate  and  humble.  Full  of  the  love 
of  the  blessed  Master,  and  seeking  to  emulate  His  example, 
he  is  ever  "going  abuut  doing  good,"  mingling  with  ivords 
of  kindness,  deeds  of  charity  and  philanthropy.  No  worthv 
object  of  charity  is  ever  turned  empty-handed  from  his  door. 
The  young  man,  struggling  to  rise  in  the  world  ever  finds 
in  him  a  warm  friend  and^helping  hand.  Of  strong,  tena- 
cious attachments,  nothing  can  shake  bis  friendship  for  a 
man  or  cause,  which  is  straightforward  and  honorable. 
Wherever  he  can  discover  a  yearning  and  a  purpose  to  do 
right,  he  is  ever  ready  to  throw  the  mantle  of  charity  over 
the  faults  and  mistakes  of  his  neighbor — never  deserting  a 
ship  as  long  as  there  is  the  least  glimmer  of  hope,  and  until 
after  every  means  has  been  exhausted  for  her  safe  moorage. 
Such  a  man  is  a  great  blessing  to  any  community.  He  is 
a  chip  of  the  old  block — a  worthy  son  of  a  noble  sire. 

He  has  acted  in  many  public  positions,  as  Trustee,  Com- 
missioner, Mayor,  &c.,  and  has  been  tendered  the  senatorial 

148  History  of  Durham. 

nomination  of  this  district  by  the  Democratic  party,  of  which 
he  is  a  faithful  and  useful  member.  He  is  now  Captain  of 
the  Durham  Light  Infantry,  having  been  elected  to  that 
position  before  he  became  a  member.  Having  always  served, 
in  the  various  public  positions  he  has  filled,  with  great  effi- 
cienc}^  and  acceptability,  there  is  no  position  within  the  gift 
of  the  people  to  which  he  might  not  attain  if  he  choose. 
But  he  is  devoted  to  his  warehouse  business  and  pleasantly 
rejects  all  overtures. 


Born  in  Goldsboro,  N.  C,  September  3d,  1851.  The  war 
occurring  when  he  was  but  ten  years  of  age,  interfered  with 
his  education.  Entered  the  printing  office  of  his  father,  J. 
B,  Whitaker,  Sr.,  and  early  manifested  fitness  for  this  avo- 
cation. Soon  became  a  swift  compositor,  and  was  acknowl- 
edged one  of  the  fastest  composers  of  type  in  the  State. 
Indeed,  when  about  15  years  of  age  he  publicly  issued  a 
challenge  for  a  contest  with  any  printer  in  the  State,  not 
over  18  3^ears  of  age,  and  this  challenge  was  never  accepted. 
At  19  years  of  age  he  was  employed  as  a  journeyman  on 
the  Wilmington  Daily  Journal,  published  by  Engelhard  & 
Price,  and  soon  won  the  distinction  of  being  the  swiftest 
compositor  in  that  office.  When  a  youth  he  published  a 
humorous  paper,  which  had  quite  a  run.  Has  occupied  the 
positions  of  local  reporter  of  Goldsboro  News  and  local  editor 
of  the  Goldsboro  Messenger.  At  one  time  he  was  owner  and 
editor  of  an  advertising  sheet,  called  the  Weekly  Advertiser. 
Was  married  April  25th,  1871,  to  Miss  Sallie  A.  Jones,  of 
Goldsboro.  Mr.  Whitaker  held  in  Goldsboro  the  positions 
of  Assistant-Postmaster  and  Town  Clerk,  although  a  Demo- 
crat. A  very  high  compliment,  attesting  his  merits,  as  in 
this  case  politics  were  ignored,  and  Republicans  voted  for 
him  from  higher  motives  than  those  which  usually  actuate 

Biographical  Sketches.  149 

the  average  voter.  In  these  positions  he  acquitted  himself 
with  credit  to  himself  and  acceptability  to  his  constituents. 
Moved  to  Durham  in  Februar}-,  1877,  to  take  charge  of  the 
job  printing  ofiice  of  Blackwell's  Durham  Tobacco  Co. 
Held  that  position  until  June,  1879,  when  he  purchased  the 
job  printing  office  of  D.  W.  Whitaker,  and  built  up  a  suc- 
cessful business.  His  oflSce  was  almost  entirely  destroyed 
by  the  great  fire  of  1880.  But  he  immediately  purchased 
a  new  outfit,  and  now  has  a  well  equipped  job  office,  and  is 
doing  a  good  business.  It  is  generall}'  conceded  that  his 
bronze  printing  stands  in  the  front  rank  of  excellence.  His 
work  generally  far  surpasses  that  of  any  other  printing 
done  in  Durham.  Was  a  delegate  to  the  only  two  Demo- 
cratic County  Conventions  held  since  the  formation  of  Dur- 
ham county.  Was  also  a  delegate  to  the  last  Congressional 
Convention.  He  took  an  active  part,  (as  he  does  in  all 
other  high  and  commendable  movements)  in  the  late  pro- 
hibition campaign,  which  cause  was  defeated  only  by  an 
amalgamated  combination  of  Republicans,  Liberals  and 
anti-prohibitionists.  This  cause,  though  snowed  under  for  the 
time  being,  must — because  it  is  just,  humane  and  holy — 
sooner  or  later  triumph.  The  education  of  public  senti- 
ment may  seem  slow  and  tedious,  but  we  thank  God  that 
it  is  sure.  Ever}'  convert  is  a  convert  for  time  and  eternity — 
because  each  conversion  is  superinduced  by,  and  predicated 
upon,  pure  and  lofty  principles  of  humanity,  morality  and 
religion.  But  we  are  somewhat  diverging.  Mr.  Whitaker, 
be  it  said  to  his  everlasting  honor,  was  an  enthusiastic  coad- 
jutor in  the  temperance  movement,  and  if  he  should  have 
no  other,  it  will  be  a  noble  heritage  to  leave  his  children. 
But  he  will  leave  them  a  life  whose  acts  and  aims  bear  the 
impress  of  lofty  motives — unselfishness  and  unswerving 
devotion  to  the  best  interests  of  his  fellowmen.  In  what- 
ever position  he  has  been  called  to  act,  whether  social,  polit- 
ical or  religious,  he  has  kept  an  eye  single  to  the  glory  of 

150  History  of  Durham. 

God  and  the  elevation  of  man.  His  is  a  character  the 
writer  delights  to  contemplate  and  hold  up  for  emulation. 
He  was  among  the  foremost  leaders  in  the  Graded  School 
movement  in  its  darkest  daj^s,  when  it  seemed  an  almost 
forlorn  hope.  And  as  an  cxpresssion  of  the  appreciation 
entertained  for  his  untiring  zeal  in  this  cause,  he  was  elected 
a  member  of  the  Durham  Board  of  Education  and  Learn- 
ing in  1882  for  one  year,  and  re-elected  in  1883  for  two 
years,  and  he  has  been  Secretary  of  the  Board  ever  since  its 
organization — the  only  member  who  has  been  present  at 
every  meeting.  Was  a  Trustee  of  the  Methodist  Female 
Seminary,  which  position  he  resigned  and  accepted  his 
present  position  on  the  Board  of  Education  and  Learning. 


The  subject  of  this  sketch  is  one  of  the  representative 
men  of  the  New  South,  commencing  business  in  a  small 
16x16  log  house,  located  in  the  vicinity  of  Durham,  he  has, 
by  honest  industry  and  sapient  management,  established 
one  of  the  largest  manufacturing  industries  of  the  South, 
and  his  name  has  become  a  household  word  wherever  the 
silvery  smoke  of  the  fragrant  weed  floats  upon  the  breezes 
of  commerce. 

Mr.  Duke  was  born  in  that  part  of  Orange  now  forming 
the  western  portion  of  Durham  county,  on  the  20th  day  of 
December,  A.  D.  1820.  Received  only  eight  months'  school- 
ing, graduating  with  high  distinction  at  the — Plow  Han- 
dles, an  institution  which  is  the  bone  and  sinew  of  our 
great  republican  nationality  ;  an  institution  upon  which 
the  perpetuity  of  our  greatness  as  a  people  is  based,  and 
from  which  our  greatest  men  have  come  to  bless  the  world 
and  leave  behind  them  a  halo  of  imperishable  glory.  Pos- 
sessing fine  mental  qualities,  coupled  with  a  pertinacious 
energy,  Mr.  Duke  soon  acquired  a  fair  business  education 


gj^pc-.-s  .£S  •.  •-  :;  <v 

Biographical  Sketches.  151 

and  a  vast  amount  of  general  information.  He  followed 
farming  pursuits  until  1863,  when  he  entered  the  Confed- 
erate Navy  and  was  stationed  at  Charleston,  S.  C.  Left 
Charleston  in  September,  1864,  and  took  charge  of  the  bat- 
teries at  Battery  Brook,  two  miles  below  Drury's  Bluff,  in 
Virginia,  and  is  said  to  have  been  one  of  the  most  expert 
managers  of  artillery  in  the  Confederate  service.  Distin- 
guished himself  in  the  heavy  bombardments  at  James 
Island,  Charleston,  S.  C,  and  frequently  at  Battery  Brook, 
where  he  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of  Orderly  Sergeant. 
Captured  at  Appomattox  in  1865,  and  lodged  in  Castle  Thun- 
der, where  he  remained  two  weeks,  when  he  was  removed 
to  New  Berne,  N.  C,  and  paroled.  From  New  Berne  he 
walked  home — a  distance  of  134  miles,  and,  accepting  the 
situation  in  good  faith,  applied  himself  once  more  to  tilling 
the  soil. 

Prior  to  his  enlistment  in  the  Confederate  service,  Mr. 
Duke  wisely  converted  all  the  means  he  had  earned  by 
years  of  honest  industry  into  tobacco,  rented  out  his  farm, 
receiving  his  rent  in  tobacco,  his  object  being  to  have  a 
large  supply  of  tobacco  on  hand  when  the  war  closed.  He 
anticipated  that  after  the  war  tobacco  would  be  the  great 
leading  staple  of  commerce  in  this  section.  The  large 
quantity  he  had  stored  away,  however,  was  pressed  into  ser- 
vice by  the  armies  of  Johnson  and  Sherman,  and  thus  dis- 
tributed all  over  the  Union,  and  what  was  then  considered 
a  great  calamity  by  Mr.  Duke  and  others  who  lost  tobacco, 
proved  ultimately  to  be  a  great  blessing.  So  when  he  ar- 
rived at  home  from  the  war  he  found  his  accumulations 
"  scattered  to  the  four  winds  " — everything  swept  away  ex- 
cept his  little  farm.  But  with  an  undaunted  spirit  and  in- 
defatigable energy,  he  applied  himself  to  the  building  up 
of  his  devastated  fortune.  His  great  success  is  due  mainly 
to  economy — living  always  within  his  means — industrj% 
and  wise,  prudential  management.     He  commenced    the 

152  HistORY  OF  Durham, 

manufacture  of  and  traffic  in  tobacco  in  the  latter  part  of 
1865,  on  his  farm  near  Durham,  alternately  manufacturing 
and  peddling  his  own  goods,  working  upon  a  strictly  cash 
basis.  The  only  cash  he  had  to  begin  with  was  a  silver  fifty 
-cent  piece,  given  to  him  by  a  Yankee  in  exchange  for  a 
Confederate  -$5  note.  This  was  the  nucleus  of  W.  Duke 
Sons  &  Co.'s  gigantic  tobacco  manufacturing  enterprise  at 
Durham.  Never  employing  extraneous  capital,  he  always 
■conducted  his  business  within  the  limits  of  the  revenue 
accruing  therefrom — a  wise,  prudential,  business  principle. 

The  little  16x16  log  factory  on  the  farm  soon  became  too 
small.  His  business  increased  so  rapidly  that  in  1872  he 
moved  to  Durham  and  erected  a  three-story  wood  factory, 
40x70  feet,  on  the  north  side  of  the  N.  C.  Railroad.  This  he 
supposed  would  be  amply  sufficient  to  meet  all  the  future 
demands  of  his  business.  But  the  demand  for  his  goods 
continued  to  increase  with  such  great  rapidity  that  enlarged 
facilities  became  indispensable.  Several  other  buildings 
were  soon  erected,  giving  him  a  combined  floorage  area  of 
65,240  feet.  And  yet  this  immense  floorage  capacity  is  in- 
adequate, and  he  proposes,  and  is  making  arrangements  for 
the  erection  of  a  four-story  brick  factory,  which  will  be 
completed  by  the  1st  of  July.  This  new  building  will  have 
a  floorage  capacity  of  40,000  feet — making  a  grand  total 
floorage  area  of  105,240  feet. 

Mr.  Duke  was  a  Justice  of  the  Peace  for  several  years 
during  the  reconstruction  era,  discharging  the  duties  of 
that  position  with  marked  ability  and  impartiality.  Was 
a  member  of  the  first  Board  of  Commissioners  for  Durham 
county,  and  always  discharged  his  duties  with  strict  adher- 
ence to  the  best  interests  of  the  people.  He  is  one  of  the 
most  liberal  and  charitable  men  among  us.  His  contribu- 
tions to  benevolent  purposes  run  up  into  the  thousands  an- 
nually, and  he  is  one  of  our  most  highly  esteemed  citizens. 
jHe  was  nominated  for  the  office  of  State  Treasurer  at  the 

Biographical  Sketches.  153 

Republican  Convention  held  at  Raleigh  in  May,  1884.  Mr. 
Duke  has  always  been  a  quiet  man  in  politics,  but  always 
voted  with  the  Republican  party.  Should  he  be  elected,  he 
would  be  a  safe  man  to  handle  the  State  funds. 


The  subject  of  this  sketch  is  so  intimately  connected  with 
the  rise,  progress  and  development  of  Durham  as  a  great 
tobacco  market,  that  any  history  of  the  town,  failing  to  give 
him  honorable  mention,  would  be  grossly  unjust,  incom- 
plete and  utterly  unworthy  of  public  favor.  To  him  justly 
belongs  the  distinction  of  being  the  pioneer  warehouseman 
of  Durham.  He  was  born  in  Granville  county  on  the  13th 
da}'  of  March,  1842 — a  son  of  John  P.  Reams,  Esq.,  a  man- 
ufacturer of  tobacco  for  thirty-seven  years.  Mr.  H.  A.  Reams, 
therefore,  was  trained  from  infancy  to  manhood  in  the  to- 
bacco business,  and  what  he  does  not  know  about  tobacco  is 
hardly  w^orth  learning.  His  father  gave  him  a  fair  English 
education.  He  commenced  the  manufacture  of  tobacco  for 
himself  when  only  eighteen  years  of  age.  Was  married 
January  14th,  1863,  to  Miss  Bettie  Allen,  daughter  of 
Nicholas  W.  Allen,  Esq.,  of  Person  county.  He  continued 
in  the  manufacturing  business  until  1869,  during  which 
year  his  factory  was  barned. 

On  the  18th  of  May,  1871,  he  opened  a  warehouse  in  Dur- 
ham for  the  sale  of  leaf  tobacco,  and  sold  on  that  day  the 
first  leaf  tobacco  ever  sold  at  auction  in  Durham.  During 
the  year  1871  he  sold  about  700,000  pounds  of  tobacco,  and 
with  untiring  energy  and  self-sacrifice,  he  continued  to  en- 
large his  business  until  his  sales  amounted  to  between  four 
and  five  million  pounds  per  annum.  No  one  worked  more 
assiduously,  or  deserves  more  credit,  than  Mr.  Reams,  for 
the  establishment  of  the  tobacco  market  of  Durham.  It  was 
in  its  infancy,  and  therefore  a  time  when  hard   work  and 

154  History  of  Durham. 

not  a  little  sacrifice  were  necessary,  and  it  may  be  truly  said 
to  his  honor  that  Mr.  Reams  manfully  bore  the  "  heat  and 
burden  of  the  day."  In  many  instances  when  buyers  had 
purchased  all  the  tobacco  they  wished,  and  yet  a  large  sur- 
plus remained  unsold,  he  would  urge  them  to  bid  on  at  full 
market  price — often  even  more  than  other  markets  were 
paying,  in  order  to  build  up  our  market,  and  encourage 
planters  to  bring  their  tobacco  to  Durham — having  said 
surplus,  when  the  sales  were  closed,  charged  to  himself.  In 
this  way  he  lost  a  great  deal  of  money,  as  he  would  often  be 
compelled  to  sell  the  same  tobacco  for  less  than  he  paid. 
And  all  this  sacrifice  he  cheerfully  bore  for  no  other  purpose 
than  to  establish  this  great  Central  Belt  Market  which 
stands  to-day,  second  t(^  none  in  the  State,  and  one  of  the 
leading  tobacco  marts  of  the  United  States.  Truly  this  is  a 
most  striking  manifestation  of  self-abnegation,  and  worthy 
of  unfeigned  praise  and  emulation.  For  eight  years  from 
the  time  he  opened  his  warehouse,  there  were  no  banking 
facilities  in  Durham,  and  he  had  to  transact  his  banking 
business  in  Raleigh,  a  distance  of  twenty-seven  miles. 

He  is  now  engaged  in  the  leaf  trade,  dealing  only  in  the 
best  of  N.  C.  Brights,  is  doing  a  very  large  business,  and 
assuredly  has  earned  and  justly  deserves  an  abundant  suc- 


This  noble  son  of  North  Carolina  was  born  in  the  town  of 
Fayetteville.  He  graduated  at  the  State  University  at 
Chapel  Hill  about  the  year  1850  or  1851,  with  the  highest 
honors,  and  was  a  classmate  of  Judge  Manning,  now  Pro- 
fessor of  Law  at  that  institution,  and  also  of  Judge  Samuel 
Holmes,  of  California. 

After  his  return  from  the  University  he  commenced  the 
study  of  law,  under  the  direction  of  Hon.  Warren  Winslow, 
of  Fayetteville,  who  for  some  time  represented  that  district 

Biographical  Sketches.  155 

in  Congress,  and  was  for  a  short  time  Governor  of  the  State. 
After  practicing  law  for  some  years  in  Fayetteville,  Mr. 
Fuller  accepted  a  position  tendered  him,  through  Mr.  Wins- 
low's  influence,  in  Washington  City,  as  Fifth  Auditor  in  the 
Treasury  Department,  which  position  he  filled  until  the 
breaking  out  of  the  war  in  18G1,  when  he  resigned  and  cast 
his  lot  with  his  native  State.  After  the  close  of  the  war  he 
resumed  the  practice  of  law  in  connection  with  his  brother 
Col.  Thomas  C.  Fuller,  now  of  Raleigh,  and  continued  with 
him  for  some  years,  but  subsequently  removed  to  Durham, 
where  he  spent  the  remainder  of  his  days.  Mr.  Fuller  was 
an  eminently  good  and  true  man  ;  for  many  years  an  active 
Ruling  Elder  in  the  Presbyterian  church;  a  man  of  calm,  quiet 
and  rather  retiriug  disposition  ;  exceedingly  amiable  and 
genial  in  his  nature;  of  striking  personal  appearance,  and 
possessing  a  large  amount  of  native  dignity — a  man  to  whom 
everyone  felt  drawn,  whom  every  one  honored  and  respected. 
One  of  the  best  of  scholars,  a  man  of  broad  reading  and 
rich  culture,  with  a  clear  and  sound  judgment,  he  seemed 
capable  of  filling  any  position,  and  his  death  was  a  sad 
loss  to  the  city  and  indeed  to  the  State.  He  died  at  his  resi- 
dence in  Durham,  on  the  2Sth  of  November,  1882,  after  a 
a  sickness  of  several  months. 

J.   S.   LOCKHART. 

This  is  one  of  the  most  energetic,  affable  and  deservedly 
popular  warehousemen  known  in  Tobacco  circles,  as  well  as 
one  of  the  leading  business  men  of  Durham,  and  one  of  its 
first  settlers.  He  came  to  this  city  just  after  the  close  of  the 
late  civil  war,  with  limited  means,  and  commenced  the 
manufacture  of  smoking  tobacco.  But  finding  that  he 
could  not  successfully  compete  with  the  Bull  and  other  es-- 
tablished  brands,  which  had  acquired  universal  popularity, 
he  judiciously  identified  himself  with  the  Leaf  and  Fertil- 

156  History  of  Durham. 

izer  business.  He  also  opened  a  warehouse.  His  success 
in  this  branch  of  the  trade  has  been  truly  remarkable.  He 
has  just  completed  one  of  the  largest  warehouses  in  the 
State,  and  judging  from  his  past  success,  if  he  is  not  soon, 
the  leading  warehouseman,  he  will  at  least  have  no  superior. 
By  his  unimpeachable  business  integrity  and  sagacity,  to- 
gether with  his  high-toned,  moral  and  religious  life,  he  has 
succeeded  in  winning  for  himself  a  handsome  estate  and 
the  respect  and  esteem  of  all  who  know  him.  He  is  thor- 
oughly identified  with  our  bright  tobaccos,  and  has  done 
much  toward  introducing  them  to  the  notice  of  tobacco 
dealers  generally.  His  building  is  erected  with  special  ref- 
erence to  the  preservation  of  the  different  qualities  of  the 
special  tobaccos  he  handles.  On  the  daj'  of  the  opening 
sale  of  the  new  Banner  Warehouse,  Mr.  Lockhart  sold  63,- 
276  pounds  of  tobacco  for  $16,115.23,  making  an  average  of 
$25.46  for  everything  in  the  house.  It  was  by  far  the  biggest 
sale  that  ever  took  place  in  Durham  at  any  one  house. 


Are  among  the  largest  buyers  on  the  Durham  market. 
For  strict  business  integrity  and  honest  dealings,  they  have 
secured  the  confidence  of  a  large  number  of  manufacturers 
and  buy  largely  on  order. 

Col.  Webb,  the  senior  member  of  the  firm,  was  born  in 
Baltimore.  Moved  to  North  Carolina  in  1875.  When  quite 
a  youth,  he  volunteered  in  the  Mexican  war  as  a  private ; 
was  promoted  to  a  Lieutenancy,  and  honorably  discharged 
at  the  close  of  the  war.  At  the  breaking  out  of  the  war  be- 
tween the  States,  he  organized  a  company  and  joined  the 
celebrated  Fisher  Regiment.  He  was  rapidly  promoted 
until  he  became  its  Colonel.  He  commanded  his  Regiment 
in  fourteen  severe  battles.  He  was  severely  wounded  at  An- 
tietam,  and  was  finally  captured  at  Rappahannock  Bridge. 

Biographical  Sketches.  157 


He  lingered  the  balance  of  the  war  in  prison.  In  1865  he 
was  elected  to  the  Legislature  from  Orange,  and  introduced 
the  first  bill  in  that  body  to  incorporate  the  then  little  vil- 
lage of  Durham  Mr.  Webb  is  iji  the  prime  of  life,  and  as  a 
buyer  of  the  leaf  is  still  a  bo}'  among  the  bo3's. 

Mr.  Albert  Kramer,  the  junior  member  of  the  firm,  was 
born  in  Raleigh.  He  is  a  young  man  of  fine  business  train- 
ing. He  has  traveled  extensively  in  Europe,  where  he 
completed  his  business  studies.  He  has  acquired  a  thor- 
ough knowledge  of  the  tobacco  business,  and  as  a  dealer 
has  few  superiors 

New  Machinery,  Skillful  Workmen. 

Wilkerson,  Christian  &  Co., 

DURHAM,  N.  C, 



And  are  prepared  to  execute,  on  short  notice,  every  style 
of  work  in  their  line,  such  as 

Sash,  Doors  and  Blinds, 

FOR    INSIDP:    AND    OUT. 



All  Kinds  of  Scroll  Work. 

Also  LUMBER— Dried  and  Dressed  on  Short  Notice. 

158  History  of  Durham. 

iF'-^izeT  III 

The  TebacGQ  Interests  ef  Rorth  Gareliria. 


Map  OF  Yellow  Tobacco  Belt — Early  History — Modern 
Progress — Area  of  Tobacco — Mode  of  Conducting 
Trade — Culture  and  Curing— Grades,  Prices,  Soil, 
Analyses,  Etc 

Prior  to  the  discovery  of  America,  liistoiy  nowhere  inti- 
mates the  use  or  existence  of  such  a  weed  as  Tobacco.  It  is 
therefore  fair  to  conclude  tljat  it  is  purely  an  American 
plant.  Its  almost  universal  adoption  by  mankind,  as  soon 
as  its  merits  were  ascertained,  is  a  conclusive  evidence  that 
it  had  not  been  known — as  tobacco — anywhere  in  the  civil- 
ized world.  It  was  first  discovered  by  the  followers  of 
Columbus  about  the  year  1492  or  '93.  The  Aborigines 
were  found  smoking  and  chewing  the  fragrant  weed  Tlie 
name  of  this  plant,  according  to  the  best  authority,  is  de- 
rived from  the  Island  of  Tobago,  one  of  the  West  Indies, 
where  it  was  cultivated.  It  was  first  discovered  in  use 
among  the  natives  of  Cuba,  and  was  first  cultivated  by  the 
colonists  in  Virginia  about  the  year  1614.  King  James 
wrote  and  published  a  book  violently  opposing  its  use;  but 
notwithstanding  this  high  and  royal  opposition,  it  soon 
became,  and  still  continues,  an  important  factor  in  the  com- 
merce of  the  world.  It  was  first  introduced  in  England  in 
1573,  through  samples  brought  by  Sir  Francis  Drake.  It 
is  claimed  that  Sir  Walter  Raleigh  not  only  practiced  but 
encouraged  its  use.  It  soon  became  very  popular,  insomuch 
that  not  even  the  opposition  of  the  English  potentate  could 
impede  its  rapid  introduction  and  use. 



Prepared  by  the  Editor  of  the  State  Chronicle,  with  great  care,  and  may  be  relied  upon  as  accurate 

This  map  shows  the  Yellow  Tobacco-Belt  of  North  Carolina.  The  counties  that  have  the  heaviest  black  lines  lor  their  boundaries,  sueli  as  ( iranville,  Vance,  Runcombe,  etc.,  are  those  which  produce  the  most  tobacco;  the  less 
heavy  parallel  light  lines,  are  those  which  produce  less,  and  so  on.  The  connlies  with  dotted  lines  about  them,  such  as  Kdgeoombe,  Moore,  Montgomery,  etc.,  are  those  which  contain  good  tobacco  lands  on  which,  however, 
tobacco  has  not  yet  been  made  a  leading  crop.    The  acreage  is  extending  with  unprecedented  rapidity.    The  map  shows  also  the  position  of  the  Tobacco-Towns. 

The  Chronicle  has  received  estimates  from  well  informed  tobacco  dealers  and  farmers  in  all  the  principal  tooacco  counties  of  this  year  s  crop,  if  the  season  be  favorable  (of  which  there  Is  now  every  promise.)  The  estimates 
are  as  follows:  Granville,  5,250,000;  Per.son,  5,000,000;  Caswell,  5,000,000;  Rockingham,  5,000,000;  Iredell,  4,000,000;  .Stokes,  3,500,000;  Vance,  .JiOOO.OOO;  Durliam.  .•J,000,000;  Forsyth,  3,000,000;  Surry,  3,000,000; 
Buncombe,  a,500, 000;  Madison,  2,000,000;  Orange,  2,000,000;  .\lamance,  1,500,000;  Warren,  1,500,000;  Hay  wood,  1,000,000;  other  counties,  15,000,000-    Xotal,  65,250,000  pouncI»i. 

The  figures  from  the  census  now  fall  far  short  ol  the  mark.  They  were  used  because  no  others  could  serve  as  a  basis  for  compari-iOB.  .North  Carolina  now  produces  more  than  (If,  {MIVXK)  pounds  per  year,  and  has  about  2WJ 

It  is  the  duty  and  the  pleasure  of  the  State  Bureau  of  .Agrieultuie  (at  Raleigh)  to  give  defluite  inlormation  about  the  resources  of  the  state  anil  otiicr  kindred  sut)jects:  Mr.  M  McGkhek,  Commissioner;  Mr  P.  M.  Wilson, 
Secretary;  Dr.  Cha.s.  W.  Dabney,  Jr.,  State  i  hemist;  Mr.  John  T.  P.^thiok,  .state  Immigration  Agent ;  Governor  T.  J.  Iakvis,  (  liairman  of  the  Hoard. 

9mm  ^mm  ©PRfyifieLE 

(RALEIGH,  N,  C,) 

Covers  the  State  in  its  circulation,  and  has  the  largest  home  advertising  pat- 
ronage enjoyed  by  any  newspaper  in  the  State.    The  following 
were  among  its  advertising  patrons  between 
Jan.  1st  and  June  1st,  1881. 

Artist— E.  L.  Harris,  Raleigh. 

Banks— Bank  of  Durham- 
Citizens'  National  Bank,  Raleigh. 
Bank  of  Henderson. 
Eugene  Morehead  &  Co.,  Durham. 

Book-Binding— Edwards,    Broughioti   &    Co.. 

Bbick  Machine— Allen  &  Cram,  Raleigh. 
Buggies,  HHiETONs,  &c.~Tyson  &  Jones,  Car- 

CAMGRAPH     (Writing     Machine)- Page    and 

Arendell,  Raleigh. 
Cigars— V.  o.  Thompson  &  Co..  Wlnstoh. 

J.  S.  Toraiinson  &  Co.,  Hickory. 
Cigarettes— Allen  &  Ginier,  Richmond. 

BUickwell  Tobacco  Co.,  Durham. 

W.  Duke,  80DS  A  Co..  Durhnro. 

Kinney  Tobacco  Co.,  New  York. 
CLOTHIERS— R.  B  Andrews  &  Co.,  Raleigh. 

E.  D  Latta  &  Bro.,  t  harlolle. 
(.Coffin  House— H.  J.  Brown.  Raleigh 
i,'OTTON  PRESS—Allen  &  Cram.  Raleigh. 
C0TT0N-.SEED  Planter,   1  "  Eclipse"  )—D.  C. 

I>ytch,  Laurinburg, 
Candy   Manufacturers- A     D.   Royster   & 

Bro.,  Raleigl). 
I  IGAKS— S.  Kramer  &  Co.,  Durliam. 

S.  M.  Richardson,  Ualeigli. 
Clothiers — Berwanger  Bros  ,  Raleigh. 

Litt.  Ral 
Commission   M 
J.J.  Tbomus.  Iviileigh 
Dentisi     '      "   ■-    -- 
Drug.;  1 

NTS— C.    E. 


W.  H. 

,  Ual 

.  Kaleigh. 
nod,  Raleigh. 
■Ii.  Kali'igli. 

Pool  &  Morlng,  Raleigh. 
W.  C.  &  A.  B.  Stronach,  Raleigh. 
L.  R.  Wyatt.  Raleigh. 
WyattA  Taylor.  Raleigh. 


E.  .1. 

lialdiu. 1. 


Latta  &  Myatt, 


M  T 

Leach  & 

.■0.,  Raielsh. 

M   '1' 

Non-ls  &  Bio..  Kalelsh 


u  *  1  row 

er,  lialel^li. 


,v  l;,,,h,  , 

■■■'■'y.''  .:  ,■ 

„  Ralel 


.1    c 

^     I    ii;;,~.i 

.    1 :  ,  . 

T.  11 

1  .1  1 .\ 

-1    ;i  -    i:  i;i  i"ti 


hK    ,\    1;. 

.'i^     i/.vl.'id. 


-    I.rn  1^  ,V 

.  ...Ualeish. 


wl  ,v  Co..  Du 


-■A I)> 

II..1..-1.   .Morehead  i  it 


BrisL's  11.. I,. I.  «  ilsoii 
Central  Hotel,  Italelgh, 
Hotel  Brunswick.  Smlthville. 
Haywood  White  iSulphiir  Spi-i 


s-Fred.  A   Watsoi 

I.NSUii.4NfK~N.  c.  Home  fo.,  Rale: 
J.  J.  Mackay.  Durham. 
J.  soutliKale  &  Son.  Durhain. 
/allp>  Mutual,  Geo  ('.  .lordan,: 

W.  H. 


r.  T.  Hay,  Raleigh. 


Tucker  &  Co.,  Raleigh. 
win.  M.toiicntt.  Raleigh. 
Norris  &  ..arter.  Raleigh. 
Dkv  Goodsand  .  i.oTHiNG— J.  D.Creech  &  Co., 
L.  Ro.scuthal  &  Co.,  Raleigh. 
W.  T.  Woodward,  Raleigh. 
EDUCATio.NAL— Bingham     f,chool,     blugham 


Fray  &  -  ^ 

Horner  School,  Oxfoi-d. 

T.  J   &  W.  U.  Horner  s  School,    Henderson 

Misses  Nash  &  MlssKollock,  Hlllsb.iro. 

Peace  Institute,  Raleigh. 

Trinity  College,  Trinity  College,  N   C. 



Durham  Fertilizer  Co.,  Durham. 

Lister  Bros.,  Newark,  N.  J. 

Pine  Island  Guano,  New  London,  conn. 

l.^pshnr  Guano  Company,  Norfolk,  Va. 

Wando  .-Veld  Phosphate. 

Wan.lo  Fertilizer  Company. 
Foundry   and     Machine    shops— Allen 
Crum,  Raleigh. 

Wuinwright  &  Royall,  Wilson. 
PliRNiTUBE— E.  M.  Andrews,  Charlotte. 

Leu.  H.  Adams,  Raleigh. 

Ikon  WoitKS— Saleiii  Ii-on  Works,  salem. 
Lawyers— Peele&  Maynard.  Raleigh. 

,  NoriCK-C.  D.  Hpchurch,  C.  S.  >'.  V 

Rittenhouse,  Phlla 


W.  E.  V.  Jackson,  Raleigh. 
Georae  W  Wynne,  Raleigl.. 
IVIACIIINEKV— .-Mien  <acram,  Raleigh. 
David  .\nderson.  Raleigh. 
Md.lell  &  Co.,  Charlotte. 
Tappey  &  steel,  Petersburg. 


Gary  Shuttle  Block  Company,  Cary. 

North  Carolina  Plow  Company,  Cary. 

Pioneer  .Manufacturing  Company,  Raleigh. 

North  Carolina  Car  ^.'ompHny,  Raleigh. 
.MEDICAL- Ayer's  .Sarsaparllla,   Lowell    Mass. 

Ayer's  cherry  Pectoral,  Lowell,  MasK. 

Boshamer's  Cornicide,  Raleigh. 

Polk's  Diphtheria  Cure,  Boston. 
Newspapers— Western  Tobacco  .lournal.  Cin- 



Church  Messenger,  Charlotte. 
Gazette,  Washington,  N.  c. 
Palladium,  New  Haven,  Conn. 
Register,  Raleigh. 
Visitor,  Raleigh 


Pictures— P.  Sinclair,  Rockingham. 
Plows— Wainwright  &  Royall,  Wilson. 
Plumbing— T.  S.  Stevenson.  Raleigh. 
Printing,   Binding,  &c.— Edwards,    Brough- 

ton  &Co.,  Raleigh. 


Uzzcll  &  Galling,  Raleigh. 

P.  W.  Wiley  &  CO.,  Raleigh. 
Real  Estate — "A,"  Raleigh,  Residence. 

George  Allen  »&  Co.,  New  Berne,   Lands 
Eastern  North  Carolina. 

Natt.  Atkinson,  Asheville,  Lauds  in  Wei 
eru  North  Carolina. 

G.  W.  Blacknall,  Raleigh,  Broker. 

T.  M.  Holt.  Haw  River,  Farms. 

R.  H.  .lones,  Cary,  Factory  Building. 

E.  P.  Penick,  Mooresville,  Farm. 

C.  .■^.  r.)w.'ll.Siiulhfleld,  Farms. 

-Wai.  1-1'.. «.  I,     r.iileigh.  Water-power. 

John  .\.  w  illi.iiiis,  Oxford,  Farms. 

Th.jii.:.-  11.  n.illle,  Tarboro. 

A.  i  \V.  H.Ciiiikley.  Warrenton. 

J.  P.  Gibson.  .Mebane. 

Gray  &  Stainps,  Raleigh. 

Haywood  tfe  Haywood,  Raleigh. 
i         T.  1).  Love,  Jr..  Willis  Creek. 

J.  R.  McCorkle,     ooresville. 

Partin  &  Crowder,  Raleigh. 

J.  F.  Trolliuger,  Mebane. 

A.  T.  Sate.,  Raleigh. 

J.  D.  Shaw,  Rockingham. 

Tale  &  Trolliuger,  Mebane. 

J.  J,  Wicker,  Manly. 
RestaurantandConfections— iM..I.Mosel. 

Saw  .MiLLS-Liddcll  &  Co.,  Chai'lotte. 


rks.  Sale 
-J.  L. 

'  Mail-F.  G.  Morris 

Tobacco- chewing— P.  H.  Hanes  Jl  Co..  Win- 
P  Loi-'illard  &  Co.,  Jersey  City.  .\.  .1. 

Blackwell  Durham  Tobacco  Co.,   Durham. 

W.  Duke,  sons  dtCc,  Durham. 

Keech,  Davis  &  Co.  Hickory. 

Kinney  Tobacco  Co.,  New  "lorlc. 

1'.  Loi-illard  &  Co.,  Jersey  City,  -V.  J. 

R.   F.    Morris    &    Son     Manufacturing  Co.. 

J.  S.  Tomllnsou  &  Co.,  Hickory. 
Tobacco  (Leaf)  Brokers— W.  A.  Bohbitt.  ok- 

John  B.  Booth,  Oxford. 

B.  T.  Crump  &  Co.,  Richmond. 

Dibrell  Bros.  &  Co.,  Durham  and  Danville. 

Richard  A.  Evans,  Statesville. 

W.  E.  Gary,  Henderson. 
Tobacco  Presses  and  Machinery— The  Jno. 
H.  McGowan  Co.,  Cincinnati. 

Tappey  &  Steel,  Petei-sbui-g. 
'  Tobacco  seed— R.  L.  Ragland,  Hyco,  Va. 
Tobacco  Warehouses— Burwell   Bros.  &  Co., 

Cooper's.  Henderson. 

Davis  &  Wyche,  Henderson. 

Harrlll  &  Hampton,  Statesville. 

J.  S.  Lockhart.  Durham. 

Parrisli's,  Durliam. 

Frank  Stronach  &  Co.,  Raleigh. 
Town— Lenoir,  Caldwell  county. 
Wagons— C.  F.  Nisseu  &  Co..  Salem. 
Wants— situation  as  Book-Keeper. 

(Cotton  Seed)  Cotton  seed  Oil  .Mills,  Char- 

Teacher's  Position. 


Tobacco  Interests  of  North  Carolina.  159 

Mr.  Cameron,*  in  his  interesting  and  able  "Sketch  of  the 
Tobacco  Interests  of  North  Carolina,"  says  that  when  the 
sanguine  colonists  of  Jamestown  heard  the  result  of  their 
first  shipment  of  the  golden  sands  of  James  river,  and  learned 
that  it  was  nothing  more  than  worthless  mica  spangles,  they 
may  have  consoled  themselves  under  their  bitter  chagrin  in 
the  oblivious  cloud  of  smoke  from  the  soothing  pii^e,  and 
learned  at  length  that  in  the  tobacco  fields  they  bad  really, 
if  unwittingly,  found  a  true  El  Dorado.  For,  despairing  of 
the  discovery  of  the  metalic  gold,  they  sought  it  in  the  oul- 
ture  and  sale  of  the  weed  which  a  new  habit  had  made  in- 
dispensable to  human  luxury  and  comfort,  and  which  made 
returns  that  filled  the  coffers  of  the  planters  as  effectively 
and  substantiall}^  as  the  metallic  representative.  Gold  was 
found  above  the  soil,  not  under  it;  and  henceforward  the 
southern  colonies  went  on  to  grow  and  to  prosper,  to  become 
populous,  wealthy  and  refined,  and  to  reach  that  social  and 
political  height  which  gave  them  preeminent  influence  with 
the  other  colonies,  and  which  has  never  been  lost  through 
the  lapse  of  time,  the  shocks  of  war  or  the  reverses  of  for- 
tune.    And  this  is  all  directly  traceable  to  tobacco. 

Tobacco  was  soon  made  to  perform  also  the  functions  of 
gold  in  another  form.  Its  culture  once  firmly  established, 
and  markets  opened  for  its  disposal,  it  became  the  common 
medium  of  exchange,  the  standard  of  value,  and  almost  the 
sole  currency  of  Virginia  at  least.  It  paid  the  taxes  of  the 
farmer,  it  liquidated  his  debts  to  the  merchant,  it  satisfied 
the  parson  for  his  ministrations,  and  it  measured  the  dowry 
of  the  bride.  It  was  made  in  its  earliest  colonial  daj's,  as  it 
has  been  made  to  do  in  the  maturit}^  of  modern  common- 
wealths, to  bear  a  most  important  relation  to  the  subject  of 
revenue.  King  James,  and  his  successor,  King  Charles, 
both  strove  to  obtain  a  monopoly  of  the  sale  of  tobacco  raised 
in  Virginia,  which  the  Governor  and  Council  compromised, 
by  agieeing  to  contract  with  their  sovereign  for  at  least 
500,000  pounds,  at  3s.  and  Gd.  per  pound,  to  be  inspected 
and  guaranteed  to  be  of  uniform  good  quality,  which  is  the 
origin  of  the  present  system  of  inspection.  But  this  con- 
tract carried  with  it  another  burden  opposed  to  the  liberties 
of  agriculture.  That  the  sovereign  might  be  freed  from 
competition,  and  obtain  full  prices  for  the  amount  of  tobacco 

*We  here  desire  to  make  our  acknowledgments  to  this  geutlemau  for  much 
important  iuformatiou  in  the  preparation  of  these  pages. 

160  History  of  Durham. 

delivered  to  him,  the  planter  was  required  to  gather  only 
twelve  leaves  from  each  plant.  In  its  early  histor}'-,  as 
in  its  modern  experience,  tobacco  has  been  the  sport  of 
legislation,  the  subject  of  vexatious  laws  and  tyrannical  ex- 
actions, as  if  law-makers  had  conspired  to  punish  mankind 
for  the  facility  with  which  they  had  yielded  to  its  seductive 

North  Carolina  lagged  many  years  behind  Virginia  in  the 
extent  of  the  culture  of  tobacco;  for  whereas  all  the  tide- 
water region  of  the  latter  State  became  almost  exclusively 
devoted  to  this  staple,  long  before  the  Revolutionar}'  War, 
but  comparatively  a  small  portion  of  the  former  was  given 
up  to  it.  The  counties  of  Warren  and  Granville,  and  the 
counties  along  the  Dan,  with  portions  of  Orange  and  Chat- 
ham, under  their  former  limits,  were  probably  the  only 
counties  in  which  tobacco  was  extensively  cultivated  for 

In  North  Carolina  is  produced  tobacco  unequalled  even 
in  Virginia;  and  yet  she  is  deprived  of  her  due  credit 
both  for  quantity  and  quality.  Virginia  has  absorbed  her 
fame  as  well  as  her  products.  Statistical  tables  put  North 
Carolina  as  the  fourth  State  in  extent  of  crop,  yet  foreign 
commercial  tables  take  no  note  of  this,  and  the  fifty  or 
more  millions  of  leaf  tobacco  that  go  out  of  North  Carolina, 
go  upon  the  world  as  Virginia  tobacco.  It  is  no  reproach 
to  Virginia  that  this  is  so.  She  has  systematized  her  busi- 
ness by  the  experience  of  two  centuries,  and  shipments  from 
Richmond  and  Petersburg  had  a  guarantee  for  their  excel- 
lence in  the  fidelity,  knowledge  and  skill  of  those  who  con- 
trolled the  market.  And  Virginia  had  given  North  Carolina 
the  only  market  within  reach  of  her  producing  regions  un- 
til the  change  in  the  system  of  sales,  established  since  the 
war,  has  given  her  markets  of  her  ov/n.  It  is  our  duty  to 
show  to  the  world  what  we  are  doing,  and  vindicate  our 
fame  and  the  magnitude  of  our  resources. 

But  she  must  part  with  her  title  in  the  fame  of  her 
"  bright  yellow  tobacco,"  a  fame  based  upon  its  North  Caro- 
lina origin  and  almost  exclusive  North  Carolina  production. 

Tobacco  is  our  crowning  glory  to-day,  and  it  behooves  us, 
as  patriotic  citizens,  to  see  to  it  that  our  State  shall  have 
credit  not  only  for  the  quantity  but  quality  of  this  product. 
Affluent  in  everything  that  contributes  to  the  wealth  and 
prosperity  of  a  State,  in  our  tobacco,  crude  and  manufact- 

Tobacco  Interests  of  North  Caroijna. 


ured,  which  is  without  a  superior,  if  it  has  an  equal,  in  all 
the  world,  we  have  an  unfailing  source  of  revenue  that  alone 
is  capable  in  time  of  raising  her  to  the  first  rank  in  the 
galaxy  of  progressive  States  in  this  Union.  It  is  but  a  few 
years,  twenty-seven,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  since  the  first  bright 
North  Carolina  leaf,  as  now  known  in  trade  and  commerce, 
was  timidly  placed  upon  the  market,  and  in  the  compara- 
tively short  interval  that  has  elapsed  since  its  advent,  it  has 
become  known  and  esteemed  in  each  of  the  four  quarters 
of  the  globe. 

To  Capt.  Abishai  Slade,  of  Caswell  county,  alone  belongs 
the  honor  of  discovering  the  process  by  which  the  dark 
brown  leaf  was  converted  into  the  superb  "  Golden  Yellow," 
or  "  Bright  Leaf,"  a  most  extraordinary  and  valuable  pro- 
cess ;  one  which  has  lifted  many  an  humble  hard-struggler 
with  poverty  into  positions  of  competency  and  comfort ;  for 
it  fascinates  and  excites  the  buyer  as  if  he  could  not  pay 
too  much  for  this  beautiful  semblance  of  the  product  of  the 
mine.  And  all  this  treasure  is  almost  exclusively  in  pos- 
session of  our  State.  Until  recently  it  was  confined  to  the 
narrow  belt  running  from  south-east  to  north-west — embra- 
cing portions  of  the  counties  of  Warren,  Granville,  Orange, 
Durham,  Person,  Caswell,  Alamance  and  Rockingham,  and 
reaching  a  little  way  over  into  Virginia.  Now  that  area 
has  been  extended  by  the  addition  of  some  of  the  extreme 
eastern  counties,  and  of  the  middle  counties  of  Stokes  and 
Forsyth,  of  the  western  counties  of  Catawba,  Iredell  and 
McDowell,  and  the  trans-montane  counties  of  Buncombe, 
Madison,  Haywood,  Henderson,  Yancey  and  Transylvania. 

AREA    of   tobacco. 

The  U.  S.  Census  of  1880  places  the  product  of  leaf  tobacco 
in  this  State  for  the  year  1879  at  26,986,213  pounds.  There 
has  been  considerable  increase  since,  both  in  area  and 
pounds,  but  the  following  are  the  latest  collective  figures 
the  writer  has  been  able  to  obtain  : 




Alamance. . . 

..     1,688 


Beaufort. .  a. 


Alexander. . 





Alleghany. . . 








Brunswick  . . . 





Buncombe. . . 

..       947 







History  of  Durham. 

Acres.  Pounds. 

Burke 58  20,079 

Cabarrus 12  3.239 

Caldwell 75  25,334 

Carteret .  I  303 

Caswell 10,174  4.336,664 

Catawba 49  26,380 

Chatham 141  4Q.837 

Cherokee 42  8,411 

Chowan I  398 

Clay 25  5,771 

Cleveland 23  5.122 

Columbus 15  3.866 

Craven 6  2.732 

Davidson 484  260,538 

Davie 1,205  633,339 

Duplin 16  4,655 

Edgecombe ....  3  55° 

Forsyth 1,693  822,788 

Franklin 118  58,932 

Gaston. 7  2,180 

Gates 3  620 

Graham 4  1,095 

Granville 8,941  4,606,358 

Greene 8  1,955 

Guilford 910  422,716 

Halifax 21  8,487 

Harnett 32  9.5IO 

Haywood '.  100  39.5i6 

Henderson 29  4.087 

Hertford 7  2, 160 

Hyde 4  517 

Iredell 465  242,714 

Jackson 21  4.801 

Johnston ,  36  I2,88r 

Jones I  250 

Lenoir 45  13.500 

Lincoln 15  6,085 

McDowell 100  30,541 

Macon 46  9.154 

Madison 1,626  807,911 

Acres.  Pounds. 

Martin i  2II 

Mecklenburg..  10  2,291 

Mitchell 77  29,647 

Montgomery..  54  14,370 

Moore 70  15,724 

Nash 27  7,562 

Northampton .  36  20,484 

Onslow 2  730 

*Orange 2,323  1,178,732 

Pamlico 12  1,520 

Pender 3  690 

Perquimans...  I  400 

Person 5,768  3,012,387 

Pitt 3  59S 

Polk... 4  931 

Randolph 45  11,101 

Richmond ....  6  i ,  305 

Robeson 2  577 

Rockingham..  9,332  4,341,259 

Rowan 216  115,251 

Rutherford 38  12,908 

Sampson 28  14,352 

Stanly 8  1.735 

Stokes 4.690  2,131,161 

Surry 2,136  905,250 

Swain Ii  1,166 

Transylvania..  10  3.853 

Union 9  3.467 

*Wake 239  94.354 

Warren 1,759  992,256 

Washington...  4  685 

Watauga 23  7, 210 

Wayne 198  102,970 

Wilkes no  33.211 

Wilson 17  8,745 

Yadkin •  425  177.595 

Yancey 84  33.898 

Total 57,208  26,986,213 

From  this  exhibit  it  appears  that  of  the  ninety-six  coun- 
ties in  the  State  eighty-seven  grew  tobacco  in  1879,  though 
some  of  them  respectively  but  a  small  quantity.  There  are  no 
statistics  showing  the  quantity  actually  produced  annually 
in  the  State,  but  the  large  warehousemen  and  other  compe- 
tent judges  estimate  it  at  about  60,000,000  pounds.     The 

*The  county  of  Durham  since  formed  of  portions  of  Orange  and  Wake.  Dur- 
ham and  Wake  will  this  year  produce  over  2,000,000  pounds.  Wake  hitherto  has 
paid  very  little  attention  to  the  production  of  tobacco,  her  chief  product 
having  been  cotton.  Some  of  the  best  tobacco  lands  in  the  State  lie  in  this 
county.  Efforts  are  being  made  to  establish  a  market  at  Raleigh,  the  capital 
of  the  State. 

Tobacco  Interests  of  North  Carolina.         163 

finest  tobacco  in  this  State,  as  in  others,  is  grown  only  in  a 
few  counties. 


All  of  the  tobacco  grown  in  North  Carolina  that  is  not 
conveyed  from  the  northern  farms  to  Danville  and  other 
nearer  Virginia  markets  for  sale,  is  sold  on  open  break  in  the 
various  markets  of  the  State.  The  custom  of  selling  in  this 
manner  prevails,  as  our  readers  know,  in  Maryland,  Vir- 
ginia, Ohio,  Indiana,  Illinois,  Kentuck}^  Tennessee  and 
Missouri.  It  is  one  which  commends  itself  to  both  sellers 
and  buyers,  as  it  yields  to  the  farmers  all  that  their  products 
bring,  less  warehouse  charges,  and  to  the  latter  it  gives  op- 
portunity for  purchasing  at  first  hands  and  seeing  what 
they  buy.  The  vast  warehouses  where  the  breaks  are  es- 
tablished are  the  tobacco  growers'  havens.  To  them  they 
go,  as  they  go  to  their  homes,  feeling  assured  that  there  they 
will  receive  fair  treatment.  Most  of  the  warehouses  have 
attached  to  them  apartments  designed  and  reserved  espe- 
cially for  the  uses  of  the  farmers  and  their  teams. 

To  a  person  unaccustomed  to  the  sight,  it  is  interesting 
to  see  the  growers  in  and  about  the  warehouses,  as  among 
them  every  variety  of  the  genus  homo  may  be  met — the 
lively,  the  dull,  the  rich,  the  poor,  the  white,  the  black  ; 
men  with  one  acre,  men  with  thousands  of  acres,  and  men 
with  no  acres  at  all  except  what  they  hire.  But  with  the 
warehousemen,  the  dealers  and  the  manufacturers,  these  are 
the  men  who  are  increasing  the  wealth  of  the  "  Old  North 
State  "  at  a  rate  that  is  absolutely  astonishing.  Into  wagons 
of  various  sizes  and  forms,  but  mostly  those  drawn  by  two 
horses  or  mules ;  wagons  that  are  high  at  the  rear  and  less 
high  at  the  front ;  that  have  canvas  coverings  for  roofs,  oat 
bins  at  the  backs,  and  tool  boxes  on  the  sides — into  wagons 
of  this  description  the  growers  pack  their  precious  crops  of 
tobacco  when  they  are  ready  for  sale,  assorting  them  as  well 
as  they  can,  and  start  away  for  the  markets.  Five,  ten, 
twenty,  sixty  miles  they  come  to  the  warehouses,  sleeping 
safely  in  their  wagons  on  the  way,  so  orderly  and  law-abiding 
are  the  people  of  the  State  as  a  rule ;  and  in  an  hour  or  two 
after  their  arrival  they  are  on  their  way  home  with  the 
money  tlieir  crops  have  brought  in  their  pockets.  In  the 
busy  seasons  hundreds  of  them  arrive  daily  in  the  princi; 

164  HisTOEY  OP  Durham. 

pal  markets.  Driving  up  to  the  doorways  of  the  ware- 
houses, they  unload  their  crops  according  to  the  chissifica- 
tions  they  have  made.  The  various  classes  or  piles  are 
weighed  and  then  placed  in  order  along  the  long  floors  of 
the  warehouse.  Some  piles  weigh  but  a  few  pounds  and 
some  several  hundred  pounds,  but  on  each  pile  a  card  is 
placed  bearing  the  name  of  the  warehouse,  number  of  the 
pile,  the  farmer's  name,  the  price  the  pile  brings  when  sold, 
the  number  of  pounds  and  the  buyer's  name,  all  of  which 
are  entered  in  the  warehousemen's  books. 

The  expedition  with  which  sales  are  effected  in  the  ware- 
houses is  remarkable,  the  auctioneers  passing  from  pile  to 
pile  followed  by  the  bu3'ers,  at  the  rate  of  almost  two  to  the 
minute.  Thousands  of  pounds  of  tobacco  thus  change 
hands  in  a  few  minutes.  Farmers  can  reject  bids  when  the 
prices  do  not  ecjual  their  expectations  without  charge,  and 
obtain  free  storage  for  tobacco  withdrawn  until  it  is  again 
offered  for  sale.  Immediately  at  the  conclusion  of  the  sales, 
the  sellers  or  farmers  receive  their  pay  from  the  warehouse- 
men, less  the  charges.  The  charges  are  as  follows  :  10  cents 
per  100  pounds  for  weighing,  and  10  cents  for  fractional 
parts  of  100  pounds.  Auction  fees  are  25  cents  per  pile  for 
piles  less  than  500  pounds,  and  50  cents  per  pile  for  piles 
weighing  from  500  to  1,000  pounds,  and  $1  per  pile  for  piles 
weighing  1,000  pounds  and  over.  Commissions  3  per  cent. 
Brokerage  charges  are  75  cents  per  hundred  for  buying  and 
packing,  and  2J  per  cent,  on  net  amount  of  bill,  which  is 
equivalent  to  about  one  cent  a  pound.  The  cost  to  a  farmer 
to  sell  his  tobacco  is  estimated  at  about  five  cents  a  pound, 
■which  is  a  small  item  considering  the  average  range  of 
prices  he  receives. 

Excepting  Sundays  and  the  holidays,  the  warehouses  in 
Durham  are  open  for  business  every  day  in  the  year,  though 
Mondays  and  Saturdays  are  regarded  as  easy  or  off-days. 
When  the  auction  sales  are  concluded,  the  buyers  imme- 
diately convey  their  purchases  to  the  prizing  houses,  so  as  to 
leave  the  floors  of  the  warehouses  free  for  succeeding  daily 
operations,  and  it  is  in  these  establishments  that  the  real 
work  of  preparing  the  tobacco  for  market  is  done.  There 
every  leaf  and  bundle  is  examined,  graded  and  classified 
according  to  a  precise  and  uniform  formula,  and  the  goods 
are  packed  in  tierces  and  hogsheads,  ready  for  shipment 
wherever  wanted. 

Tobacco  Interests  of  North  Carolina.         165 

So  rapid  has  been  the  development  of  trade,  that  one  may 
see  farmers  and  tradesmen  on  the  breaks  who  have  risen 
from  comparative  poverty  to  comparative  opulence  in  a 
few  years.  Lands  that  could  have  been  bought  a  dozen 
years  ago  for  two  or  three  dollars  an  acre,  cannot  now  be 
had  for  less  than  hundreds  of  dollars  per  acre,  and  some 
cannot  be  purchased  at  all,  so  much  has  tobacco  increased 
the  value  of  everything  in  the  localities  where  it  is  grown 
and  sold.  Tobacco  and  its  influence  upon  the  prosperity  of 
the  people  of  the  tobacco  belt,  is  the  one  common  topic  of 
observation  everywhere,  just  as  it  has  long  been  in  the  to- 
bacco districts  of  Connecticut,  Massachusetts,  New  York, 
Pennsylvania  and  other  Northern  States.  Notwithstanding 
the  appreciation  in  the  value  of  lands  under  tobacco  culti- 
vation, as  much  as  immigration  will  be  likely  to  demand 
for  many  years,  and  as  good  as  the  best,  can  be  procured  at 
prices  within  the  means  of  the  most  ordinary  laboring  man. 
It  is  so  all  through  the  State.  Within  the  area  of  territory 
embracing  the  thriving  towns  of  Durham,  Henderson,  Ox- 
ford, Winston  and  Reidsville,  all  of  which  are  in  the  cele- 
brated Piedmont  District,  thousands  upon  thousands  of 
acres  of  the  very  best  tobacco,  cotton,  grain,  fruit  and  wood 
lands  in  the  world  are  still  available  to  all  honest  and  in- 
dustrious immigrants  at  reasonable  prices. 

culture  and  curing  of  tobacco. 

The  following  facts  are  gleaned  mainly  from  the  tobacco 
portion  of  the  10th  Census,  advance  sheets  of  which  were 
kindly  furnished  the  author  by  the  Commissioner  at  Wash- 
ington. The  very  highest  authorities  have  been  sought 
both  in  this  State  and  Virginia,  and  the  facts  herewith  sub- 
mitted may  be  relied  on  as  accurate.  In  this  State  the  de- 
velopment of  the  fine  tobacco  interest  displays  one  of  the 
most  remarkable  transitions  in  the  history  of  agriculture. 
Its  growth  was  first  begun  in  this  State  by  two  brothers,  Eli 
and  Elisha  Slade,  of  Caswell  county,  upon  a  ridge  between 
two  small  tributaries  of  the  Dan  river.  The  soil  was  thin 
and  sandy  and,  in  comparison  with  the  river  bottoms,  was 
of  little  value.  About  1S52  or  1853  the  Slades  grew,  by 
chance,  as  they  supposed,  a  small  crop  of  yellow  tobacco.  As 
it  grew  year  after  year,  its  peculiarities  were  attributed  to 
special  methods  of  culture  and  curing.  They  communicated 

166  History  of  DuRHA^f. 

their  methods  to  all  inquirers,  and  it  was  soon  found  that 
soil  was  the  chief  element,  although  care  in  the  modes  of 
cultivation  and  curing  was  also  found  to  be  necessary  to  the 
production  of  the  best  qualities.  From  the  plantation  of 
the  Slades,  its  growth  extended  over  Caswell  count}',  and 
along  the  same  ridge  into  Pittsylvania  county,  Virginia. 
This  covered  almost  the  entire  area  of  yellow-tobacco  cul- 
ture before  the  civil  war,  when  the  production  of  tobacco 
was  almost  entirely  suspended.  The  war  increased  the  man- 
ufacture of  tobacco  in  the  North,  where  no  tobacco  suitable 
for  plug  or  wrappers  was  grown,  and  at  its  close  attention 
was  called  to  the  fitness  of  the  North  Carolina  yellow  leaf 
for  this  purpose-  The  price  rose  with  the  demand,  and  the 
production  extended  to  other  counties,  especially  to  Person, 
Granville  and  Rockingham.  Granville  outstrips  all  com- 
petitors, although  many  other  counties  have  entered  the 
lists,  from  Buncombe  and  Madison,  in  the  west,  where  it  is 
grown  on  the  slope  of  the  Alleghanies,  3,000  feet  above  sea- 
level,  to  the  coast  belt  about  Goldsboro',  200  feet  above  the 
sea — a  vertical  range  of  2,800  feet,  and  a  climatic  range 
equivalent  to  about  eight  and  a  half  degrees  of  latitude. 
While  yellow  leaf  may  have  been  raised  in  Virginia  in  small 
quantities,  this  may  be  taken  as  an  accurate  sketch  of  the 
origin  and  spread  of  the  new  product  in  North  Carolina  and 
in  the  contiguous  counties  of  Virginia. 

After  the  war  the  cheap  and  abundant  production  of 
shipping  tobacco  in  the  West  and  the  reduction  of  the  price 
below  the  cost  of  production  in  North  Carolina  militated, 
with  the  demand  for  fine  tobacco,  to  diminish  the  growth  of 
the  heavy  tobacco  and  to  extend  widel}'  the  production  of 
fancy  leaf,  which  reaches  its  highest  perfection  in  the  cen- 
tral belt,  of  which  the  city  of  Durham  is  the  main  outlet. 

There  are,  broadly  and  generally  stated,  two  varieties  of 
soil  in  North  Carolina:  a  gray,  sandy,  light  soil,  with  a  yel- 
low, sandy-clay  subsoil,  suited  to  yellow  leaf  and  the  various 
types  of  fine  tobacco,  and  a  dark  loam,  a  rich,  unctuous, 
heavy  soil,  with  a  red  clay  subsoil,  suited  especially  to  the 
cereals  and  to  a  heavy  dark  or  red  tobacco.  The  change  in 
the  growth  of  tobacco  has  been  from  one  of  these  to  the 
other.  Shipping  leaf  is  still  grown,  however,  both  as  an  in- 
dustry, upon  soil  selected  for  it,  and  as  an  incident  to  at- 
tempts to  raise  fine  tobacco  upon  lands  not  suited  to  its 
iproduction.    Sometimes  a  part  of  the  same  field  will  offer 


Tobacco  Interests  op  North  Carolina.  167 

both  kinds  of  soil  and  grow  both  fine  and  heavy  tobacco. 
The  production  of  shipping  leaf  is  not  regarded  as  profita- 
ble, and  planters  generally  endeavor  to  raise  the  fine  leaf, 
so  that  this  is  the  onl}''  branch  of  tobacco  culture  worthy  of 
especial  notice. 

Alongside  the  decline  in  wealth  in  old  areas  of  prosperity 
there  are  other  instances  in  the  South  of  the  growth  of 
thrift  and  wealth  in  communities  which  were  poor  before 
the  war,  but  no  other  section  presents  such  wonderful 
changes.  Comfortable  farm-houses  have  taken  the  places  of 
rude  log-cabins,  excellent  and  convenient  barns  and  out- 
houses exhibit  the  new  thrift,  and  new  life  has  been  infused 
into  all  classes  and  into  both  races.  The  distinctive  feature 
of  this  phenomenon  is  that  it  has  brought  into  requisition, 
as  most  profitable,  the  poorest  soils  in  the  State,  and  wrought 
its  improvements  on  the  poorest  farming  classes.  It  has  also 
enhanced  the  value  of  such  lands  until  they  actually  sell 
for  more  than  the  most  fertile  bottom  lands,  and  the  spec- 
tacle has  actually  been  witnessed  of  a  contention  between 
counties  as  to  which  could  show  the  most  poor  land.  The 
effect  of  this  is  practicall}'  to  increase  largely  the  wealth- 
producing  power  of  the  State,  breaking  down  the  ordinary 
economic  distinctions  between  sterile  and  fertile  lands.  The 
amount  of  this  enhancement  cannot  be  given  with  even  ap- 
proximate accuracy,  because  nothing  definite  can  yet  be 
known  as  to  the  area  of  fine  tobacco  lands,  the  continued 
value  of  poor  lands  depending  also  on  the  stability  of  the 
demand  for  such  tobacco. 


Slight  differences  in  nomenclature,  local  names,  and  the 
uncertain  use  of  descriptive  adjectives  make  it  difficult  to 
reach  absolute  accuracy  in  treating  of  the  varieties  of  to- 
bacco cultivated. 

The  Orinoco,  popularl}''  called  in  some  localities  "  Iron 
Oak,"  is  a  widely  grown  plant,  of  which  at  least  three  vari- 
eties are  reported — the  Yellow,  the  White-stem,  and  the 
Little  or  Sweet  Orinoco.  The  Yellow  Orinoco  is  early,  ma- 
tures well,  becomes  bright  on  the  hill,  and  has  a  broad, 
heavy  leaf  of  a  fine,  silky  texture.  The  White-stem  Orinoco 
grows  brighter  and  whiter  on  the  hill  than  most  varieties, 
and  is  more  easily  cured  the  desired  color.    The  fiber  is 

168  History  of  Durham. 

also  while.  Silky  Pryor  has  a  long,  sharp-pointed  leaf,  and 
grows  thin  on  the  stalk,  with  a  leaf  very  tough  and  pliant 
when  cured,  which  can  be  handled  drier  than  any  other 
variety.  The  Bullock  has  a  broad,  smooth  leaf,  with  no 
rufHe  on  the  stem.  It  stands  heat  well  in  curing.  The 
leaves  are  far  apart  on  the  stalk,  and  it  bears  few  suckers, 
often  not  more  than  four  or  five  to  the  plant;  nor  do  suck- 
ers start  from  below  the  surface  of  the  hill.  On  account  of 
the  space  between  the  leaves,  a  hand  can  sucker  one-third 
more  of  this  variety  than  of  any  other.  The  Gary  makes  a 
good  sample,  has  a  round  leaf,  and  yellows  well  on  the  hill. 
Virginia  Seed-Leaf  and  Tally  are  also  grown  to  some  extent. 
The  Yellow  Orinoco  has  largely  the  preference  among  plan- 
ters, the  Gooch  and  the  Bull-face  coming  next,  and  perhaps 
the  Yellow  Pryor  next  to  them,  and  the  Little  or  Sweet  Ori- 
noco, the  Blue  Pryor,  the  Adcock,  the  Mann,  and  the  Cun- 
ningham, are  extensively  cultivated.  One  general  truth 
is  established:  that  soil  adapted  to  coarse  shipping  to- 
bacco will  not  produce  fine  tobacco  with  any  variety,  and 
vice  versa. 

All  varieties  cure  dark  brown  or  red  when  grown  on  red- 
clay  soils  with  heavy  dark  or  brown  top  soil,  but  incline  to 
brighter  and  lighter  hues  on  sandy,  gra}^  soil,  with  yellowish 
subsoil,  and  cure  from  bright  red  to  mahogany  and  fine  yel- 
low. On  all  fresh  lands,  except  the  very  best  fancy  tobacco 
soils,  all  varieties  are  somewhat  lighter  and  brighter  than 
on  old  lands.  This  is  especially  the  case  with  those  lands 
which  will  only  produce  shipping  leaf  after  the  first  or  sec- 
ond year. 

Such  is  the  effect  of  soils,  that  the  purity  of  any  variety 
can  only  be  preserved  by  procuring  seed  from  the  soil  which 
produces  its  original,  and  most  perfect  type.  This  is  a  rule, 
however,  of  very  little  practical  value  until  experiments 
shall  have  determined  the  entire  subject  of  adaptability, 
and  even  then  the  purity  of  any  given  variety  can  only  be 
maintained  by  great  care.  The  seed-plants  must  be  remote 
from  any  other  variety  to  avoid  the  intermixture  of  pollen 
by  insects,  and  the  seed  is  to  be  selected  from  the  crown, 
that  alone  reproducing  the  same  plant.  Seeds  from  the 
lower  and  side  shoots  grow  plants  resembling  those  coming 
from  seeds  of  suckers ;  indeed,  the  side  shoots  are  but 

Tobacco  Interests  of  North  Carolina.         169 

TOBACCO    soils. 

In  determining  the  question  as  to  what  constitutes  fine 
tobacco  lands,  or  what  element  is  fatal  to  the  growth  of 
yellow  leaf,  the  inquiry  must  embrace  the  important  matter 
of  drainage.  Tobacco  is  a  plant  which  delights  in  a  dry, 
warm  soil,  requiring  comparatively  little  moisture,  and  in 
no  respect  do  these  lands  differ  more  widely  from  others 
than  in  thorough  drainage.  While  such  lands  are  very 
miry  in  wet  weather,  so  that  it  is  difHcult  to  drive  a  wagon 
or  even  to  ride  over  them,  the  top  soil  is  always  dry  and 

There  is  a  difference  of  opinion  as  to  new  lands.  In  the 
western  counties,  v/here  the  growth  of  tobacco  is  quite  re- 
cent, new  land  is  almost  altogether  planted,  but  in  the  older 
tobacco  counties  planters  have  learned  to  conserve  their  old 
lands  and  to  raise  upon  them  tobacco  of  the  best  quality 
by  the  judicious  use  of  fertilizers,  and  no  longer  depend 
upon  clearing.  All  agree,  however,  that  a  very  fine  quality 
of  leaf  is  grown  on  new  lands.  Some  lands  will  produce  a 
fair  fancy  wrapper  one  or  two  seasons,  and  never  after.  It 
is  also  generally  agreed  that  the  first  crop  is  very  fine  and 
most  easily  cured,  hut  lacks  the  body  and  uniformity  of 
texlure  and  color  of  the  .second  year's  growth  on  the  best 
tobacco  lands. 

Fertilizers  are  applied  upon  new  as  well  as  upon  old 
lands.  In  the  older  tobacco  counties  cases  are  given  where 
tobacco  has  been  grown  upon  land  for  twenty  years  in  suc- 
cession without  decrease  in  yield  or  deterioration  in  quality, 
but  always  with  the  aid  of  manure.  Such  lands  appear  to 
possess  permanent  qualities,  which  need  only  the  addition 
of  fertilizers  and  manures,  and  it  is  believed  that  with  proper 
care  and  rotation  most  of  them  can  be  kept  up  indefi- 

Old  fields  of  the  proper  soil,  which  have  been  worn  out 
and  abandoned  make,  when  cleared  of  their  new  growth. 
the  best  tobacco  lands.     They  are  generally  overgrown  with 

*  It  is  unquestionably  true  tliat  the  mechanical  condition  of  llie  soil  and  tlic 
absence  ol"  certain  inorganic  elements  liave  more  to  do  with  the  production  of 
flnc  tobacco  than  a  supply  of  plant  food.  This  soil  is,  indeed,  a  sponjce,  which 
receives  and  retains  just  fertilizers  enough  to  bring  the  plant  to  the  proper  size, 
wlien  thoy  become  cxhausled,  and  the  plant  goes  into  a  gradual  decline,  growing 
more  and  more  yellow  and  more  and  more  delicate  in  tissue,  until  it  is  out.  Too 
much  manure  will  destroy  the  flue  qualities  of  the  leaf,  impairing  its  color  and 
iucreasing  its  coarseness. 

170  History  of  Durham. 

pines,  with  an  undergrowth  of  whortleberry,  chincapins, 
and  other  bushes,  the  pines  growing  to  two  feet  in  diameter  in 
about  twentj'-five  years.  About  fifteen  or  twenty  years  are 
required  for  the  resuscitation  of  old  worn-out  lands.  One 
field  was  planted  in  corn  in  1850,  and  the  yield  was  so  poor 
that  the  fence  was  removed.  In  1876  it  was  cleared  of  its 
pine  growth  and  planted  in  tobacco,  which  brought  50  cents 
a  pound  for  the  whole  crop.  This  field  has  been  cultivated 
in  tobacco  for  five  successive  years,  and  the  last  crop  was 
better  than  the  first.  The  land  was  treated  the  first  year 
with  200  pounds  of  a  commercial  fertilizer,  and  has  since 
received  yearly  applications  of  stable  manure  and  fertilizer 
in  the  drill.  A  great  many  farmers  are  of  opinion,  liowever, 
that  the  lands  are  exhaustible  and  require  years  of  rest,  and 
assert  that,  although  the  first  crops  on  old  fields  reclaimed 
are  better  than  when  first  cleared,  a  great  falling  off  occurs 
after  the  second  crop,  the  soil  wearing  out  much  more  rap- 
idly than  in  the  first  instance. 

These  old  pine  fields,  when  they  have  a  gray,  sand}'^  soil 
and  a  yellow  subsoil,  are  the  best  of  tobacco  lands.  A  man 
selected  a  few  acres  vrhieh  had  grown  up  in  "  bald-faced 
Spanish  oaks,"  scrub  hickor}',  chiucapin,  and  sourwood,  all 
indicative  of  very  poor  lands,  and  the  crop  raised  sold  for 
50  cents  a  pound  at  the  barn  door.  When  the  soil  is  of  the 
right  kind,  old  fields  which  have  lain  for  years  in  "  broom- 
sedge"  or  broom-grass  {AvAropogon  scopariu?)  grow  the  very 
finest  tobacco,  while  they  are  almost  worthless  for  other 
crops.  This  "  sedge  "  is  turned  under  in  the  fall  before  frost, 
and  tobacco  is  planted  the  next  s|)ring. 

A  southern  exposure  is  generally  sought  for  fine  tobacco. 
This  soil  is  drier  and  warmer,  and  the  plant  matures  earlier. 
The  rich,  black  soils  of  northern  slopes  will  not  produce 
fine  tobacco,  while  a  few  yards  off,  on  the  other  slope,  the 
finest  may  be  grown. 

Reports  show  a  general  average  of  33  per  cent,  of  preferred 
tobacco  soils  cultivated,  and  the  proportion  of  new  lands 
is  reported  at  45  per  cent.  In  Buncombe  and  Madison 
counties,  in  the  west,  where  tobacco  culture  has  been  re- 
cently introduced,  the  proportion  of  new  lands  is  80  per 
cent.,  and  the  general  average  proportion  of  uncleared  lands 
adapted  to  the  plant  is  given  as  58  per  cent.  Since  fine  to- 
bacco lands  are  precisely  those  which  farmers  would  avoid 

Tobacco  Interests  of  North  Carolina.        171 

clearing  for  other  crops,  this  is  probably  too  low  rather  than 
too  high  an  estimate. 


In  the  preparation  of  tobacco  lands,  methods  vary  with 
the  character  of  the  soils, old  "sedge"  lands,  clover  tallows 
and  stubble  lands  requiring  more  plowing  than  land  last 
cultivated  in  corn  or  tobacco. 

New  ground  is  cohered  twice  or  oftener,  and  is  cleared  of 
roots  and  trash  ;  lot  lands  are  plowed  in  autumn  or  in  early 
winter,  to  obtain  the  help  of  the  winter  frosts  in  reducing 
the  soil  to  fine  tilth,  are  again  plowed  early  in  the  spring, 
and  a  third  time  before  planting.  Turning  plows  are  used 
to  a  depth  of  from  2  to  5  inches,  the  object  being  to  invert 
the  upper  soil  as  deeply  as  possible  without  exposing  the 

If  the  land  is  trashy,  or  not  in  thorough  tilth,  it  is  dragged 
with  a  heavy  harrow  after  the  last  plowing.  It  is  then 
bedded  up  by  throwing  from  two  to  four  furrows  together 
with  a  turning-plow,  and  the  hills  are  laid  off  from  2|  to  3 
feet,  3  inches  apart  and  patted  on  the  top,  so  as  to  compact  the 
soil  where  the  plant  is  to  be  set.  Hilling  is  strongl}'  recom- 
mended by  the  best  planters,  especially  in  wet  seasons, 
affording  better  drainage  and  protection  against  all  the  wet- 
weather  diseases  of  tobacco.  Hills  present  a  flat  surface  of 
from  10  to  15  inches  in  diameter,  and  are  made  when  the 
ground  is  in  good  order  for  working.  If  too  dry,  it  will 
require  too  much  rain  to  moisten  them  sufficiently  ;  if  too 
wet,  they  will  bake.  In  new  ground  tiie  hills  may  be 
made  in  March  or  April",  in  old  ground  they  are  to  be 
made  late  enough  to  avoid  danger  of  growing  up  in  weeds 
or  grass  before  planting,  not  earlier  than  the  first  of  May. 
Listing  or  bedding  up  by  3  or  4  furrows  of  a  turning-plow 
saves  labor  in  making  hills. 

There  is  a  wide  difference  of  opinion  and  of  practice  as 
to  the  proper  distance  between  plants,  varying  from  2h  by 
2  ft.  3  ins.  to  3  ft.  3  ins.  by  3  ft.  3  ins.  Many  hold  that  noth- 
ing is  gained  in  aggregate  weight,  v»'hile  something  is  lost  in 
length,  breadth,  and  body  by  crowding  closer  than  3  feet  3 
inclies  apart  each  way.  Hills  are  generally  made  by  meas- 
uring or  stepping  off  one  row  and  placing  the  hills  of  the 

172  History  of  Durham. 

next  opposite  the  center  of  the  space  between  those  in  the 
first,  and  so  on,  in  quincunx  order. 


Both  commercial  fertilizers  and  home-made  manures  are 
used  :  of  the  former,  special  tobacco  fertilizers  and  Peruvian 
guano;  of  the  latter, chiefly  stable  manure.  Stable  manure 
is  used  in  connection  with  numerous  commercial  fertilizers; 
guano,  superphosphates,  and  special  compounds  prepared 
for  tobacco. 

In  the  eastern  tobacco  counties  no  attempt  is  made  to 
raise  tobacco  without  fertilizers  and  manures;  in  the  west- 
ern counties  planters  are  farming  a  virgin  soil  and  using 
very  little  manure;  and  the  policy  of  clearing  new  to  re- 
place old  lands  promises  to  go  on  until  it  has  wrought  the 
ruin  it  has  elsewhere.  It  is  generally  agreed  that  upon  most 
lands  in  the  west  two  crops  can  be  raised  without  manure, 
and  this  is  generally  the  limit. 

The  use  of  fertilizers  is  said  to  yellow  the  crop  in  the  hill 
as  well  as  to  increase  the  yield,  and  they  are  applied  broad- 
cast in  the  hill  and  in  drills.  The  practice  of  placing  them 
in  the  drills  possesses  advantages  every  way.  The  most 
approved  method  is  to  apply  stable  manure  in  the  winter. 
A  furrow  is  opened,  in  which  it  is  placed,  according  to  the 
character  of  the  soil,  and  a  furrow  is  thrown  over  it.  In 
the  spring  the  center  of  this  is  divided  with  a  bull-tongue 
or  shovel-plow,  and  the  commercial  fertilizer  is  placed  in 
the  new  furrow  with  the  stable  manure,  a  bed  being  thrown 
over  this  by  three  or  four  furrows  with  a  turning-plow. 
In  this  way  the  soil  of  the  bed  becomes  thoroughly  per- 
meated by  the  fertilizer  and  manure,  and  upon  this  bed  the 
hills  are  made  at  the  proper  time,  the  object  being  to  place 
both  the  manure  and  the  fertilizer  so  that  the  plant  will 
receive  the  stimulus  from  the  very  start.  Both  commercial 
fertilizers  and  barn-yard  manures  are  applied  according  to 
the  soil,  and  this  must  be  done,  after  long  experience,  with 
great  care  and  judgment.  Too  much  will  injure  the  qual- 
ity and  the  texture  or  may  cause  firing  ;  too  little  may  leave 
the  plant  small,  lean,  and  poor;  the  object  being  to  use 
enough  to  make  eight  or  ten  plants  yield  a  pound  of  fine 
tobacco  when  cured.  Quantities  applied  are  variously  re- 
ported, as  from  50  to  500  pounds  per  acre,  and  when   no 

Tobacco  Interests  of  North  Carolina.  173 

home-made  manure  is  used,  the  amount  of  commercial  fer- 
tilizer is  very  nearly  doubled.  Peruvian  guano  has  been 
generally  abandoned  in  raising  fine  tobacco.  Most  of  the 
fertilizers  used  are  manufactured  especially  for  fine  tobacco 
under  various  names  and  brands,  and  most  of  them  are 
said  to  be  rich  in  ammonia,  soluble  phosphates  and  potash. 
Much  attention  has  been  paid  to  home-made  manures, 
stable  manure  being  generally  used  and  preferred  to  all 
others,  and  giving  best  results  when  used  in  combination 
with  commercial  fertilizers — the  latter  starting  the  plant 
and  giving  quick  growth  ;  the  former  finishing  the  growth, 
giving  body  and  maturity.  Size  may  be  attained  without 
manure  by  the  use  of  fertilizers  alone,  but  not  body.  Some 
planters  make  their  own  fertilizers  by  treating  bone  dust 
with  sulphuric  acid,  and  composts  are  also  made  of  muck 
and  stable  manure.  Ashes  are  also  used,  and  by  some 
guano  is  considered  especially  applicable  to  new  land'. 


The  soil  selected  for  the  seed  bed  is  as  fine  as  flour,  \^ith 
the  least  possible  admixture  of  coarse  sand  and  gravel,  in- 
clined to  be  moist,  but  not  wet,  and  thoroughly  drained. 
The  sowing  is  done  sometimes  as  early  as  December  1, 
and  again  as  late  as  the  15th  of  April,  but  January  and 
February  are  preferred. 

Usually  the  plants  appear  about  the  first  of  March  if  the 
sowing  has  been  timel}',  and  arc  sufficiently  well  grown  for 
transplanting  by  the  first  week  in  May. 

Plants  are  read}^  for  setting  out  when  the  leaves  are  about 
3  inches  long  and  the  width  of  three  fingers,  but  for  old 
ground  the  plants  should  be  larger,  and  leaves  5  or  6  inches 

transplanting  tobacco. 

Planters  generally  agree  that  the  lOlh  of  May  is  soon 
enough  to  begin  transplanting,  and  that  successive  plant- 
ings are  desirable,  in  order  that  the  crop  may  not  all  mature 
at  once.  Later  than  the  10th  of  June  is  not  looked  upon 
with  favor  by  the  best  planters.  Planting  is  sometimes 
done  as  late  as  the  first  of  August,  but  never  with  expecta- 
tion of  more  than  very  moderate  returns.  If  set  out  too 
early,  the  plants  are  likely  to  be  damaged   by  cold,  and  to 

174  History  of  Durham. 

be  deprived  of  the  dews  of  August  and  September;  if  too 
late,  they  may  not  mature  properly  before  frost. 

In  general,  planters  wait  for  rain  in  order  to  transplant, 
though  crops  of  seventy  acres  have  been  successfully  planted 
b}'  making  artificial  seasons. 


As  soon  as  the  plant  has  rooted  and  begun  to  grow,  which 
is  shown  by  the  color,  and  is  usuall}''  within  five  or  six 
days,  the  turn-plow  is  run,  with  the  bar  next  the  plant, 
thus  barring  off  the  soil.  The  hill  is  then  cleared  of  weeds 
with  a  hoe,  and  a  little  fresh  earth  is  drawn  to  the  plant. 
An  excellent  authority  opposes  the  use  of  the  plow  unless 
the  rows  have  become  very  foul,  and  recommends  breaking 
the  crust  of  the  hill  with  the  hoe  and  drawing  loose  earth 
around  the  plant  until  it  has  covered  the  hill  to  a  breadth 
of  12  inches.  This  is  probabl}'-  the  better  way,  but  it  is  too 
tedious  and  costly  for  general  practice. 

About  a  week  after  the  first  plowing  the  earth  is  thrown 
to  the  plant  by  the  plow,  and  a  broad,  flat  hill  is  made  with 
the  hoe.  A  third  plowing  is  given  before  topping,  and  the 
hoe  hands  follow,  hilling  up  well  with  a  high  hill.  Unless 
grass  and  w^eeds  are  very  prolific,  this  will  be  cultivation 
enough.  Both  the  turning-plow  and  the  bull-tongue  are 
used,  the  former  being  preferred  when  the  rows  are  foul. 
The  cultivation  is  shallow,  and  the  subsoil  is  but  little 
stirred,  and  cultivation  is  avoided  after  topping  unless  the 
weeds  and  grass  require  the  hoe. 

The  plowing  is  often  done  with  a  cotton  sweep,  which  is 
growing  in  favor,  and  cultivation  is  pushed  rapidly  by  the 
best  planters.  In  shipping  leaf  cultivation  is  continued 
until  August,  but  in  fine  tobacco,  beginning  with  plow  or 
hoe  when  the  plant  has  commenced  growing,  it  is  continued 
about  once  in  ten  days  until  the  10th  or  15th  of  July. 


At  the  last  hoeing,  as  a  general  rule,  the  bottom  leaves 
are  primed  off.  When  it  is  possible,  all  plants  for  fine 
tobacco  are  topped  by  the  last  of  J\i]j,  or  at  latest  by  the 
10th  of  August.  There  is,  however,  the  greatest  diversity 
of  opinion  as  to  both  priming  and  topping.     The  general 

Tobacco  Interests  of  North  Carolina.         175 

rule  as  to  priming,  however,  is  from  4  to  6  inches,  while  the 
range  in  topping  up  to  the  hist  of  July  is  usualh^  from  ten 
to  fourteen  leaves.  Ten  may  be  taken,  however,  as  the 
number  approved  most  widely,  as  measuring  that  which  can 
be  easilj'  matured  with  the  greatest  weight  and  desired 
texture  and  color.  Planters  who  adopt  a  standard  of  ten, 
top  as  Jiigh  as  twelve  leaves  when  the  plant  is  gross,  or  go 
below  that  if  it  appear  that  ten  cannot  be  properly  matured. 
Topping  is  usually  done  at  intervals  of  a  week,  find  at  each 
successive  topping  fewer  leaves  are  left,  so  as  to  make  all 
plants  set  out  at  the  same  time  ripen  together.  The  sea?on 
and  the  character  of  the  plant  have  much  to  do  with  the 
tojiping,  but  the  best  authorities  assert  that  those  who  are 
tempted  to  go  beyond  ten  leaves,  except  with  very  gross 
plants,  lose  in  body,  oil,  and  toughness,  and  gain  nothing 
in  weight,  texture,  or  color.  Some  planters  top  even  as 
high  as  twenty  leaves  on  strong  land,  holding  that  low  top- 
ping makes  the  plant  coarse  and  the  fibers  large. 

One  planter  advises  topping  high  in  dry  weather  and 
low  in  wet  weather,  on  the  ground  that  if  the  plant  be 
topped  low  in  dry  weather  and  rains  follow,  it  will  be  sur- 
feited with  moisture,  and  the  top  leaves  will  grow  large  and 
the  bottom  leaves  fall  off.  If  dr}'^  weather  succeeds  wet,  the 
plant  having  been  topped  high  and  the  supply  of  moisture 
ceasing,  the  growth  is  checked,  the  plant  is  not  filled  out, 
and  the  leaf  grows  thin  and  ])apery.  Perhaps  the  best  lule 
given  as  to  priming  is  to  allow  the  tips  of  the  bottom  leaves 
at  maturity  to  hang  well  clear  of  the  ground. 

Suckers  are  pulled  off  when  too  or  three  inches  long,  and 
every  week,  as  they  appear,  until  the  plant  is  cut,  usually 
from  three  to  four  times.  There  are  two  weeks  between  suc- 
cessive crops  of  suckers. 

The  usual  time  between  planting  and  topping  is  about 
six  weeks,  but  this  is  so  dependent  on  the  season  that  the 
time  may  be  from  forty  to  sixty  days.  The  time  between 
topping  and  cutting  is  from  six  to  ten  weeks,  varying  ac- 
cording to  season  and  according  to  soil,  gray  lands  matu- 
ring the  plant  earlier  than  red  lands.  The  variation  on 
account  of  soil  is  given  at  as  much  as  four  weeks,  and  the 
plant  will  stand  longer  on  strong  land  than  on  thin  land. 
The  method  of  cultivation  also  has  an  influence  on  the  time, 
shallow  culture  ripening  the  plant  earlier  than  deep  cul- 
ture.    The  time  of  maturing  is  also  affected  by  the  quality 

176  History  of  Durham. 

and  the  quantity  of  fertilizer  used,  and  the  variation  in  time 
of  cutting,  from  the  last  of  August  to  the  15th  of  October. 


Eipening  is  indicated  by  the  leaf  becoming  sleek,  the  fuzz 
disappearing,  and  the  appearance  of  dappled  yellow  spots, 
called  "graining."  Dappled  leaves  make  a  mahogany  leaf 
when  cured ;  uniform  grayish-green  color  (luellon-apple 
green),  when  cut,  indicates  the  finest  leaf.  Poor  tobacco, 
without  body,  has  a  smooth, lifeless  yellow, improper  ripen- 
ing, due  to  wet  seasons,  rendering  it  almost  impossible  to 
attain  the  desired  color.  The  plant  will  not  ripen  well  in 
wet  seasons,  rendering  it  almost  impossible  to  attain  the 
desired  color.  The  plant  will  not  ri[)en  well  in  wet  seasons, 
especially  when  rain  follows  drought,  but  it  is  not  injured 
by  rain  after  it  is  ripe.  It  may  begin  a  new  growth,  but 
will  ripen  again  in  a  few  days.  Cool  nights  and  heavy 
dev/s  thicken  the  plant,  and  cause  it  to  mature  rapidly,  with 
good  body. 


Tobacco  is  always  cut  thoroughly  ripe,  unless  it  is  neces- 
sary to  sacrifice  quality  to  escape  total  loss  from  frost.  There 
is  a  difference  of  opinion  as  to  the  effect  of  rain  or  dew, 
almost  all  asserting  that  it  does  no  harm  to  cut  even  when 
w^et  with  rain  or  dew  ;  yet  one  of  the  best  authorities  on  the 
subject  declares  that  the  least  water  on  the  leaf  spoils  the 
color  in  drying. 

When  the  plants  are  fully  ripe,  each  cutter  takes  two  rows, 
a  stick-carrier  walking  between  two  cutters,  holding  a  stick. 
The  plants  are  split  down  the  center  of  the  stalk  and  cut, 
and  six  to  eight  plants  are  placed  astride  the  stick;  another 
hand  takes  two  sticks  at  a  time  to  the  wagon ;  and  a  third 
hand  keeps  the  stick-carrier  supplied.  The  plants  are  as- 
sorted in  the  field,  so  that  those  only  of  a  uniform  color  and 
ripeness  shall  be  cut  and  cured  together,  and  the  tobacco  is 
placed  at  once  in  the  wagon,  if  possible,  without  exposure 
to  the  sun,  and  without  allowing  it  to  wilt  or  to  lie  upon 
the  ground.  It  is  desirable  that  the  plants  shall  be  stiff  and 
open,  so  that  the  hot  air  can  circulate  freely  among  the 
leaves,  and  is  never  scaffolded  before  housing. 

Cutting  is  done  on  Monday  and  Tuesday,  so  as  to  cure 

Tobacco  Interests  of  North  Carolina.         177 

by  Saturday,  or  it  is  cut  on  Friday  and  Saturday,  postpon- 
ing the  curing  till  Monday,  from  the  rigid  regard  for  the  Sab- 
bath and  its  universal  observance  by  all  classes,  although 
the  planters  suffer  serious  inconvenience  and  expense  in  the 
cutting  season  when  the  weather  on  Monday  is  unfavorable 
for  outdoor  work. 

Twelve  hands  will  fill  a  barn  of  600  pounds'  capacity  in 
two  days ;  but  this  is  excellent  work,  and  the  last  loads  will 
not  be  gotten  in  until  after  nightfall. 

The  sticks  are  Ah  feet  long,  and  are  placed  at  a  distance 
of  from  8  to  10  inches  apart  on  the  tier  poles,  but  never  less 
than  8  inches,  for  fear  of  sweating  or  "  house-burn." 


For  fine  tobacco,  curing-barns  are  built  of  logs,  small  and 
tight,  from  16  to  22  feet  square.  The  larger  size  has  the 
merit  of  economy,  while  16-foot  barns  have  the  approval  of 
the  larger  number  of  planters.  The  comparative  housing 
capacity  is  about  as  4  to  7,  the  smaller  holding  352  sticks, 
the  larger  650,  one  foot  apart.  If  16  feet,  the  barn  is  di- 
vided by  five  sets  of  tier  poles  into  four  equal  compart- 
ments; if  20  feet  square,  six  sets  of  tier  poles  divide  the 
barn,  including,  in  both  cases,  the  joists,  and  exclusive  of 
the  collar-beams.  A  slope  to  the  east  is  used,  if  possible, 
that  the  furnace  may  open  on  thnt  side,  prevailing  winds 
being  from  the  west  in  the  curing  season. 

When,  as  is  generalh'  the  case,  more  than  one  barn  is 
needed,  the  barns  are  grouped' together  for  convenience, 
but  not  nearer  than  100  feet,  on  account  of  danger  from 
fire.  An  inclination  of  2  feet  in  20  will  be  found  advan- 
tageous in  arranging  the  furnaces.  The  reason  assigned 
for  the  use  of  log  instead  of  frame  barns  is,  that  the  latter, 
even  though  they  be  ceiled,  cannot  be  heated  sufficiently. 
The  ground  sills  are  of  oak,  well  underpinned,  and  on  these 
the  pen,  20  feet  square,  is  built  of  logs  about  6  inches  in  di- 
ameter, notched  down  closely.  At-the  height  of  5  feet  a  set 
of  six  tier  poles,  generally  of  pine,  and  4  inches  in  diame- 
ter, is  laid  horizontally,  resting  upon  the  northern  and 
southern  walls,  the  two  outside  pells  lying  against  the  east 
and  west  walls.  The  first  tier  is  only  used  in  hanging  and 
hoisting;  the  next  is  laid  on  in  the  same  way,  three  logs 
above;  and  so  on  to  the  top,  when  the  sixth  is  laid,  serving 

178  History  op  Durham. 

also  as  joists,  and  resting  upon  tlie  plates.  If  the  roof  is 
framed,  the  rafters  are  raised  directly  above  and  in  line  with 
the  joists  or  last  tier,  and  the  collar-beams  are  nailed  to  the 
rafters,  giving  one  and  a  half  more  tiers  in  the  roof.  Cabin 
roofs  are  usually  built — that  is,  each  gable  is  built  up  with 
logs  of  decreasing  length,  with  their  ends  beveled,  the  long 
side  down,  to  the  last  and  shortest,  which  is  notched  in  the 
centre  for  the  ridge  pole  of  the  roof.  Each  end  of  the  gable 
log  is  laid  upon  a  roof  pole,  which  extends  the  full  length 
of  the  barn,  and  by  the  shortening  of  these  logs  the  roof 
poles  form  on  both  sides  the  slant  of  the  roof,  which  is 
crowned  by  the  ridge  pole.  Into  these  roof  poles  the  collar- 
beams  are  let  in  the  cabin  roof.  The  walls  for  a  barn  20 
feet  square,  when  completed,  contain  about  twenty  logs 
each,  j)]ates  included,  and  are  about  16  feet  high.  The 
cracks  are  then  closely  chincked  and  daubed  with  mud,  to 
which  lime  enough  has  been  added  to  make  it  adhere  well, 
and  doors  4  feet  square  are  cut  in  the  north  or  south  side 
and  are  provided  with  very  closely-fitting  shutters. 


The  Smith  patent  is  the  one  most  commonly  used.  Fur- 
naces are  built,  if  the  barn  is  properly  located,  on  the  east 
side;  and,  if  the  ground  is  rightly  inclined,  only  one  log 
need  be  sawed  out,  which  is  done  4  inches  from  the  corner 
next  to  both  the  north  and  the  south  w^alls.  The  arch  is 
of  brick  or  fire-proof  stone,  5  feet  long,  projecting  externally 
18  inches.  The  walls  are  built  of  brick,  two  bricks  thick, 
and  2  feet  apart,  18  inches  high,  4  inches  from  the  walls  of 
the  barn,  the  space  being  filled  with  dry  earth,  and  the 
space  between  the  two  carefully  filled  up  to  the  first  log.  A 
covering  is  then  made  over  the  external  arch,  running  the 
length  of  the  barn,  and  an  ashbed  is  dug  out  in  front  of 
the  opening  of  each  arch.  The  iron  flue  pipes  are  let  in 
about  6  inches  from  the  floors  of  the  arches,  and  the  cracks 
are  stopped  with  clay.  In  order  to  give  the  greatest  heat- 
ing capacity,  the  flues  are  built  one  foot  from  the  north,  the 
west,  and  the  south  walls,  and,  as  a  protection  against  lire, 
when  this  is  done  a  thin  wall  is  built  between  the  pipes  and 
the  ground  sills,  running  from  where  the  pipe  joins  the  fur- 
nace 6  feet  along  the  flue,  the  distance  to  which  the  pipes 
are  heated  red.    The  pipes  are  made  of  No.  24  iron,  except 

Tobacco  Interests  of  North  Carolina.         179 

the  two  joints  that  enter  the  furnaces,  which  are  of  IS-inch 
iron,  and  are  from  12  to  15  inches  in  diameter.  The  pipe 
is  elevated  gradually  about  1  inch  in  2  feet,  and  runs  con- 
tinuously from  both  liues  along  the  north  and  south  walls 
and  the  west  wall.  In  the  centre  of  the  pipe,  along  the 
west  wall,  which  lies  horizontal,  and  1  foot  from  the  wall, 
the  return  pipe  makes  a  f,  and  conducts  the  draught 
through  the  center  of  the  barn  back  to  the  east  wall,  rising 
gradually,  so  as  to  make  the  perpendicular  distance  between 
the  points  where  the  pipes  leave  the  furnaces  and  that  where 
the  return  pipe  comes  out  through  the  wall  about  18  inches. 
A  short  elbow  joint  in  a  small  chimney  receives  the  return 
pipe  on  the  outside. 

From  two  to  three  cords  of  dr}-  wood  sufiices  for  one  cur- 
ing. Barns  thus  coristructed,  with  flues  complete, cosi from 
$50  to  $75  each  ;  packing-houses,  about  $200  each.  With 
barn  and  flues  properly  constructed,  fires  are  always  the  re- 
sult of  carelessness,  and  yet  about  one  barn  in  twenty  is  re- 
ported as  lost  by  fire. 

CURING   of   tobacco. 

The  process  of  curing  tobacco  by  fire  is  the  most  difBcult 
and  delicate  in  the  whole  course.  Experience  alone  will 
make  a  curer  of  fine  tobacco,  and  that  only  of  one  who 
possesses  nice  judgment,  excellent  powers  of  observation 
and  care.  A  trifling  inattention  may, at  a  critical  moment, 
reduce  a  barn  of  the  finest  yellow  tobacco  to  the  lower 
grades.  If  the  fires  are  allowed  to  die  out  or  decline  after 
the  leaf  is  cured,  sap  remaining  in  the  stalks  or  stems  will 
diffuse  itself  through  the  leaf  and  mar  the  color  irremediably 
in  twenty-four  hours;  and,  on  the  other  hand,  too  much 
heat  will  cause  sweating,  which  will,  unless  checked  by 
speedy  ventilation,  both  injure  the  color  and  impair  the 
body  and  texture.  In  order  to  prevent  this,  it  is  necessary 
to  use  a  thermometer,  hung  level  with  the  tails  of  the  plants 
on  the  lowest  tier,  and,  to  guard  the  degree  of  heat  b}'  con- 
stant care,  to  watch  day  and  night,  with  frequent  inspection 
of  the  plants,  generally  selecting  some  one  plant  as  a  guide, 
but  not  by  any  means  omitting  general  inspection. 


In  curing  by  charcoal,  as  soon  as  the  crop  is  housed  in  a 

180  History  op  Durham. 

barn  20  by  20  feet  square  four  rows  of  fires  are  built,  four 
fires  in  a  row,  1^  bushels  to  the  sixteen  fires.  Tlie  entire 
process  requires  from  three  to  four  entire  clays.  About  100 
bushels  of  charcoal,  at  4  cents  per. bushel,  are  allowed  to  800 
pounds  of  tobacco. 


Since  curing  by  flues  promises  very  soon  to  supersede  all 
other  methods,  this  process  is  more  particularly  described. 
The  only  difference  between  that  and  charcoal-curing  is  in 
the  manner  of  applying  heat.  Two  distinct  stages  are  re- 
cognized in  curing:  yellowing  with  a  damp  heat  at  a  low 
temperature,  which  is  generally  90°,  or,  when  the  tobacco  is 
very  light  and  yellow,  100°;  but  if  the  weather  is  very  cool, 
80°.  The  second  is  the  drying,  which  may  be  divided  into 
curing  the  leaf  and  curing  the  stalk. 

Yellowing. — This  is  done  at  90°,  or  at  80°  if  the  weather 
be  cool,  in  from  eighteen  to  thirty-six  hours,  until  the  desired 
color  is  attained. 

Drying  or  curing  is  then  effected  by  the  following  man- 
agement of  temperature :  95°  for  two  hours,  100°  for  two 
hours,  105°  for  two  hours,  110°  for  two  hours,  115°  for  two 
hours,  120°  for  six  hours,  130°  for  two  hours,  140°  for  two 
hours,  150°  for  two  hours,  and  160°  for  twenty-four  hours, 
the  last  temperature  being  kept  up  until  the  stalks  and 
stems  are  dried.  This  table  is  for  tobacco  not  gross  and 
very  yellow  when  cut,  and  to  be  modified  with  judgment. 
If  the  tobacco  is  gross  and  of  a  gray  color,  four  hours  in- 
stead of  two  should  be  taken  to  each  stage  from  100°  to 

The  Ragland  Method. — This  method  is  for  medium  to- 
bacco. Ripe  tobacco  only  is  to  be  cut,  and  is  then  placed  five 
to  seven  plants  on  a  stick  4  feet  long  and  from  10  to  12  inches 
apart  on  the  tier  poles.  Steaming  or  yellowing  is  done  at 
90°  from  eighteen  to  forty-eight  hours,  according  to  char- 
acter of  tobacco.  When  yellowed,  the  heat  is  raised  from  ' 
90°  to  95°  in  from  one  to  tw^o  hours,  from  95°  to  100°  in 
two  hours,  from  100°  to  105°  in  two  hours,  from  105°  to 
110°  in  from  one  to  three  hours,  from  110°  to  115°  in  two 
hours,  and  from  115°  to  120°  in  two  hours,  at  which  the 
leaf  is  cured  in  from  four  to  eight  hours.  The  stalk  is  cured 
by  a  temperature  advancing  from  120°  to  175°,  at  about  5° 

Tobacco  Interests  op  North  Carolina.  181 

an  hour,  keeping  the  temperature  at  175°  until  the  stalk  is 
thoroughly  cured. 


When  the  stalk  is  cured  thoroughly  dry  the  fires  are 
allowed  to  die  out.  There  is  a  wide  difference  of  opinion  as 
to  the  after  treatment.  It  is  agreed  that  the  plants  cannot 
be  safely  stripped  in  the  moist,  warm  weather  which  fol- 
lows the  curing  season,  because  of  the  danger  of  loss  of  color. 
The  plant  comes  from  the  drying  barn  always  with  a  little 
greenish  tinge.  In  the  after  treatment  this  fades  away,  and 
it  takes  on  a  solid  bright  yellow,  uniform  throughout.  The 
crop  is  allowed  to  remain  with  fires  out  and  doors  open  for 
thirty-six  hours,  until  it  can  be  handled.  Some,  however, 
recommend  throwing  wet  straw  on  the  flues,  which  is  kept 
moist,  and  the  tobacco  thus  is  steamed  at  a  safe  tempera- 
ture, to  bring  it  at  once  into  "order"  for  removal.  It  is 
then  "bulked  down"  in  the  packing-house  on  the  sticks, 
butts  out,  in  square  piles.  This  improves  the  color  and 
straightens  out  the  leaves,  rendering  them  smooth  and  neat 
in  appearance.  Many  farmers  allow  it  to  lie  in  bulk  for- 
only  three  or  four  days  and  then  rehang  it,  crowding  very- 
closely,  to  prevent  injury  to  the  color  from  atmospheric 
changes.  On  the  other  hand,  the  best  opinion  favors  more 
permanent  bulking  down,  in  such  order  that  it  can  be 
handled  without  breaking,  the  leaf  soft  and  stem  hard. 
Those  who  thus  bulk  down  rehang,  to  come  in  order  for 
stripping.  After  it  is  stripped,  it  is  tied  in  hands  of  si«  to 
twelve  leaves:  bright  wrappers,  six  ;  fillers,  eight ,-■  smokers, 
ten  to  twelve,  when  it  is  by  some  rehung  and  orowded 
closely,  but,  according  to  the  best  practice,  it  is  bulked  down 
on  sticks,  heads  out,  each  grade  by  itself,  and  carefully  cov- 
ered with  carpets,  to  exclude  light,  the  colors  being  very 
sensitive  to  light  as  well  as  to  air.  In  this  condition  the 
color  is  fixed,  and  after  two  months  in  balk  it  is  no  longer 
subject  to  change. 

Fine  tobacco  is  packed  in  tierces  of  from  350  to  800 
pounds,  each  grade  by  itself,  or  it  is  sold  loose  at  the  barn 
or  carried  loose  to  market,  where  it  is  placed  in  piles  and 
sold  at  auction.  Dealers  buy  enough  of  each  grade  to  fill  a 
cask,  when  they  prize  lightly  and  ship  to  the  various  mar- 


182  History  of  Durham. 

It  is  sometimes  necessary  in  very  small  crops  to  sell  loose, 
because  the  quantity  of  each  j^rade  is  not  sufficient  to  fill  a 
cask  ;  but  to  [)ack  in  casks  or  boxes  before  taking  to  market 
avoids  risks  in  handling.  Sometimes,  though  rarely,  it  is 
put  up  by  farmers  in  casks  or  boxes,  being  usually  packed 
by  mere  hand  pressure. 

The  period  for  stripping,  assorting,  packing,  and  market- 
ing is  generally  from  October  to  August,  and  the  unstripped 
crop  of  one  year  may  be  on  hand  until  the  next.  May  is 
probably  the  season  most  favored.  The  spring  sweat  comes 
in  May  if  bulked  or  packed  ;  if  not,  it  will  come  later,  after 
which  it  is  bulked  down  and  packed.  This  sweat  sweetens 
the  tobacco,  if  its  condition  is  dry  ;  if  too  moist,  it  is  injured 
in  flavor  and  in  color,  and  has  the  effect  to  redden  a  bright 
tobacco  and  brighten  a  dark  leaf.  If  the  tobacco  is  very 
moist  and  the  sweat  excessive,  "funking"  to  some  extent 
occurs,  the  injury  being  estimated  at  about  5  per  cent., 
which  can  only  be  avoided  by  bulking  in  good  order.  Nat- 
ural seasons  are  used  for  stripping  and  packing.  Some  ex- 
periments have  been  made  with  steam  or  warm  air,  but  not 
enough  as  yet  to  determine  their  value. 


When  the  tobacco  is  kept  bulked  down  on  the  stalk  until 
the  stripping  season  it  is  necessary  to  hang  up  as  much  as 
can  be  stripped  in  a  day  to  "  order  "  for  stripping,  that  is,  to 
absorb  humidity  enough  to  handle  without  breakage;  but, 
to  avoid  the  danger  of  a  possible  change  of  color,  it  is  not 
allowed  to  become  too  soft.  An  assorter  then  strips  off  from 
each  plant  one  or  two  leaves,  to  be  tied  by  a  boy  as  lugs  or 
common  smokers,  and  from  one  to  three  of  the  next  leaves 
for  smooth  lugs  or  fancy  smokers.  These  are  tied  into  hands 
of  eight  or  ten  leaves  by  the  assorter.  The  remainder  of 
the  leaves  is  then  cast  together  in  a  pile,  to  be  assorted  into 
the  various  higher  grades  of  leaf  and  tips.  All  the  leaves  of 
each  grade  must  be  uniform,  and  every  bruised,  worm-eaten, 
'  or  injured  leaf  excluded  from  the  best  grades.  So  particu- 
lar are  the  best  planters,  that  the  assorting-houses  are  con- 
structed with  a  window  to  the  north,  that  a  uniform  light 
may  fall  upon  the  leaf  all  day,  increase  or  decrease  in  the 
intensity  of  the  light  making  it  very  difficult  to  keep  up  the 
narrow  line  between  the  finer  grades. 

Tobacco  Interests  of  North  Carolina.         183 

GRADES   of   tobacco. 

Fine  tobacco  is  variously  orraded  by  different  planters  and 
in  different  counties  in  from  four  to  ten  grades.  The  best 
average  prices  round  are  obtained  by  those  who  exercise 
most  fully  a  delicate  discrimination,  which  results,  when 
the  crop  presents  a  great  variety,  in  a  large  number  of 
grades.  The  attempt  to  make  the  fine  carry  coarse  and  in- 
ferior leaves  results  in  loss  to  the  planter  and  benefits  only 
the  rehandler.  It  is  to  be  understood,  however,  that  the 
grading  is  to  be  determined  by  the  character  of  the  crop. 
When  assorted  into  six  grades  the  proportion  of  the  various 
grades  in  each  crop  is  about  as  follows  ;  1st,  one  thirteenth  ; 
2d,  one-tenth  ;  3d,  two-sevenths  bright  mahogany;  4th,  two- 
tenths  dark  mahogany  ;  5th,  one-fifteenth  bright  lugs  ;  6th, 
rest  of  the  crop. 

Bright  wrappers  are  sometimes  classed  in  grades  1,  2,  3, 
and  4,  beside  tips,  which  are  sometimes  suitable  for  wrap- 
pers. Lugs  are  generally  divided  into  two  grades:  sand 
lugs  and  smooth,  clean  lugs.  Sometimes  a  third  grade  is 
made,  called  wrapping  lugs,  composed  of  larger  and  better 
leaves  than  the  other  two,  and  made  of  inferior  wrapping 
leaf  and  the  best  lugs.  First-grade  wrappers  are  used  on 
the  best  brands  of  chewing  tobacco,  and  the  rest  on  lower 
brands,  and  are  bought  by  all  the  best  manufacturers  in  the 
United  States  and  Canada.  Tips  are  thicker,  have  more 
body,  and  make  first-class  fillers.  Tobacco  commanding  the 
highest  price  has  a  very  large  leaf,  bright  yellow  and  ma- 
hogany or  a  clear,  whitish  yellow,  of  good  body,  with  fine 
texture,  toughness,  and  elasticity,  an  oily  appearance,  small 
stems  and  fibers,  and  no  holes  or  spots.  Body,  size  and 
color  are  indispensable  for  the  very  best.  Thin,  papery 
tobacco,  easily  torn,  brittle,  inelastic,  and  lifeless,  will  not 
bring  the  best  prices,  no  matter  how  fine  the  color. 


Estimates  from  a  number  of  counties  are  given — in  some 
cases  two  from  one  county — as  the  best  way  to  illustrate  the 
wide  range  in  the  prices.  These  are  for  100  pounds,  except 
where  otherwise  stated  :  • 

Madison. — Average  around  $8  to  $20. 

184  History  op  Durham. 

Buncombe. — Common  lugs,  $6  to  $8;  medium  lugs,  $S 
to  §10;  good  fillers,  §8  to  $10;  common  wrappers,  $10  to 
Slo;  medium  wrappers,  $15  to  $25;  fine  wrappers,  $25  to 
$50;  extra  wrappers,  $50  to  $80;  small  lots,  exceedingly 
fine,  $2  50  per  pound. 

nm-c's.— Common  lugs,  $2  to  $4 ;  good  lugs,  $4  to  $6; 
Lright  wrappers,  $15  to  $40. 

Yadkin. — Fillers,  $3;  smokers,  $6  ;  dark  wrappers,  $10  ; 
bright  wrappers,  $1G;  nondescript,  $2. 

ForsytJi.— Sixth  grade,  lug  fillers,  $2  to  $7  ;  fifth  grade, 
bright  smoking  lugs,  88  to  $20;  fourth  grade,  lower  grade 
fillers,  $5  to  $7 ;  third  grade,  best  fillers,  $10  to  $15;  second 
grade,  wrappers,  $25  to  $40;  first  grade,  best  bright  wrap- 
pers, $40  to  ^$80. 

Wa7ren. — Shipping  lugs,  $2  to  $4;  dark  nondescript,  $4  ; 
shipping  leaf,  $5  to  $G;  dark  wrappers,  $10;  bright  fillers, 
$8  ;  sweet  sun-cured  fillers,  $10 ;  bright  smokers,  $12 ;  bright 
wrappers,  830;  fancy  wrappers,  $80  to  $100. 

Alamance. — Dark  lugs,  $4  to  $6;  dark  fillers,  $4  to  $7; 
good  fillers,  $7  to  $18;  good  red  wrappers,  $18  to  $30;  com- 
mon smokers,  $6  to  $8;  good  smokers,  $8  to  $12;  fancy 
smokers,  $12  to  $25;  common  yellow,  $15  to  $25  ;  good  yel- 
low, $25  to  $50  ;  yellow,  $50  to  $75  ;  extra  yellow,  $80 
to  $90;  extra  fine,  890  to  8150;  small  choice  lots,  $3  per 

Hayivood.— First  grade,  $100  to  $200  ;  second,  $50  ;  third, 
$30  ;  fourth,  $20;  fifth,  $10  ;  sixth,  $5;  seventh,  $4;  eighth,  $3. 

BocJdngJiam. — Common  grades,  83  to  $6;  good  fillers,  $6 
to  $12;  bright  leaf,  $15  to  $30  ;  fine  wrappers,  $30  to  $80. 
From  the  same  county :  First  grade,  850  to  $70  ;  second, 
$30  to  $40  ;  third,  $12  to  $20 ;  fourth,  $8  to  $10;  fifth,  $6  to 
$8  ;  sixth,  $4  to  $6. 

Granville.— Trash,  $3  to  $10;  good  lugs,  $10  to  $16; 
green  tips,  $8  to  $15 ;  dark  mahogany,  $10  to  $15  ;  bright 
mahogany,  $25  to  $50  ;  bright  tips,  $25  to  $5.0 ;  fourth  grade, 
$30  to  $75  ;  third  grade,  $60  to  $75 ;  second  grade,  $60  to 
$80  ;  first  grade,  890  to  $100. 

Durham.— Trash,  $4  to  810  ;  lugs,  $10  to  $18  ;  dark  ma- 
hogany, $12  to  $22;  bright  mahogany,  $25  to  $50;  bright 
leaf.  $30  to  60;  fine  wrappers,  $40  to  $80;  extra  fine  fanev 
wrappers,  $1.50  to  $3.00 ;  fillers,  $10  to  $25. 

Tobacco  Interests  of  North  Carolina.         185 

VALUE    of    lands— cost   OF  PRODUCTION,   ETC. 

Granville  and  Rockingham  counties  may  be  taken  as 
fairly  typical  as  to  the  character  of  the  product,  value  of 
lands,  cost  of  production,  etc.  Want  of  transportation  fa- 
cilities, nearness  or  remoteness  of  markets,  and  the  cost  of 
fertilizers  as  affected  by  freights,  would  alter  some  of  th^ 
figures  given  if  applied  to  other  counties. 

Granville  county. ~1:\\q  price  of  the  best  lands  is  about 
an  average  of  $42  per  acre;  yield,  000  pounds.  Inferior 
lands  are  worth  §5  to  $7  ;  yield,  oOO  pounds  of  inferior 
tobacco.  The  rental  value  is  one-fourth  of  the  crop,  or  for 
best  lands,  $25  in  money  per  acre.  Wages,  by  the  day,'  for 
field  hands,  50  cents  and  board  ;  by  the  year,  $100  to  $150 
without  board,  or  $80  with  board.  Estimated  cost  on  the 
best  soils,  $10  to  $12.50  per  hundred  pounds.  In  the  northern 
part  of  this  county  a  considerable  amount  of  red,  coarse 
shipping  tobacco  is  raised,  which  greatly  reduces  the  average 
price  for  the  county. 
Estimate  of  crop  of  fine  tobacco  for  one  man  : 

Rent,  2  acres §  10  00 

Labor,six  months 50  qo 

Board  of  laborer,  six  months 42  00 

Horse  and  feed 10  00 

Use  of  wagon  and   plow 3  5q 

Use  of  barn    and   packing-house 3  00 

Firing-wood,  9  loads,  at  $1  9  00 

Fertilizers  15  00 

Hauling  to  market 2  00 

Total  cost  for  2  acres %V^^  50 

Product,  1,200  pounds,  at  35  cents 420  00 

Profit $265  50 

Cost  per  hundred  pounds $12~87^ 

Profit  per  hundred    pounds 22  I2I 

Inspection  and  selling  cost  81  to  $1.50  per  100  pounds 
Wlien  sold  loose,  the  crop  is  placed  in  piles  of  separate  <rrades 
upon  the  floor  of  the  warehouse  and  sold  by  auction    and 

1S6  History  of  Durham. 

2J  per  ceDt.  commission  and  25  cents  a  pile,  auctioneer's  fee, 
are  charged.  The  piles  in  weight  range  from  8  or  10 
pounds  to  300  or  more.  The  following  accounts  of  sales 
show  the  cost  of  marketing  in  Granville,  as  well  as  the  pro- 
portions of  grades  and  range  of  prices  in  a  good  crop  : 

SALES   OF    1,127    POUNDS. 

54  pounds,  at  88  cents $  47  52 

149  pounds,  at  67*  cents 100  57 

97  pounds,  at  80  cents 77  00 

228pounds,at67*  cents 153  90 

■      90  pounds,  at  60  cents 54  00 

34  pounds,  at  51 1  cents 17  51 

167  pounds,  at  34|  cents 57  61 

308  pounds,  at  40"  cents 123  20 

$631  91 
Charges 22  31 

Netproceeds 1609  60 

Tlie  usual  average  in  Granville  does  not  exceed  $150  to 
the  hand,  but  there  are  frequent  instances  of  profits  of  §500 
or  more.  From  two  to  two  and  a  half  acres  are  planted  to 
the  hand,  and  the  cost  of  production  is  diminished  by  such 
increase  of  crop  as  will  employ  a  full  set  of  tools  and  keep 
the  team  busy. 

Rockingham  county. — Price  of  good  tobacco  lands,  $10 
to  $25  per  acre;  yield  of  such  lands  with  manure,  500 
pounds.  Inferior  lands  are  worth  $5  to  $7,  and  yield  with 
manure  500  pounds  of  inferior  tobacco.  The  rental  is  one- 
fourth  of  the  crop.  Wages  by  the  day:  Men,  40  cents; 
women  25  cents  with  board.  Skillful  tobacco  liands-  com- 
mand from  $15  to  $24  per  annum  more  than  ordinary  farm 
laborers,  and  double  what  they  could  get  in  the  shipping- 
tobacco  regions.  • 

The  cost  of  production  decreases  going  west,  and  this 
may  be  regarded  as  about  the  averRge  cost  of  growing  to- 
bacco in  North  Carolina.  An  account  of  sales  of  a  small 
crop  is  given,  which  shows  the  proportion  of  grades,  range 
of  prices,  and  cost  of  marketing  fine  tobacco  in  this  county: 

Tobacco  Interests  of  North  Carolina. 


152  pounds,  at  io>^  cents $  15  96 

224  pounds,  at  12  cents 26  8S 

286  pounds,  at  30  cents 85  80 

37  pounds,  at  53 19  61 

699  pounds.  $148  25 


Warehouse $0  70 

Auction  fees 85 

Commission,  2 j^  per  cent 3  70 

$  5  25 

Net  proceeds S143  00 

The  following  statement  shows  the  proJ action,  acreage, 
yield  per  acre,  value  of  the  crop  in  famers'  hand  or  in  pri- 
mary markets,  value  per  pound,  and  value  per  acre  of  the 
tobacco  cro[)S  of  North  Carolina  for  the  years  1876  to  1879, 
inclusive,  only  the  figures  for  1879  being  fiom  the  census 









L-   rt 

*-•       ^ 





.£  "~ 

OJ     0 




0    r 





«      rt 





rt  '~' 


















$65    24 







55  12 







69  75 







66  61 

It  will  be  observed  that  the  quantity  produced  each  year 
varies  less  than  in  most  of  the  States  producing  tobacco. 
This  is  due,  iu  part,  to  the  practice  auiong  farmers  of 
making  artificial  "seasons  "  by  watering  the  hills  when  the 
weather  continues  at  planting  time.  In  this  way  they  never 
fail  to  get  a  crop  planted. 

It  will  also  be  observed  that  the  value  per  acre  is  very 
low.  This  arises  from  the  fact  that  fully  three  fifths  of  the 
product  is  of  a  very  inferior  brown  nondescript  leaf,  bring- 
ing very  low  prices.  No  idea  can  be  gained  from  tliis  tab- 
ular statement  of  the  'profits  of  grown  yellow  tobacco  on 
soils  well  adapted  to  its  production.  The  value  of  the  pro- 
duct upon  suitable  soils  often  reaches  $250  to  $400  per  acre. 

It  is  possible  that  the  average  price  returned  in  the  sched- 


History  of  Durham. 

ules  is  too  high ;  but  the  average  of  all  grades  in  the  mar- 
ket at  Danville  for  the  year  ending  September  30, 18S0,  was 
$11.38  per  hundred  pounds,  and  it  is  generally  conceded 
that  the  finest  tobacco,  and  that  which  brings  the  highest 
prices  in  that  market,  is  grown  in  North  Carolina.  It  is 
therefore  believed  that  the  prices  given  in  the  schedules  are 
very  nearly  correct. 

It  seems  best  to  make  a  distinction  between  the  bright- 
yellow  tobacco  region  proper  and  that  section  of  the  Pied- 
mont district,  which,  while  entitled  to  be  placed  within  the 
area  of  "bright-yellow"  production,  is  especially  charac- 
terized by  its  "mahogany  tobacco." 


Silica,  soluble  . 
Silica,  insoluble 


Oxide  of  iron. . 





Phosphoric  acid 
Sulphuric  acid. 


Organic  matter 


o.  10 







I. 10 

96.  [O 










1. 10 

The  first  three  of  these  repersent  the  bright- tobacco  soils 
of  the  first  district,  the  first  from  Sampson  county,  the 
second  from  Wilson,  and  the  third  from  Columbus.  They 
are  just  such  soils  as  produce  the  bright  yellow  tobacco,  and 
represent  a  large  proportion  of  the  lands  of  the  district. 
No.  4  is  from  one  of  the  most  famous  of  the  bright-yellow 
tobacco  localities  in  the  southeast  corner  of  Person  county. 
The  sample  was  taken  from  a  farm,  part  of  whose  product 
was  sold  at  $2  per  pound.  It  was  taken  one  foot  deep  (as 
all  the  others)  in  the  forest  adjoining  the  field  where  the 
fine  "  fancy  bright "  had  been  raised.  The  growth  is  post 
oak  and  white  oak  of  moderate  size,  hickory,  dogwood,  sour- 
wood,  and  a  few  pines.  The  soil  is  sandy  and  gravelly,  of 
a  light-gray  color,  and  the  subsoil  is  of  the  same  texture, 
but  yellowish  in  color.  The  rock  is  quartzose,  feldspathic, 
slaty  gnesis. 

Tobacco  Interests  of  North  Carolina.         189 

No.  5  is  from  the  bright  tobacco  section  of  Catawba  county, 
in  tlie  Piedmont  district,  in   the  town   of  Hickory.     The 
.  growth  is  medium  to  small-sized  oak.  blackjack,  sourwood 
and  pine:  the  soil  yellowish  gra}',  a  little  sand}^ :  the  sub- 
soil yellowish  brown,  sandy. 

No.  G  is  from  Mitchell  county.  It  does  not  represent  the 
precise  variety  of  soils  on  which  the  fine  tobacco  of  that 
county  is  produced.  It  is  very  much  like  the  last  in  color  and 
texture,  but  is  much  poorer.  The  growth  is  chestnut,  Span- 
ish oak,  post  oak,  sourwood,  and  laurel  [kaltnia).  These  last 
two  soils  resemble  more  the  mahogany  tobacco  soils  of 
Henry  and  Franklin  counties,  in  Virginia, 

These  are  all  virgin  soils,  and  therefore  contain  a  much 
higher  percentage  of  humus  than  ordinary  cultivated  bright 
tobacco  soils,  this  element  being  subject  to  very  rapid 
diminution  on  account  of  the  sandy  and  porus  texture  of 
the  soil,  and  of  course  but  a  small  percentage  of  it  is  in  an 
available  condition. 

All  of  these  soils  would  be  classed  as  poor  from  the  anal- 
ysis. The  low  i^ercentage  of  clay  and  of  iron  is  also  nota- 
ble, except  the  last  two,  which  arc  not  bright-tobacco  soils. 


Extra  Important  Information. 

Seed  Beds — Insect  Enemies  of  the  Tobacco  Plant — 
Diseases  of  the  Plant — The  Bonsack  Cigarette 

The  following  facts  have  been  gleaned  from  the  very  high- 
est authority,  at  considerable  expense,  and  may  be  relied 
upon  as  accurate.  They  will  be  found  of  great  benefit  to  plant- 
ers and  others  interested  in  the  "  weed."  We  are  indebted 
mainly  to  ]\Iajor  Ragland  and  John  Ott,  Esq.,  of  Virginia, 
and  the  Commissioner  of  Census,  at  Washington,  D.  C.,  for 

190  History  of  Durham, 

i-mportant  information,  and  we  desire   here  to  tender  our 
thanks  lor  the  same. 

Seed  Beds. 

Tiic  methods  of  preparing:  seed  beds  are  substantially  the 
same  in  North  Carolina,  Virginia,  Kentucky,  Tennessee 
and  other  Southein  tobacco-growing  States,  such  variations 
as  exist  depending  altogetlier  on  local  conditions. 

The  site  for  a  plant-bed  most  usually  preferred  is  that 
having  a  southern  or  southeastern  exposure,  that  it  raaj' 
have  the  genial  and  fructifying  warmth  of  the  sun  in  early 
spring,  so  that  the  plants  may  be  set  out  before  the  hot 
weather  of  summer.  If  the  bed  can  be  located  near  a 
stream,  fogs  will  quicken  the  germination  of  the  seed  and 
the  growth  of  the  plants.  Probably  the  best  possible  loca- 
tion is  on  a  gently-sloping  hill,  on  the  north  side  of  a  run- 
ning stream,  but  sufficiently  elevated  to  be  above  any  dajii- 
ger  from  overflows.  In  such  situations  plants  are  often 
two  weeks  in  advance  of  those  in  beds  prepared  on  level 
land.  The  timber  growth  may  be  of  any  kind  that  denotes 
fertility  of  soil. 

In  Virginia,  Kentucky  and  Tennessee  a  dark-colored, 
almost  a  black,  soil  is  preferred,  because  it  is  more  readily 
warmed  b^'  the  ra3'S  of  the  sun,  and  retains  the  heat  much 
longer  than  lighL-colored  soils.  For  the  same*  reason  a 
sligiit  intermixture  of  gravel  will  be  of  advantage.  In 
North  Carolina,  although  many  planters  prefer  a  black 
soil,  free  from  sand  or  gravel,  the  majority  of  fine  tobacco- 
growers  choose  a  sandy  soil,  such  as  that  in  which  the  plant 
is  to  be  grown  to  maturity.  . 

In  Virginia,  exce()t  where  wood  for  the  purpose  is  scarce, 
in  North  Carolina,  Kentucky,  Tennessee,  Missouri,  and  in 
many  tobacco  districts  in  other  States,  the  practice  of  burn- 
ing over  the  seed-beds  is  general.  The  burning  is  not 
slight,  as  in  the  Connecticut  valley,  where  this  appears  to 
be  done  simply  to  destroy  the  seeds  of  weeds  and  gravs,  but 
the  soil  is  burnt  until  it  shows  a  reddish  tinge.  Several 
methods  of  burning  are  practiced.  In  all  cases  the  wild 
growth  is  first  cut  off  with  an  axe  and  not  dug  up.  Leaves 
and  trash  are  carefully  raked  off  from  the  bed  space.  If  the 
intention  is  to  burn  with  logs,  skids  or  poles  are  laid  down 
four  feet  apart,  and  a  layer  of  logs  and  smaller  wood,  four 
or  five  feet  wide,  is  built  upon  the  skids,  the  object  being  to 

Tobacco  Interests  of  North  Carolina.  191 

keep  the  wood  from  resting  on  the  ground,  so  that  the  heat 
may  have  full  play  upon  tlie  surface  of  the  soil.  The  fires 
being  set,  they  are  kept  burning  for  two  hours  or  more, 
when  the  whole  layer  is  moved  forward  by  hooks,  so  as  to 
cover  another  space  of  the  intended  seed-bed;  and  this  is 
ke{)t  up  until  a  plat  is  burned  as  large  as  desired.  Another 
method  is  to  la}'  down  brush  and  bits  of  wood  atone  end  of 
the  bed  space  until  the  pile  is  five  or  six  feet  high.  Apjiiust 
this  pile  brush  from  tree  tops  is  placed  in  a  position  nearlv 
vertical,  inclining  against  the  foundation  sufiiciently  to 
prevent  its  falling  back  on  the  bed  ;  and  this  is  continued 
until  the  full  space  intended  for  the  plant  bed  is  covered. 
A  platform  of  wood  is  then  put  on  top  of  the  brush,  and  the 
fire  set  on  the  windward  side.  Still  another  plan  is  some- 
times adopted,  which  saves  ihe  hard  labor  of  covering  the 
brush  with  heavy  wood.  After  a  width  of  8  feet  of  the  bed 
space  has  been  covered  with  brush  placed  in  a  nearly  ver- 
tical position,  logs  or  sticks  of  wood  8  feet  long  are  set  on 
end,  leaning  against  the  brush.  Eight  feet  more  of  brush 
is  followed  by  another  layer  of  wood,  and  so  on  until  the 
whole  space  is  covered.  When  fired,  the  brush  burns  out 
quickly,  but  not  before  it  has  set  the  wood  on  fire,  which, 
falling  all  in  one  direction,  covers  the  whole  surface  with 
hotly-burning  wood.  Old  broken  rails,  thrown  aside  in 
resetting  fences,  and  old  logs  from  dilapidated  buildings  are 
preferred,  because  they  are  thoroughly  seasoned  and  burn 

When  the  bed  has  cooled  off  it  is  generally  dug  up  with 
grub  hoes  or  worked  lightly  and  closely  with  a  colter  plow. 
The  ashes  should  be  left  on  the  bed,  and  in  working  the 
soil  it  should  be  reversed  as  little  as  possible.  All  grubs, 
roots,  and  large  stones  should  be  removed,  and  the  surface 
soil  should  be  worked  thoroughly  and  carefully  several 
times  with  hoes  or  rakes  until  it  is  perfectly  light  and  mel- 
low. When  in  proper  condition  marks  are  made  four  feet 
apart  to  regulate  the  sowing  of  the  seed.  About  one  large 
heaping  tablcspoonful  is  enough  to  sow  one  hundred  square 
yards.  The  seed  is  mixed  with  ashes  oi*  plaster,  one  half 
of  the  mixture  being  sown  as  evenly  as  possible  over  the 
entire  bed,  when  the  other  half  is  sown  in  the  same  way. 
This  is  in  order  to  secure  a  more  equal  distribution  of 
the  seed.  The  bed  is  then  tramped  or  rolled,  and  finally 
covered  with  light  brush — the  smaller  branches  of  dogwood, 

192  History  op  Durham. 

oak,  gum,  or  sassafras — not  thick  enough  to  exclude  the 
sunlight,  but  sufficient  to  protect  the  plants  from  frosts  and 
the  chilling  and  drying  effects  of  the  March  v.'inds.  The 
brush  also  serves  to  keep  the  bed  moist.  Some  care  is  re- 
quired to  put  the  brush  upon  the  bed  properly.  The  butt 
ends  of  the  first  layer  should  be  laid  on  the  ground  outside 
the  bed,  the  soft  brush  resting  upo)i  the  bed,  tiiose  of  the 
second  layer  resting  upon  the  bushy  part  of  the  first,  and 
so  on  until  the  bed  is  covered  by  successive  layers.  In  this 
way  the  thick,  heavy  ends,  which  would  interfere  seriously 
with  the  growth  of  the  young  plants,  are  kept  above  the 
surface  of  the  bed.  A  covering  of  this  kind  will  protect  the 
plants  against  very  hard  freezing.  In  Wisconsin  and  in 
northern  Illinois  marsh  or  prairie  hay  is  used,  just  enough 
to  mitigate  the  severity  of  the  rays  of  the  sun  and  prevent 
the  drying  of  the  surface  by  winds  until  the  plants  start  to 
grow,  which  requires  a  period  of  two  or  three  weeks, 
when  the  hay  is  removed. 

The  covering  of  brush  is  generally  allowed  to  remain  upon 
the  bed  until  the  plants  are  nearly  large  enough  to  set  out, 
but  it  may  be  necessary  to  remove  it  temporarily,  in  order 
to  pick  off  any  leaves  or  other  trash  which  the  winds  are 
apt  to  drive  u[)on  the  beds.  To  prevent  the  accumulation 
of  leaves  upon  a  bed  prepared  in  or  near  a  forest  wicker 
fences,  built  of  brush  interwoven  between  sticks  driven  into 
the  ground,  have  been  found  ver}^  efficient. 

Trenches  dug  across  the  upper  end  of  the  bed  and  along 
the  sides  prevent  flood-water  from  sweeping  over  the  sur- 
face. Heavy  rains  are  sometimes  very  injurious,  washing 
the  seeds  from  a  portion  of  the  surface  and  depositing  them 
in  depressions. 

It  is  the  usual  custom  to  defer  manurial  applications  un- 
til the  plants  are  up  and  well  started.  Liquid  manures  are 
frequently  used  at  this  stage.  A  tight  barrel,  half  filled 
with  cow  dung,  is  placed  near  the  bed,  water  is  added  to  fill 
the  barrel,  the  mixture  is  stirred  until  it  is  a  semi-liquid 
mass,  and  this  is  sprinkled  on  the  bed  with  an  old  broom. 
Some  prefer  a  solution  of  guano,  a  gallon  of  this  fertilizer 
being  mixed  with  a  barrel  of  water  and  sprinkled  upon  the 
plants.  These  applications  may  be  repeated  one  or  more 
times  with  decidedly  good  results.  Land  plaster  has  proven 
to  be  a  good  application,  giving  a  deep  green  color  to  the 
plants,  indicating  vigorous  and  healthy  growth. 

Tobacco  Interests  of  North  Carolina.         193 

A  hundred  methods  are  practiced  or  suggested  to  prevent 
the  ravages  of  the  flea-beetle,  but  only  one  plan  lias  proven 
really  effective — to  cover  the  bed  closely  wiih  canvas  or 
unbleached  cotton  cloth.  A  frame  is  first  made  around  the 
bed  of  planks  8  or  10  inches  high,  care  being  taken  to  close 
every  crevice  between  the  planks  and  the  ground.  A  few 
wires  may  be  stretched  across,  the  better  to  hold  up  the 
cloth,  which  is  stretched  over  the  frame  and  closelj'  tacked 
upon  the  edges.  In  place  of  the  wires,  a  small  quantit}'  of 
light  brush  thrown  upon  the  bed  will  help  sustain  the 
weight  of  the  cloth.  A  better  plan  would  be  to  construct 
a  number  of  smaller  frames,  of  proper  width  and  not  more 
than  6  or  8  feet  in  length,  upon  which  the  cloth  may  be 
stretched  and  neatly  fastened,  a  sufficient  number  of  these 
frames  being  provided  to  cover  the  intended  plant-bed. 
yuch  frames,  with  their  covering,  could  be  removed  when 
no  longer  needed  and  stored  for  future  use.  If  the  cloth  is 
treated  with  a  single  coat  of  white  lead  and  oil,  such  as  is 
used  for  the  first  coat  of  outside  work  on  wood,  it  will  last 
several  seasons  with  ordinary  care.  Still  another  plan  may 
be  found  more  economical.  The  frames  may  be  made  and 
properly  braced  by  cross-pieces  let  in  flush  with  the  upper 
edges  of  the  planks.  The  cloth  or  canvas  may  be  some 
three  inches  longer  and  wider  than  the  frames,  and  hemmed 
upon  the  edges,  and  eyelet  holes  may  be  worked  along  the 
edges,  two  feet  or  less  apart,  in  which  cords  may  be  fastened 
by  which  to  stretch  the  cloth  and  tie  it  down  closely  over 
the  frames  to  nails,  hooks,  or  wooden  pegs  driven  into  the 
outer  faces  of  the  frame  planks,  three  or  four  inches  below 
the  upper  edges.  Other  devices  will  suggest  themselves  to 
the  intelligent  farmer,  by  which  he  can  make  the  cloth  cov- 
ering effective,  easily  handled,  and  economical. 

When  the  plants  are  nearly  large  enough  to  be  set  out 
this  protecting  cover  should  be  taken  off  in  the  morning 
for  two  or  three  days  and  replaced  in  the  afternoon,  that  the 
plants  may  be  gradually  hardened  by  exposure  to  the  direct 
rays  of  the  sun  and  better  fitted  for  transplanting. 

It  often  happens  that  a  dry  season  occurs  after  the  first 
drawing  of  plants,  and  those  that  remain  on  the  bed  cease 
to  grow,  turn  yellow,  and  perhaps  die.  One  or  two  planks 
and  a  lew  blocks  of  wood  should  be  provided.  A  block  on 
each  side  of  the  bed  will  support  a  plank,  upon  which  the 
person  drawing  the  plants  should  stand.     Nothing  injures 

194  History  of  Durham. 

a  plant-bed  so  much  as  compacting  it  when  wet,  and  as 
plants  are  almost  always  drawn  when  the  soil  is  wet  no 
pains  should  be  spared  to  prevent  treading  upon  or  other- 
wise compressing  the  bed.  If  from  any  cause  the  plants 
begin  to  turn  yellow  and  wither  away  shade  must  be  {)ro- 
vided  by  buikling  over  the  bed  a  low  arbor  of  green  boughs 
and  watering  the  surface  copiously.  This  will  almost  al- 
ways give  new  vitality  to  the  enfeebled  plants. 

A  practice  of  many  good  planters  is  to  re?ow  the  beds 
with  about  half  the  quantity  of  seed  originally  used  as 
soon  as  the  first  plants  appear,  so  that  if  the  first  plants  are 
destroyed  in  any  manner  the  seed  last  sown  will  be  under- 
going the  process  of  germination  and  a  second  crop  of 
plants  will  be  assured. 

In  Tennessee  and  in  North  Carolina  plant-beds  may  be 
prepared  and  sown  at  any  time  from  the  first  of  November 
until  the  first  of  April.  Prepared  while  wet  or  frozen,  a 
plant-bed  rarely  does  well.  Beds  are  usually  burned  in 
February  or  March  ;  but  if  the  burning  is  done  in  the  fall, 
when  the  soil  is  dry,  less  fuel  is  needed,  and  the  prepared 
bed  may  be  left,  to  the  meliorating  influences  of  the  winter 
freezing,  to  be  sown  in  the  early  spring.  Many  good  farm- 
'ers  sow  the  fall  burned  beds  as  soon  as  prepared,  but  there 
is  some  risk  in  so  doing.  Heavy  rains  and  melting  snows 
are  apt  to  wash  or  drift  the  seeds,  and  so  disturb  their  uni- 
form distribution.  One  of  the  best  tobacco  growers  in  the 
South  says  that  a  rod  of  land  well  burned  in  the  fall  will 
furnish  as  many  good  plants  as  twice  the  area  burned  in 
February  or  March. 

In  some  parts  of  Virginia  and  Maryland,  and  in  districts 
where  wood  and  brush  are  scarce,  farmers  have  succeeded 
in  growing  good  plants  upon  plats  of  clean  soil  without 
burning  by  the  use  of  guano,  raked  into  the  surface,  or  as 
a  top  dressing,  applied  at  the  time  of  sowing  the  seed,  about 
40  pounds  per  hundred  square  yards.  Others  select  a 
standing  bed,  one  that  has  produced  plants  well,  in  a  warm 
location,  neither  too  wet  nor  too  dry;  colter  over  the  bed 
after  the  planting  season  is  past  and  before  any  grass  or 
weeds  have  gone  to  seed  upon  the  plat;  cover  with  straw, 
leaves,  or  brush  with  the  leaves  on,  or  with  all  of  them,  so 
thick  as  to  completely  hide  the  surface  and  prevent  vege- 
table growth.  A  bed  is  thus  made  ready  for  burning  at 
some  dry  time  from  November  to  January,  or  later,  which 

Tobacco  Interests  of  North  Carolina.  195 

is  done  by  simply  applying  a  torch.  By  this  method  a 
standing  plant-bed  can  be  annually  prepared  wliich.  if 
heavily  manured,  will  become  better  each  succeeding  3'ear. 

In  Pennsylvania,  New  York,  the  New  England  stales,  and 
in  Ohio,  burning  is  rarely  practiced,  and  then  only  so  far 
as  may  be  thought  necessary  to  destroy  weed  and  gruss  seeds 
in  the  upper  surface  soil.  The  same  seed-bed  is  used  for 
successive  years,  kept  clear  of  grass  and  weeds  throughout 
the  year  and  heavily  enriched  by  an  addition  of  fresii  loam 
from  the  woodlands,  composts  of  stable  manures  thoroughly 
rotted,  and  so  .handled  that  no  foreign  seeds  capable  of  ger- 
mination are  left  therein,  and  frequently  top-dressings  of 
good  commercial  fertilizers  are  used.  The  most  successful 
growers  in  Ohio  and  in  New  York  use  manures  from  the 
hog-pen,  as  not  only  the  richest,  but  as  most  likely  to  be 
free  from  noxious  seeds.  In  the  New  England  states  seed- 
beds are  enriched  with  guano,  castor  pomace,  well-rotted 
stable  manure,  the  refuse  of  the  fish  oil  factories,  or  some 
one  of  the  numerous  manufactured  fertilizers.  In  most  of 
the  northern  stales  it  is  a  very  common  practice  to  sprout 
the  tobacco  seed  i,efore  sowing.  The  seeds  are  mixed  with 
dark,  rich  loam,  or,  what  is  better,  as  in  Wisconsin,  with 
fineh'-pulverized  rotten  wood  from  the  hollow  of  an  old 
stump  or  log,  and  i)laced  in  a  pan  or  a  dish  in  a  warm  place 
and  kept  moderately  damp  by  frequent  sprinkling  with 
tepid  water.  The  seeds  germinate  under  such  conditions 
in  about  two  weeks,  and  are  sown  as  soon  as  danger  of  frost 
is  passed.  Another  plan  is  to  spread  the  seeds  very  thinly 
upon  a  piece  of  dampened  cotton  cloth  and  cover  them  with 
another  cloth,  but  of  wool ;  the  two  are  made  into  a  loose 
roll,  the  woolen  cloth  outside.  This  roll  is  kept  ia  a  warm 
place,  dipped  in  tepid  water  every  day,  and  the  white  germs 
appear  in  from  four  to  six  days.  In  northern  Illinois  simi- 
lar cloths  are  kept  moist  and  warm  in  a  pan  of  earth,  of 
which  there  is  a  layer  above  as  well  as  below  the  cloths. 
Great  care  is  necessary  in  all  these  forcing  processes.  Some- 
times the  soil  of  the  plant-bed  is  too  wet,  or  otherwise  not 
in  proper  condition  when  the  seeds  are  ready,  and  when  a 
delay  of  a  day  or  two  may  render  the  sprouted  seeds  useless. 
The  prudent  man  provides  against  such  danger  by  prepar- 
ing several  lots  of  seed  at  intervals  of  several  days. 

The  most  common    error  in  sowing  tobacco  seed,  both 
north  and  south,  is  in  using  too  much  seed.     Tobacco  seeds 

196  History  of  Durham. 

are  exceeding!}'  small,  an  ounce  containing  about  340,000 
seeds.  One  large,  well-developed  tobacco  plant  will  produce 
seed  enough  to  grow  plants  to  set  10  acres  certain!}'-,  and, 
should  all  of  them  germinate  and  grow,  enough  to  set  out 
100  acres.  Crowded  plants  must  struggle  for  existence,  are 
never  strong  and  vigorous,  and  bear  transplanting  badly; 
those  that  have  room  enough  to  grow  thriftily  will  have  a 
thick  tuft  of  roots,  a  low,  stocky  top,  and  a  vigorous  consti- 
tution, growing  off  quickly  when  transplanted.  It  is  far 
better  economy  to  increase  the  size  of  the  bed  than  to  at- 
tempt to  produce  a  large  number  of  plants  by  .thick  seeding. 
A  btd  of  100  square  yards  will  usually  furnish  plants 
enough  to  set  6  or  7  acress;  sometimes  a  bed  of  this  size 
will  produce  enough  to  set  10  acres.  No  tobacco-grower 
ever  regrets  having  a  surplus  of  plants,  for  in  that  case  he 
can  select  the  best  and  set  out  his  whole  crop  early.  On 
new  land  very  small  plants  may  be  set,  and  at  any  time 
immediately  after  the  late  frosts  without  risk.  For  old 
lands  j)lants  should  be  a  little  more  advanced  than  such  as 
can  be  safely  planted  upon  new  lands,  but  as  the  season 
advances  larger  plants  are  required  for  both  old  and  new 


From  the  first  appearance  of  the  minute  seed-leaves  in 
the  plant-bed  until  the  tobacco  is  cut  and  hung  in  the  barn 
the  patience  and  watchfulness  of  the  farmer  are  taxed  to 
guard  against  the  depredations  of  insects. 

Among  the  earliest  to  appear,  often  attacking  the  plants 
and  destroying  them  so  early  as  to  make  the  planter  doubt 
w^iether  the  seed  had  even  germinated,  are  the  "  garden 
fleas,"  sometimes  called  "snow  fleas"  and  "spring-tails" 
{SmyniJLU7ms  hortensis).  When  viewed  from  the  upper  side 
(dorsal  view),  the  most  conspicuous  divisions  are  a  large 
head  and  an  abdomen  perfectly  smooth  and  plump,  without 
any  segmental  cross  lines.  The  thorax  seems  confluent 
with  the  abdomen.  Beneath  are  some  transverse  wrinkles, 
indicating  segmental  divisions.  The  antennee  are  three- 
fourths  as  long  as  the  body,  elbowed  about  the  middle,  and 
are  composed  of  nine  joints,  six  very  short  and  three  very 
long.  Projecting  from  the  posterior  of  the  abdomen  is  a 
cone-shaped  process,  composed  of  three  distinctly  marked 

Tobacco  Interests  op  North  Carolina.         197 

segmental  lines,  that  appear  to  be  a  caudal  termination  of 
the  body.  On  the  lower  side  of  the  abdomen,  and  near  its 
end,  is  a  forked  member  (a  spring-tail),  which  lies  folded  up 
against  the  under  side  and  reaches  as  far  forward  as  the 
head,  in  which  lies  its  leaping  power.  Its  feet,  six  in  num- 
ber,are  united  apparently  to  the  frontof  the  abdomen,  which, 
from  a  ventral  xiew,  exhibits  a  rudimental  sternum,  com- 
pensating for  the  absence  of  the  thorax  usual  in  insects. 
This  insect  has  neither  wings  nor  wing  covers,  and  from  a 
top  view  might  be  mistaken  for  a  small,  black  spider  by  a 
novice  if  he  did  not  know  that  a  spider  has  eight  feet,  and 
that  the  head  and  thorax  are  confluent,  instead  of  the  tho- 
rax and  abdomen.  These  insects  are  capable  of  bearing  a 
low  temperature,  and  are  frequently  found  upon  the  surface 
of  the  snow,  from  whence  comes  the  name  of  "  snow  flea." 
Tobacco-growers  complain  of  these  pests  under  the  name 
of  "  black  fly,"  "  black  spider,"  etc.  Their  larval  and  pupal 
histories  seem  to  be  unknown.  They  are  found  in  all  the 
states  of  the  Atlantic  coast,  but  have  not  been  observed  in 
the  interior.  They  appear  as  far  north  as  Lancaster  county,. 
Pennsylvania,  during  the  months  of  May  and  June,  but  by 
the  first  of  July  they  have  disappeared,  and  nothing  more 
is  seen  of  them  until  the  following  spring.  As  a  remedy 
flour  of  sulphur  has  been  highly  recommended.  These 
insects  are  very  delicate  in  their  structure,  and  cannot  be 
taken  between  the  fingers  without  crushing  them.  As  it  is 
evident  that  the  first  stages  of  their  development  must  be 
passed  underground  and  not  far  below  the  surface,  it  is 
suggested  that  where  tobacco-beds  are  not  burned  the  soil 
be  prepared  early,  thoroughly  pulverized,  and  copiously 
drenched  with  scalding  water  three  or  four  times  in  as 
many  days  before  the  seed  is  sown. 

From  all  parts  of  the  United  States  come  reports  that  the 
flea-beetle  is  the  most  persistent  and  most  dreaded  enemy  of 
the  young  tobacco  plants.  Several  species  of  these  insects 
are  well  known  to  every  farmer  and  gardener  from  the  Gulf 
of  Mexico  to  Canada.  The  cabbage  flea  {Hallica  striolata)  is 
found  in  North  Carolina  and  Tennessee  in  the  latter  part  of 
March  or  early  in  April,  sometimes  in  immense  numbers, 
in  the  newly-planted  cotton  fields,  feeding  upon  the  seed- 
leaves  of  the  young  plants.  Dr.  Rathoon,  of  Pennsylvania, 
describes  two  species  of  the  genus  Epiirix,  family  Halticice, 
as  follows :  The  Epitrix  aucumeris  is  black  all  over,  except 

198  History  of  Durham. 

the  antenn£e  and  the  feet.  The  thorax  is  thickly  punctured, 
and  the  wing  covers  conspicuously  striated  and  punctured 
between  the  striae.  The  Epitrix  pubescenes  is  slightly  more 
oblong,  and  not  quite  so  convexed  as  the  former,  but  other- 
wise is  about  the  same  size.  1'he  whole  of  the  body  beneath 
is  of  a  dull-black  color,  including  also  the  posterior  thighs. 
The  feet,  the  antennse  (which  are  slightly  serrated  along  the 
anterior  margin),  and  the  whole  of  the  dorsal  or  upper  part 
of  the  body,  are  of  a  honey-yellow  color,  except  about  a 
third  of  the  middle  portion  of  the  wing  covers,  which  is  a 
dusky  black.  The  thorax  is  of  a  much  brighter  color  than 
the  other  upper  portions  of  the  body,  and  the  eyes  are  very 
black,  their  composite  character  being  more  distinct  than 
in  the  first-named  species ;  and  except  the  thorax,  the  upper 
and  lower  part  of  the  whole  body  is  pubescent.  This  pu- 
bescence is  conspicuous  in  rows  between  the  striae  of  the  wing 
covers  and  along  the  margins  of  the  abdominal  segments. 
This  species  is  the  most  troublesome  to  the  young  cotton 
and  cabbage  plants  of  the  middle  Southern  States.  They 
also  attack  the  seed-leaves  of  beans  and  other  leguminous 
plants,  but  appear  to  have  an  especial  fondness  for  tobacco. 
These  insects  are  about  one- sixteenth  to  one  tenth  of  an  inch 
in  length. 

The  above-named  and  other  species  of  the  Halticans  feed 
on  a  variety  of  plants.  The  sweet  potato,  cabbage,  beet, 
turnip,  radish,  horseradish,  common  nettle,  and  the  James- 
town weed  are  all  infested  by  one  or  the  other  and  often  by 
the  same  species  of  this  omnivorous  family.  When  dis- 
turbed, the  fiea-beetles  leap  off  the  plants  and  hide  them- 
selves quickly  in  the  dry  soil  or  under  small  clods.  Various 
solutions,  poisonous  or  simply  distasteful  to  these  insects, 
have  been  used  with  successful  results.  Ashes,  slaked  lime, 
and  soot,  dusted  upon  melon,  cucumber,  potato,  and  turnip 
plants,  and  applied  in  the  morning,  when  the  dew  is  on  the 
plants  and  while  the  beetles  are  sluggish,  are  effectual  in 
most  instances.  Of  various  plans  to  keep  them  from  tobac- 
co-beds probably  the  only  certain  protection  is  to  cover  the 
seed-bed  with  cfoth,  as  suggested  heretofore. 

Transplanted  into  the  field,  the  tobacco  plant  is  exposed 
to  the  attacks  of  other  insects.  The  greasy  cut-worm  usually 
cuts  off  the  plant  just  beneath  the  surface  of  the  soil  without 
cutting  the  top  at  all.  When  these  worms  are  disturbed, 
they  immediately  coil  themselves  into  a  ring.     They  do  not 

Tobacco  Interests  of  North  Carolina.        199 

like  the  sunlight,  and  during  the  day  bury  themselves  in 
the  lower  soil  in  the  vicinity  of  the  plant.  When  grown, 
they  are  from  1^  to  H  inches  long.  They  bur}'  themselves 
beneath  the  soil  to  pupate.  The  pupa  is  three-fourths  of  an 
inch  in  length,  of  a  shining  or  glossy  light-brown  color,  and 
the  anterior  margin  of  the  segments  is  dark  brown.  The 
anal  segment  is  armed  with  two  very  small  spines  or  points, 
by  the  assistance  of  which  it  pushes  itself  toward  the  sur- 
face about  the  time  the  moth  is  evolved.  This  moth  is  com- 
monly called  the  Lance  Rustic,  from  the  dark-brown,  lance- 
shaped  spots  on  the  anterior  wings,  which  are  a  light  brown 
in  color.  The  hind  wings  are  lustrous  and  whitish  in  color, 
with  a  grayish  margin.  The  antennae  of  the  females  are 
filamental  or  threadlike;  but  in  the  male,  along  the  inner 
margin  near  the  base,  they  are  more  or  less  pectinated.  The 
body  of  the  largest  specimens  is  three-fourths  of  an  inch  in 
length,  and  the  wings  expand  If  inches  from  tip  to  tip. 
Cut-worms  are  largely  preyed  upon  by  hyraenopterous  and 
other  parasites,  and  there  is  no  better  or  safer  remedy  than 
hand-picking  while  they  are  yet  in  the  larval  state,  dis- 
criminating in  favor  of  the  parasites  when  seen  and  known. 
Toads,  lizards,  snakes,  and  moles  are  all  very  useful  in  keep- 
ing these  worms  in  check,  and  should  be  protected,  except- 
ing, of  course,  poisonous  snakes.  The  cut-worms,  in  vari- 
ous stages  of  development,  may  be  found  in  the  earth  dur- 
ing the  entire  w^inter,  too  torpid  to  feed  until  the  return  of 
warm  weather.  This  accounts  for  their  appearance  and 
their  advanced  physical  condition  so  early  in  the  season. 
When  cut-worms  exist  in  large  numbers,  as  in  grass  or 
clover  sod  or  in  fields  not  cleanly  cultivated,  fall  or  winter 
plowings,  to  expose  as  much  as  possible  the  upper  soil  to 
the  severe  freezings  of  midwinter,  are  absolutely  necessary 
to  secure  a  good  stand  of  tobacco;  but  no  matter  how  hard 
the  frosts,  nor  how  often  the  ground  is  plowed,  some  of  the 
worms  will  survive,  making  daily  inspection  of  the  newly- 
planted  iield  indispensable  for  an  even  stand  of  plants. 

Wire-worms  do  not  attack  the  leaf,  but  bore  into  the 
stems  of  the  plants  at  the  surface  of  the  ground  and  work 
their  way  upward.  After  the  tobacco  gets  a  fair  start  in 
growth,  nothing  is  seen  of  these  worms  for  the  remainder  of 
the  season.  They  are  the  larvte  of  "  click-beetles,"  or  "  ham- 
mer-bugs" {Elateridce).  These  worms  are  sometimes  very 
numerous.     In  April  and  early  in  May,  sometimes  as  late 

200  History  of  Durham. 

as  the  first  of  June,  some  of  these  species  are  very  destructive 
in  the  corn-fields,  especially  upon  lands  which  have  been 
lying  out  for  some  years;  but  they  are  rarely  troublesome 
in  well-cultivated  fields. 

In  Ohio,  Pennsylvania,  and  perhaps  farther  northward, 
the  HeliotJm  armigera  (the  southern  boll-worm,  or  corn- 
worm)  is  sometimes  found  feeding  upon  the  seed-leaves  of 
young  tobacco  plants,  but  south  of  35°  these  worms  are 
rarely  known  to  attack  tobacco  plants,  since  the}'  find  more 
appropriate  food  in  abundance. 

Some  reliable  authorities  state  that  in  the  earlier 
stages  of  growth  in  the  field,  tobacco  plants  have  been  at- 
tacked by  the  Epilachim  borealis  (northern  lady  bird).  This 
insect  is  shaped  like  the  common  "  box  turtle,"  is  of  a  lemon- 
yellow  color,  spotted  all  over  with  black,  and  when  caught 
in  the  hand  emits  a  few  drops  of  a  clear  yellow  fluid  of  un- 
pleasant odor.  It  is  nearly  as  large  as  the  Colorado  potato 
beetle,  but  rather  more  hemispherical,  and  the  larva,  pupa, 
and  imago  are  often  found  together  on  the  same  plant.  They 
are  usually  found  upon  pumpkin,  melon,  and  cucumber 
vines.  The  larva  is  a  short,  convexed  slug,  of  a  uniform 
bright  yellow  color,  covered  all  over  with  short,  bristly 
hairs,  and  has  a  pair  of  very  black  eyes.  It  undergoes  all 
its  transformations  on  the  plants  it  infests,  and  the  pupa  is 
suspended  by  the  adhesion  of  the  caudal  extremity.  This 
species  and  several  others  of  the  same  family  hibernate  be- 
neath the  rough  outer  bark  of  the  wild  cherry,  and  some- 
times upon  the  apple  trees  in  neglected  orchards.  These 
insects,  as  well  as  some  others  hereafter  mentioned,  are 
rarely  found  upon  tobacco  plants  except  near  trees  of  shrub- 
bery or  close  to  fences. 

Tree  crickets  {CEcanihiis  niveus)  are  often  found  upon  to- 
bacco plants  in  Tennessee,  North  Carolina  and  other  south- 
ern tobacco  regions  in  July  and  August,  and  in  Pennsylva- 
nia and  farther  north  in  August.  Though  usually  found 
on  trees,  these  crickets  show  a  decided  partiality  for  tobacco^ 
perforating  the  tender  top  leaves  about  the  time  they  are 
expanding.  It  does  not  kill  the  leaf  nor  arrest  its  growth^ 
but  the  holes  increase  in  size.  Although  these  holes  are 
circular  when  first  made,  they  become  oblong  as  the  leaves 
lengthen,  and  always  in  the  longitudinal  direction  of  the 
leaf.  These  crickets,  when  young,  either  leap  away  or  hide 
among  the  leaves  when  approached,  but  after  their  wings 

Tobacco  Interests  of  North  Carolina.  201 

are  fully  developed  they  can  both  leap  and  fly  to  a  consid- 
erable distance.  The  male  tree  cricket  is  nearl}'  white, 
sometimes  tinged  with  green;  the  wings  lie  flat  on  the  back, 
one  lapped  over  on  the  other;  the  legs  are  all  long  and  slen- 
der, the  posterior  pair  much  the  longest,  and  formed  for 
leaping;  the  antenna3  are  very  long  and  thread-like,  and 
are  generally  thrown  backward  when  the  animal  is  at  rest. 
The  female  is  more  robust  and  shorter  in  the  body;  the 
wings  are  short  and  deflexed,  and  her  color  is  various 
shades  of  green  and  brown.  Her  legs  and  antennre  are  also 
shorter  than  those  of  the  male,  and  at  the  end  of  the  abdo- 
man  she  is  provided  with  a  sword-like  ovipositor.  She  per- 
forates the  raspberry  and  blackberry  canes,  as  well  as  the 
tender  branches  of  other  shrubbery,  with  this  instrument, 
and  deposits  her  eggs  therein,  where  they  remain  all  winter 
and  hatch  in  the  spring.  Tobacco  cultivators  have  noticed 
that  these  insects  are  most  abundant  on  tobacco  growing 
under  or  near  trees.  Clean  culture,  and  the  clearing  up  of 
fence  corners  and  neglected  spots  about  the  tobacco  fields, 
will  do  much  to  prevent  injury  by  crickets. 

Various  species  of  grasshoppers,  especially  the  meadow 
grasshopper  {OrchUcmum  vulgare),  sometimes  feed  upon  the 
tobacco  plant,  eating  the  leaves  of  the  newly-set  plants  while 
in  a  wilted  condition,  but  the  injury  from  this  source  is 
slight,  and  rarely  occurs  with  any  but  late  plantings. 

Several  species  of  hemipterous  insects  puncture  tobacco 
plants.  These  insects  are  true  bugs,  and  are  not  provided 
with  mandibular  organs.  They  do  not  eat  the  plant  nor 
cut  holes  in  it,  but  are  provided  with  a  sharp  proboscis, 
with  which  they  pierce  the  plant  and  suck  out  its  juices. 
One  of  these,  the  Phytocoris  linearis,  is  a  small  gray  insect 
about  a  quarter  of  an  inch  long,  having  generally  a  con- 
spicuous yellowish  V-shaped  mark  on  the  back,  occupying 
that  part  called  the  scutellum.  This  bug  is  found  upon  the 
potato,  and  has  been  observed  in  Tennessee  upon  parsnip, 
tomato,  and  late  cabbage  plants.  The  Euschistus  j)ii-^icticeps 
is  a  much  larger  insect  than  that  last  described,  and  is  ca- 
pable of  greater  injury.  It  belongs  to  the  family  SciUellari- 
dos,  distinguished  by  a  triangular  lobe  that  extends  from  the 
base  of  the  thorax  downward  on  the  wing  covers.  This  in- 
sect is  half  an  inch  long  and  three-eighths  of  an  inch  across 
at  the  broadest  part.  Above,  it  is  of  a  yellowish  color,  and 
closely  punctured  darkly,  giving  it  a  grayish  hue;  below, 

202  History  of  Durham. 

it  is  a  light  greenish  yellow.  It  has  a  longer  and  more  slen- 
der proboscis  than  the  species  that  prey  upon  other  insects; 
otherwise  it  might  easily  be  confounded  with  them,  and  no 
doubt  frequently  is.  It  also  lacks  the  thoracic  spines;  but 
tiiese  are  very  variable  in  their  development,  and  not  always 
a  safe  distinguishing  characteristic.  These  bugs  are  found 
on  mulleins,  thistles,  and  other  weeds,  and  have  also  been 
found  upon  tobacco  plants  in  several  localities,  feeding  upon 
the  sap  of  the  leaves,  but  it  is  doubtful  whether  any  great 
injury  can  be  charged  to  their  account.  The  ordinary  ob- 
server is  apt  to  mistake  the  purpose  for  which  many  insects 
visit  various  plants.  The  spined  tree-bug  {Podisus  spinosus), 
the  large  tree-bug  {Podisus  cynicus),  the  Stiretrus  diana  (a 
plant  bug  of  a  purple-black  color,  with  red  or  orange  marks 
on  the  thorax  and  scutellum),  and  the  Stiretrus  fimbriatus, 
the  ground  colors  of  which  are  orange  or  yellow,  with  black 
markings,  are  sometimes  found  upon  or  in  the  immediate 
neighborhood  of  tobacco  plants.  These  bugs  should  not  be 
destroyed,  unless  upon  careful  examination  they  are  found 
actually  feeding  upon  the  juices  of  the  leaves,  as  it  is  more 
than  probable  that  their  presence  is  beneficial,  rather  than 

From  the  early  part  of  June  until  the  sharp  frosts  destroy 
their  food  in  the  fall,  the  larvae  of  the  sphinx  moths  infest 
the  tobacco.  In  Virginia,  Maryland,  Kentucky,  Tennessee, 
and  Missouri  both  the  SpJtinx  Carolina  and  the  Sphinx  quin- 
quemaculata  are  found,  and  they  are  both  reported  as  found 
in  the  tobacco  fields  as  far  north  as  latitude  41°  30'.  South 
of  latitude  35°  only  the  Sphijix  ca7^o^ma  has  been  observed.  The 
larvae  of  these  two  Sphingidoe  are  so  well  known  to  all  tobacco 
growers  as  to  need  no  description  here.  They  have  always 
been  regarded  as  the  most  inveterate  enemies  ol  the  to- 
bacco plant,  and,  despite  plans  adopted  for  their  destruc- 
tion, the  horn-worms  seem  to  be  as  numerous  as  ever. 
In  some  seasons  there  are  comparatively  few  in  certain 
localities,  but  it  has  been  noticed  that  the  fields  of  such 
districts  are  often  visited  late  in  July  or  August  of  the 
next  year  by  a  "heavy  shower"  of  horn-worms.  Com- 
parative immunity  for  one  season  too  often  causes  the 
farmer  to  neglect  the  destruction  of  the  late  brood  of 
worms  left  upon  the  suckers  which  spring  up  after  the  crop 
is  harvested,  large  numbers  punating'and  hibernating,  pro- 
tected by  the  forgotten  and  neglected   trash  of  the  tobacco 

Tobacco  Interests  of  North  Carolina.         20c 

field.  Catching  the  moths  with  ingeniously-contrived  traps, 
poisoning  them  with  sweetened  cobalt  dropped  into  the 
bloom  of  the  Jamestown  weed,  or  killing  them  with  pad- 
dles as  they  hover  about  the  tobacco  plants  after  sunset,  are 
all  practiced.  Recently,  as  in  Tennessee,  porcelain  imita- 
tions of  the  blossom  of  the  Jamestown  weed  have  been  in- 
troduced. These  are  fastened  upon  sticks,  set  up  at  short 
distances  apart  throughout  the  tobacco  field,  and  are  supplied 
wath  a  few  drops  of  poisoned  sirup.  They  are  cheap,  will 
last  with  ordinary  care  a  lifetime,  and  are  highly  recom- 
mended by  planters  who  have  used  them.  A  knowledge  of 
the  transformations  of  these  insects  will  enable  the  obser- 
vant farmer  to  do  much  to  reduce  their  numbers,  and  if  it 
were  possible  to  secure  prompt  measures  throughout  a  con- 
siderable section  of  country,  or  even  by  the  growers  of  a 
large  neighborhood,  much  disagreeable  labor  might  be 

The  moth  deposits  an  egg  of  a  sea-green  color,  not  larger 
than  a  mustard  seed,  upon  the  surface  of  the  leaf.  This 
egg  gradually  assumes  a  cream  color,  and  from  it,  in  due 
time,  a  tiny  worm  issues,  not  larger  than  a  horse  hair,  and 
about  one-eighth  of  an  inch  in  length.  The  process  of 
hatching  embraces  from  twenty-four  to  thirty-six  hours,  de- 
pending upon  tiie  condition  of  the  weather.  The  worm 
begins  to  eat  immediately,  making  first  a  small  hole  in  the 
leaf,  through  which  it  passes  in  iiot  weather  to  the  under 
side,  and  occasionally  the  eggs  are  there  deposited  by  the 
moth.  This  worm,  though  voracious,  does  little  damage  for 
four  or  five  days.  Its  power  of  destruction  increases  ex- 
ceedingly with  each  day,  and  this  makes  it  highly  ipipor- 
tant  to  go  over  the  field  often  in  search  of  them. 

When  the  horn-worm  has  attained  full  size  it  stops  eating, 
comes  down  from  the  plant,  and  usually  burrows  into  the 
ground  close  to  its  last  feeding  place,  but  not  unfrequently 
crawls  away  some  distance  to  find  soil  suQiciently  soft  to 
enable  it  to  get  some  inches  below  the  surface.  Here  it 
becomes  quiescent,  casts  ofi"  its  larva  skin,  and  asuimes  its 
pupal  form.  It  is  now  oval  in  shape,  four  times  as  long  as 
it  is  thick,  about  1^  inches  in  length,  and  the  iiard,  glossy 
envelope  is  of  a  bright  chestnut  color.  The  forward  end  is 
prolonged  into  a  long,  tube-like  appendage,  bent  backward 
and  firmly  attached  to  the  chest,  forming  a  loop  like  a 
pitcher-handle,  this  tube  ensheathing  the  tongue,  which  is 

204  History  of  Durham. 

so  remarkably  developed  in  the  perfect  moth.  Onlj'  under 
peculiar  circumstances  are  these  pupae  found  at  a  greater 
depth  than  may  be  reached  by  deep  plowing.  A  further 
means  of  reducing  the  number  of  these  insects  is  therefore 
by  fall  or  winter  plowing  the  tobacco  fields.  It  must  be 
said,  however,  that  even  if  every  egg,  worm,  moth,  and 
chrysalid  in  a  given  neighborhood  were  destroyed,  high 
winds,  or  even  the  lighter  breezes  of  the  summer  evenings, 
bring  other  moths  many  miles.  The  tobacco  grower  should 
instruct  those  in  his  employ  not  to  destroy  any  horn-worm 
found  with  the  cocoons  of  the  parasite  Microgaster  congre- 
gata  attached  to  its  body.  These  cocoons  are  white,  of  a 
regular  oval  form,  a  little  more  than  an  eighth  of  an  inch 
long  and  about  one-sixteenth  of  an  inch  broad,  and  resem- 
bles small  grains  of  rice.  From  ten  to  a  hundred  of  these 
cocoons  are  found  upon  a  single  horn-worm.  The  worm  so 
infested  may  be  removed  from  the  tobacco  plant,  but  should 
be  handled  carefully  and  placed  where  the  cocoons  may  not 
be  injured,  so  that  the  parasites  may  hatch  undisturbed. 
The  flies  which  issue  from  the  cocoons  are  black,  with  clear, 
transparent  wings  and  legs  of  a  bright  tawny  color,  the  hue 
of  beeswax,  with  the  hind  feet  and  the  tips  of  the  hind 
shanks  dusky. 

The  testimony  of  all  tobacco  growers  points  to  the  one 
conclusion  about  insect  enemies.  No  methods  of  preven- 
tion or  destruction  can  justify  a  single's  day's  neglect  to 
search  for  and  destroy  cut-worms  about  newly-set  plants 
and  the  eggs  and  larva?  of  the  sphinx  moth  upon  the  ex- 
panded leaves  throughout  the  season. 


The  tobacco  plant  is  subject  to  certain  diseases,  few  in 
number,  however,  and  rarely  resulting  in  very  serious  dam- 
age. Unfavorable  seasons,  too  wet  or  too  dry,  often  reduce 
the  yield  and  impair  the  value  of  the  product;  but  dis- 
eases, properly  so  called,  seldom  affect  more  than  a  few 
plants,  or  perhaps  a  smaller  portion  of  a  field.  Reports 
from  widely  separated  districts  mention  the  same  diseases, 
all  of  which  result  from  deficiencies  in  the  soil  or  its  prep- 
aration, or  from  peculiarities  of  the  seasons  during  growth. 

A  disease  known  in  New  England  as  "  brown  rust,"  and 
in  the  South  as  "firing"  and  "field-fire,"  prevails  to  some  ex- 
tent every  year.     It  appears  in  very  wet  or  very  dry  weather, 

Tobacco  Interests  op  North  Carolina.         205 

and  reports  concur  in  the  opinion  that  it  is  caused  b}'  violent 
changes  from  one  extreme  to  the  other.  A  plethoric  plant 
with  the  supph'  of  moisture  suddenly  cut  off,  and  a  lean 
plant  forced  by  excessive  moisture  to  rank  growth — a  leaf 
perishing  in  spots  for  lack  of  sustenance,  and  another  from 
the  opposite  cause — present  variable  conditions,  developing 
"  rast"  or  "fire."  This  disease  is  not  so  prevalent  in  some 
districts  as  formerly,  which  is  attributed  by  some  planters 
to  the  substitution  of  new  for  old  varieties  ;  but  it  is  more 
probably  due  to  planting  upon  a  different  character  of  soil, 
or  to  more  thorough  drainage  and  improved  culture.  Some- 
times, though  rarely,  the  entire  plant  is  involved,  drooping 
and  witlicring  through  excessive  humidity.  Tliis  is  the 
"  black  fire,"  a  strictly  wet-weather  disease.  In  dry  weather 
the  plant  sometime  parches  up,  as  if  scorched.  In  uniform, 
ordinary  seasons  it  does  not  appear.  Injudicious  use  of 
heating  manures  is  assigned  as  sometimes  tiie  cause  of 
firing,  and  undoubtedly  does  occasionall}' produce  ''red" 
or  dry-weather  firing.  Thorough  drainage  is  regarded  as 
the  best  preventive  of  this  and  its  kindred  diseases. 

"Frenching,"  derived  from  the  French  friser (to  curl),  oc- 
cursalmostexclusivelyuponcoldjStiff  uplands.havingaclose 
and  stiff  clay  subsoil.  During  a  wet  season  it  is  very  prev- 
alent upon  clayey  lands,  and  is  sometimes  found  upon  sandy 
soils  in  small  basins  during  excessivel}'  rainy  weather. 
This  disease  renders  the  plant  worthless  when  it  has  pro- 
gressed to  any  considerable  extent.  The  effects  are  first 
seen  in  the  buds  of  the  plant,  which  become  of  a  yellow 
color.  The  leaves  afterward  become  thick  and  flesh}',  have  a 
semi-transj)arent  or  honey-colored  appearance,  and  often 
curl  around  the  edges  downward,  sometimes  growing  in 
long,  narrow  strips,  with  ragged  outlines.  When  cured, 
the  leaves  are  dull  and  lifeless  in  color,  and  very  brittle. 
No  remedy  for  the  disease  has  been  found.  It  is  sometimes 
arrested  b}^  close  plowing,  or  by  giving  the  plant  a  vigor- 
ous pull,  so  as  to  break  the  tap  root,  but  the  only  preven- 
tive measure  is  to  avoid  planting  upon  a  soil  not  properly 
underdrained,  either  naturally  or  artificially. 

"Walloon,"  or  "  water-loon,"  is  of  very  common  occur- 
rence, and  is  closely  akin  to  "frenching."  The  leaves,  in- 
stead of  curving  over  in  graceful  outlines,  stick  up  like  a 
fox's  ears,  whence  the  disease  is  known  in  some  sections  of 
the  country  as  "  fox-ears."     When  tobacco  is  thus  attacked, 

206  History  of  Durham. 

it  becomes  rough  and  thick,  and  is  unfitted  for  any  but  the 
most  inferior  purposes.  Excessive  tenacity  of  the  soil  or 
defective  drainage  are  causes  of  the  disease. 

''Hollow-stalk"  and  "sore  shin"  rarely  occur,  except 
when  the  plants  have  been  overflowed,  and  then  mostly 
upon  old  lands.  Some  planters  attribute  "  hollow  stalk  "  to 
an  insect  feeding  upon  the  pith  of  the  lower  stalk,  or  to  the 
after  effects  of  an  attack  by  the  wire-worm  upon  the  young 
plant;  others  think  it  the  effect  of  a  bruise  or  a  wound 
upon  the  stem  of  the  young  plant.  The  two  names  above 
given  are  descriptive  of  different  appearances  of  tlie  same 
disease.  It  is  most  probably  produced  b}'  excessive  absorp- 
tion of  water  by  the  pith  of  the  stalk  while  partially  sub- 
merged and  subsequent  exposure  to  high  a  degree  of  temper- 
ature. It  is  not  reported  as  occurring  upon  such  lands  as 
are  never  flooded  by  rain  water,  nor  has  it  been  observed 
upon  soils  well  underdrained  or  overlying  a  porous  subsoil. 
There  is  no  remedy  for  it,  and  unless  the  plants  are  cut  as 
soon  as  it  appears  they  become  worthless.  The  affected 
plant  presents  very  much  the  same  appearance  as  if  nearly 
severed   from  the  stalk,  witliering  slowly  without  ripening, 

"  Frog-eye,"  or  "  white  speck,"  sometime  occurs  in  tobacco 
thoroughly  ripe.  This  disease,  if  it  is  such,  is  of  rare  oc- 
currence, and  is  little  understood.  In  Florida  white  specks 
are  a  sure  indication  of  fine  texture  in  the  leaf,  and  this 
"  frog-eye"  appearance  was  at  one  time  much  esteemed. 
This  particular  marking  seems  to  result  from  conditions  of 
soil  or  climate,  or  from  both,  and  some  varieties  are  more 
frequently  affected  than  others. 

"White  veins  "occur  in  the  cured  product.  By  some 
they  are  believed  to  be  caused  by  long-continued  dry  weather 
before  and  after  cutting;  by  others  they  are  ascribed  to  any 
check  in  the  growth  of  the  plant,  whether  for  lack  of 
manures,  from  deficient  cultivation,  drought,  bad  seed,  or 
too  much  water.  Some  think  they  are  caused  by  the  ab- 
sence of  some  soil  constituent.  All  that  can  be  said  is  th'at 
they  do  occur,  very  much  to  the  injury  of  the  leaf  for 
wrapping  purposes.  As  a  general  rule  the  product  from  a 
field  well  prepared,  well  fertilized,  and  well  cultivated, 
planted  in  good  season,  properly  topped  and  kept  free  of 
suckers,  will  show  when  cured  very  few  white  veins. 

"  Leprosy"  is  a  name  given  to  a  fungoid  mold  which  is 
occasionally  found -upon  cured  tobacco  hanging  in  the  barn 

Tobacco  Interests  of  North  Carolina.         207 

during  warm,  moist  winters.  This  mold  affected  a  large  por- 
tion of  the  crop  of  1880  in  the  Ohio  River  valley,  especially 
in  southern  Illinois,  and  in  the  lower  Ohio  River  districts  of 
Kentucky'.  This  fungous  plant  increases  with  amazing 
rapidity  wherever  the  spores  find  congenial  lodgment,  and 
even  sound,  dry  tobacco  is  sometimes  infected  and  seriously 
damaged.  This  disease,  although  not  a  new  one,  is  imper- 
fectly understood.  Appearing  to  a  serious  extent  onh'  in 
weather  congenial  to  its  development,  and  propagated  from 
spores  which  have  escaped  detection  in  badly  kept  barns  or 
tobacco-sheds,  too  many  planters  look  upon  it  as  of  obscure 
or  doubtful  origin,  or  as  an  inevitable  concomitant  of  un- 
favorable atmospheric  conditions.  The  remedy  is  j)reven- 
tion.  Thorough  cleansing  of  the  tobacco  barns,  stripping, 
assorting  and  packing  rooms,  and  the  careful  destruction, 
by  burning,  of  all  trash  and  dirt  which  accumulate  about 
the  premises,  will  secure  well  handled  tobacco  against 
"leprosy,"  and  perhaps  other  diseases  of  fungous  origin. 


As  this  remarkably  ingenious  invention  marks  a  new  era 
in  this  branch  of  tobacco  manufacture,  its  introduction  in 
our  midst  is  worthy  of  notice  here,  as  an  important  item  in 
the  manufacturing  industries  of  Durham.  That  it  will 
prove  of  vast  benefit  to  the  manufacturer  has  already  been 
demonstrated  beyond  peradventure.  But  its  effect  upon 
another  class  of  our  fellow-citizens  will  be  anything  but 
gratifying  to  the  true  philanthropist.  Thousands  of  girls, 
boys,  men  and  women,  and  among  them  worthy  orphans, 
widows,  and  decrepit  old  age,  will  be  thrown  out  of  employ- 
ment, many  of  whom  are,  to  a  large  extent,  disqualified  for 
the  prosecution  of  other  industrial  pursuits.  There  are 
scores  of  widows  \yholly  dependent  upon  the  pittance  earned 
by  their  children  in  the  cigarette  factories.  The  shock  may 
be  temporary,  but  it  will  nevertheless  be  a  severe  one. 

This  machine  was  set  at  work  in  Durham,  for  the  first 
time,  April  30,  1884.  It  is  unquestionabl}'  the  most  mar- 
velous piece  of  machinery  in  North  Carolina,  and  one  of 
ihe  most  remarkable  in  the  whole  world.  A  description  is 
impossible  without  a  diagram,  but  the  story  of  its  inven- 
tion is  interesting.  The  inventor  is  now  only  22  years  of  age, 
and  is  a  son  of  Mr.  Bonsack,  of  Bonsack  Station,  in  Vir- 
ginia.    Six  or  seven  years  ago  some  one  remarked  in  his 

208  History  of  Durham. 

hearing  that  all  cigarettes  were  made  b}^  hand,  and  that 
the  inventor  of  a  successful  machine  would  make  a  fortune. 
He  went  to  work,  and  after  man\'  experiments  and  im- 
provements he  completed  the  comj)licated  machine  about 
a  year  ago.  One  was  put  to  work  in  Allen  &  Ginter's 
factory  at  Richmond.  It  worked  successfully,  and  Mr. 
Bonsack  had  others  built.  He  has  had  the  latest  and  best 
ones  made  in  Paris.  The  machines  at  work  here  were  man- 
ufactured in  Paris. 

The  tobacco  is  fed  in  on  a  slowly-moving  belt,  which 
draws  it  between  rollers.  A  system  of  rollers  and  belts  pre- 
pares it  for  a  long  hopper,  which  becomes  nearly  as  narrow 
at  the  bottom  as  a  cigarette  is  thick.  From  the  bottom  of 
this  hopper  or  funnel  steel  belts  take  the  tobacco  and  carry 
it  along.  At  a  proper  place  the  paper,  an  endless  line  of 
it,  comes  up  under  the  tobacco  and  goes  through  a  tube 
which  shapes  it  round.  JusL  before  ii  enters  the  tube  the 
edge  runs  by  a  paste-applying  instrument.  Then  the  tube 
forces  it  into  a  perfect  roll,  and  the  paste  secures  it.  It  goes 
on  then  to  a  circular  knife,  which  clips  the  endless  cigar- 
ette into  pieces  just  the  proper  length,  and  the  pieces  fall 
out  down  a  tube  at  the  rate  of  from  200  to  212  per  minute. 
The  paper  unrolls  from  an  endless  coil  under  the  machine. 
Before  it  reaches  the  tobacco  a  name  or  brand  can  be  printed 
along  the  slip  at  the  proper  intervals  to  mark  every  ci- 

Messrs.  W.  Diike  Sons  &  Co.  vvere  the  first  to  put  the  ma- 
chine in  operation  in  this  State,  and  the  Blackwell  Tobacco 
Co.  were  the  next.  Mr.  Bonsack  does  not  sell  the  machines, 
but  puts  them  up,  has  hii  own  men  to  run  them,  and 
charges  about  two-thirds  the  cost  of  making  by  hand  for 
ihe  work  they  do.  At  this  rate  of  charges,  the  profit,  it  is 
said,  on  every  day  it  runs,  is  about  $36. 

A  rapid  cigarette-maker,  by  hand,  can  make  2,500  a  day. 
One  of  these  machines  makes  (running  only  ten  hours) 
120,000  a  da}',  or  as  man\"  as  forty-eight  hands. 

At  last,  therefore,  a  mechanical  problem  of  long  stand- 
ing has  been  solved  ;  and  it  will  cause  a  revolution  in  cigar- 
ette manufacture.  Mr.  Bonsack  has  fourteen  machines 
now — seven  in  America  and  seven  in  Europe.  The  in- 
ventor is  an  interesting  and  unassuming  young  man,  yet 
without  a  beard.     He  looks  even  younger  than  twenty-two, 

Tobacco  Interests  of  Virginia.  209 

but  has  a  nervous,  quick  and  business  manner.  Not  often 
in  the  history  of  the  invention  or  machinery  has  a  greater 
or  more  sudden  stroke  of  good  fortune  been  hit.  And  there 
are  not  many  machines  in  the  world  that  are  more  compli- 
cated or  wx)rk  more  beautifully. 

lE^-^f^-IKT    I"\7". 

The  Tobacco  Interests  of  Virginia. 


Richmond — Sketches  of  Leading  Tobacco  Manufac- 
turers— Leaf  Dealers — Cigar  and  Cigarette  Man- 
ufacturers— Manufacturers  of  Plug  and  Smoking 

As  this  chief  city  of  the  Southern  States  is  largely  repre- 
sented in  the  advertising  department  of  this  volume,  spe- 
cial and  detailed  notice  is  esteemed  appropriate  and  just. 
And,  en  passcnt,  vre  desire  to  tender  our  thanks  to  Messrs. 
John  Ott,  the  efficient  and  courteous  secretary  of  the  South- 
ern Fertilizer  Company;  Addison  &  Allison,  extensive  fer- 
tilizer manufacturers  and  dealers  ;  Chas.  Watkins,  agent 
for  G.  Ober  Sons  Fertilizer  Co. ;  and  the  officers  and  mem- 
bers of  the  Tobacco  Exchange  for  courteous  treatment  and 
useful  information  ;  also  to  Mr.  W.  D.  Chesterman,  from 
whose  pamphlet,  entitled  "  Guide  to  Richmond  and  the 
Battle  Fields,"  we  have  obtained  important  information. 

The  population  of  the  city  in  1870  was  51,038  ;  in  1880, 
64,670,  or,  in  round  numbers,  65,000,  of  which  the  whites 
numbered  38,000  and  the  colored  people  27,000.  Manches- 
ter, separated  from  Richmond  by  the  James  river,  has  a 
population  of  6,500.  In  1880  there  were  in  operation  702 
manufacturing  establishments,  emi)loying  16,932  hands, 
and  their  sales  amounted  to  $24,70 1,892,  an  excess  over  the 

210  History  of  Durham. 

j'ear  previous  of  $1,218,243.  The  value  of  real  property  was 
$29,000,000;  personal  property,  $10,000,000.  Tobacco  was 
the  leading  item  entering  into  manufactures,  and  iron  and 
grain  next.  Exports,  82.328,742;  imports,  $45,457.  Num- 
ber of  arrivals  of  steamers,  590;  of  sailing  vessels,  1,060. 
The  river  is  navigable  from  Richmond  to  the  sea  (124  miles') 
for  vessels  drawing  16  feet  of  water. 

The  chief  trade  organizations  are  the  Tobacco  Exchange, 
the  Corn,  Flour  and  Cotton  Exchange,  the  Chamber  of 
Commerce,  the  Stock  Exchange  and  the  Commercial  Club, 
the  last  a  great  institution  for  the  entertainment  of  visiting 
merchants  and  business  men. 


Austin  &  Booe,  14th,  between  Main  and  Carey  streets. 

Allen  &  Shafer,  Carey,  between  12th  and  13th  streets. 

John  Booker,  310,  E  Carey  street. 

F  M  Boykin,  13  S  10th  street. 

Jas.  Byrd,  6tb  and  Carey  streets. 

C  R  Barksdale,  Tobacco  Exchange. 

W  A  Braggs,  Columbus  Block. 

E  D  Christian,  Tobacco  Exchange. 

E  T  Crump  &  Co.,  Columbus  Block. 

Cockran  &  Co.,  1210  E  Carey  street. 

Carter  &  Ryland,  Columbus  Block. 

J  C  Carpenter,  1452  E  Franklin  street. 

Carr  &  Dickinson,  Crenshaw  Warehouse. 

J  M  Conrad,  1211  E  Carey  street. 

Wm  E  Dibrel  &  Co.,  1410  E  Carey  street. 

R  H  Dibrel,  1204  E  Carey  street. 

F  H  Dean,  1015  Basin  Bank. 

A  B  Eddins. 

John  Enders,  1321  E  Carey  street. 

Eggerston  &  Co.,  Tobacco  Exchange. 

Ellison  &  Bro.,  28th  and  Main  streets. 

Fisher  &  Wise,  Carey,  between  13th  and  14th  streets. 

W  D  Gibson,  113  S  6th  street. 

L  M  Griffin,  Crenshaw's  Warehouse. 

J  P  George  &  Co.,  13  S  10th  street. 

Thos  H.  Gunn,  Crenshaw's  Warehouse. 

B  C  Gray,  Tobacco  Exchange. 

J  J  Gregory,  102  Shockhoe  Slip. 

Tobacco  Interests  of  Virginia.  211 

J  T  Gray,  1321  E  Carey  street. 

Grant  &  Gilliam,  1115  Basin  Bank. 

Wm  Hatcher,  Shockhoe  Slip. 

Geo  A  Ilaynes,  13  S  13th  street. 

0  D  Hill,  1412  E  Carev  street. 

Wm  H  Jones,  109  S  12th  street. 

L  Lew,  1319  E  Carey  street. 

C  D  Langhorn,  107  S  12th  street. 

F  Libermuth,  1106  E  Carey  street. 

C  Millhiser,  3  S  r2th  street. 

W  K  Martin  &  Co.,  Shockhoe  Slip. 

W  R  Mallory,  Columbus  Block. 

R  C  Morton,  Shockhoe  Slip. 

H  Martin,  Agent,  Shocklioe  Slip. 

P  H  Moore,  1309  E  Carey  street. 

E  M  Moore,  1209  E  Carey  street. 

T  D  Neal,  Tobacco  Exchange. 

E  0  Notting,  1310  E  Carey  street. 

Norvell  Leak  &  Co.,  1015  Basin  Bank. 

A  Osterloh,  Shockhoe  Slip. 

Palmer  &  Hartshooke,  1321  E  Carey  street. 

Thos  M  Rutherford,  7th  and  Arch  streets. 

Skinke  &  Archer,  Crenshaw's  Warehouse. 

M  T  Smith  &  Co.,  Columbus  Block. 

Strause  &  Bernard,  107  S  12th  street. 

Thos  J  Spencer,  102  S  13th  street. 

Silas  Shelburn,  1209  E  Carey  street. 

Sublit  &  Carey,  113  S  12th  street. 

R  B  Sommerville,  1105  Basin  Bank. 

Staples  &  Blair,  Basin  Bank. 

Scott  &  Clark,  7  21st  street. 

Sublit  B  Fitzgerald,  1017  Basin  Bank. 

Strause  &  Raab,  107  S  12th  street. 

W  D  Tiderman,  1301  E  Main  street. 

W  D  Tompkins  ct  Bro.,  Basin  Bank. 

Tyler  &  Jones,  105  S  12th  street. 

G.  N  Thompson,  2600  E  Main  street. 

F  P  Thornton,  9th  and  Arch  streets. 

Thornton  &  Victor,  2201  E  Carey  street. 

H  B  Tollervan  tt  Co. 

J  N  Vaughn,  320  S  lOih  street. 

T  C  Williams,  7th  and  Arch  streets. 

P  S  Wormley,  21  and  Carey  streets. 

212  History  of  Durham. 

Garrett  F.  Watson,  15  S  21st  street. 

C  &  E  Wortham,  18  S  13th  street. 

H  M  Wortham,  21  loth  street. 

J  J  Wilson  &  Co.,  1301  E  Carey  street. 

Geo  N  Wooldrige,  121  N  17th  street. 

Chas  Walkins  &  Co.,  1412  E  Carey  street. 

J  M  Wise,  Crenshaw's  Warehouse. 


Allen  &  Ginter,  7th  and  Carey  streets;  C  M  Angel,  J  N 
Atkinson,  Horace  Blaekman  &  Co..  Mrs  M  E  Boydeu,  C  H 
Brown,  S  Britton,  Boucher  Bros.,  Branch  &  Bugg,  .John 
Boucher,  Jacob  Bier,  Mrs  Fred  Bosher,  D  H  Brotherton, 
Wm  E  Cree,  C  Carreras,  J  C  Donnella&  Co.,Grissett  &  Bro., 
J  W  Hollerand,  J  R  Gill,  J  •  Hernandeze,  W  J  Hennings, 
Gerrard  Haske,  Hewitt  &  Son,  John  Krouse,  T  C  Krup,  F 
F  Langus,  C  C  Leftwich,  Libermuth  &  Millhizer,  Little 
&  Mclndo,  Otto  Moella,  Louis  F  Myers,  Geo  Myers,  G  W 
Meaglf  &  Bro.,  Geo  Neaglesraan,  G  Onorato,  Pace  &  Sizer, 
Win  H  Perkins,  Henry  Pie,  Geo  Prelock,  E  T  Pinkleton  & 
Co.,  F  J  Riley,  Wm  L  Roberts,  H  Rosenburg,  Rowe  &  Bro., 
Mrs  Caroline  Slante,  Jos  Steindecker,  Thos  Shea,  Thos  Street, 
W  H  Sutton,  C  C  Salaraone,  Jacob  Simon  &  Co.,  Wm  J  Ty- 
ler, Thomas  &  Bro.,  Virginia  Trading  tfc  Manufacturing  Co., 
Solomon  Wise,  John  Wickhut,  P  Whitlock,  E  B  Wyatt,  R 
Waggoner,  Wm  A  Walker,  C  R  Wilhelm. 


Pace  &  Sizer,  R  N  Vaughn,  0  P  Gregory  &  Co.,  Dibrell 
&  Co.,  William  C  Thomas,  E  T  Pinkleton,  Allen  &  Ginter, 
T  W  Pemberton  &  Co.,  Talbott's  Manufacturing  Company, 
Myers  Bros.  &  Co.,  P  Whitlock,  Whren  &  Fluk,  Lawrence 
LoTTiER,  L  H  Frayson  &  Co.,  A  B  Wells,  Agent;  J  G  Dill, 
Pace's  Tobacco  Company,  James  Lee  Jones,  Virginia  Manu- 
facturing and  Trading  Company,  Yarborough  &  Son,  Butler 
&  Wilson,  Sullivan  &  Earley,  Cullingsworth  &  Ellison,  Sal- 
mon &  Hancock,  Hargrove  &  Co.,  T  C  Williams  &  Co.,  J  A 
L  Moore,  C  W  Spicer,  P  H  Mayo  &  Bro.,  S  A  Ellison  &Co., 
Laras  &  Bro.,  J  N  Boyd  &  Co.,  Horace  Blackmer  &  Co., 
Hicks,  Brumhild  &  Co.,  Charles  Early  &  Co.,  T  T  Mayo,  J 
Wright  &  Co.,  Alexander  Cameron  &  Co.,  Charles  Watkins 

Tobacco  Interests  of  Virginia.  213 

&  Co.,  R  A  Patterson,  P  Whitlock,  W  A  Blankinship,  Lamp- 
ken,  Whitlock  &  Co. 



The  "  Banner  Tobacco  Works  "  were  founded  in  1835,  by 
Mr.  Lawrence  Lottier,  Sr.,  father  of  the  present  proprietor, 
and  are  not  only  one  of  the  five  largest  tobacco  factories  of 
Richmond,  but  also  of  the  tobacco  world.  Upon  the  death 
of  the  founder,  in  1849,  he  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  who 
was  scarcely  more  than  a  boy  in  years.  But  he  proved  more 
than  equal  to  the  weighty  responsibilities  thus  prematurely 
devolving  upon  him,  for  he  not  only  maintained  the  high 
position  which  the  works  had  even  at  that  early  day 
achieved,  but  built  the  business  up  to  its  present  great  mog- 
nitude.  The  works  occupy  a  massive  and  handsome  brick 
building,  120x133  feet  in  dimensions,  and  four  stories  high, 
with  a  basement  the  full  size,  and  is  equipped  with  all  the 
most  improved  machinery  and  appliances  used  in  the  manu- 
facture of  tobacco,  which  is  operated  by  a  fifty-horse  power 
steam  engine.  An  average  force  of  four  hundred  hands  is 
kept  employed  and  the  daily  product  is  about  fifteen  thou- 
sand pounds  of  manufactured  tobacco.  This  includes  all 
kinds  of  navy  and  spun  roll,  the  navy  being  the  leading 
article  of  manufacture.  It  is  a  favorite  article  with  lovers- 
t>f  the  "  weed  "  everywhere,  and  the  brand  is  standard  in 
every  part  of  the  United  States. 

No  sketch  of  this  great  enterprise  would  be  complete 
without  a  word  concerning  its  proprietor,  whose  name  is  so 
widely  known.  By  birth  he  is  a  descendant  of  an  old  family 
who  emigrated  from  France  to  Virginia  during  the  last 
century.  Mr.  Lottier  has  always  been  identified  with  the 
interests  of  his  State,  and  occupies  an  honorable  place  in 
its  history.  He  is  still  fresh  and  vigorous,  scarcely  appear- 
ing to  have  passed  the  meridian  of  life.  No  one  who  meets 
him  would  suppose  he  had  conducted  a  great  industry  for 
over  thirty  years.  But  business  cares  seem  to  rest  lightly 
upon  him,  Ke  is  broad  and  liberal  in  his  ideaSj  courteous, 
generous  and  kind  to  all.  He  is,  in  a  word,  a  fair  type  of 
a  true  Virginia  gentleman. 

214  History  op  Durham. 

PACE   &   SIZER. 

The  business  was  established  in  1865,  by  Mr.  R.  "W.  Oli- 
ver. Was  purchased  by  the  present  proprietors  in  1883,  and 
is  now  one  of  the  largest  and  best  equipped  smoking  tobacco 
and  cigarette  factories  in  Richmond.  Manufacture  the  fol- 
lowing well  established  brands  of  cigarettes  and  smoking 
tobacco  :  "  Purity,"  "Raleigh,"  "  Favorite"  and  "Powhatan," 
among  others,  but  these  are  their  favorite  brands  of  smoking 
tobacco,  cigarettes  and  cut  plug.  The  brands  of  this  firm 
are  rapidly  eliciting  public  favor,  and  the  business  of  the 
factory  has  already  been  more  than  doubled  under  the  effi- 
cient management  and  industry  of  the  present  proprietors. 
The  "  Favorite  "  cigarette,  especially — which  bears  a  fine 
picture  of  our  great  southern  chieftain,  Gen.  Robert  E.  Lee 
— which  is  as  yet  in  its  infancy,  is  so  rapidly  winning  favor- 
able receptions  that  the  firm  find  themselves  taxed  to  their 
utmost  capacity  to  supply  the  demand.  The  "Raleigh" 
brand — cut  plug — is  also  commanding  large  sales.  It  not 
only  affords  a  very  pleasant  smoke,  but  lasts  longer  in  the 
pipe  than  the  granulated  smoking,  leaving  no  nauseating 
sediments  in  the  bottom  of  tlie  pipe.  In  fact,  all  their 
brands  are  manufactured  from  the  best  qualities  of  Virginia 


At  the  southeast  corner  of  Gary  and  Seventh  streets  may 
be  found  the  celebrated  Cigarette  Works  of  Allen  &  Ginter. 
The  labor  here  is  performed  by  whites  exclusively,  includ- 
ing several  hundred  girls,  who  handle  the  cigarettes  with  a 
deftness  and  dispatch  truly  remarkable.  This  firm  are  the 
pioneers  and  leaders  in  this  rapidly  growing  branch  of  the 
tobacco  business  here,  and  on  the  fragrance  of  their  "  Rich- 
mond Gem"  has  been  wafted  the  fame  of  Richmond  to  all 
parts  of  this  continent,  to  most  parts  of  Europe,  and  beyond 
to  far  distant  lands.  Tiiis  house  has  no  merely  local  fame, 
its  goods  are  known  and  appreciated  wherever  the  fragrance 
of  the  weed  in  silvery  clouds  floats  upon  the  breeze.  The 
bright  and  sweet  Virginia  leaf  is  unexcelled  for  cigarettes, 
and  this  firm  have  spared  no  pains  or  expense  in  securing 
the  best  the  market  affords,  and  employ  only  the  best  skill 
and  most  approved  appliances.  Although  the  firm  is  so 
widely  known  as  cigarette  manufacturers,  they  do  not  con- 
fine themselves  to  that  branch  alone,  but  extensively  man- 
ufacture smoking  tobacco  of  the  choicest  brands. 

Tobacco  Interests  of  Virginia.  215 

A.    M.    LYON   &   CO. 

This  enterprise  was  established  in  1830  by  Mr.  William 
Barrett,  who  was  succeeded  by  Mr.  John  K.  Childrey,  who 
in  turn  was  succeeded  by  the  present  proprietors.  In  1883 
the  old  factory  was  destroyed  by  fire,  and  immediately  re- 
built. The  new  building  is  four  stories  above  ground,  is 
steam  heated  and  provided  with  every  appliance  for  the 
manufacture  of  tobacco  on  the  largest  scale  and  in  the  most 
economical  manner.  In  the  basement  are  located  the  en- 
gine, boiler,  etc.  Upon  the  ground  floor  is  the  office,  and 
in  the  rear  of  this  is  the  press  room,  with  a  long  row  of  the 
powerful  hydraulic  presses  which  convert  the  yielding  leaf 
into  a  mass  almost  as  compact  as  stone.  In  the  second  story 
is  the  twist  room,  where  a  large  force  are  busily  engaged  in 
making  lumps,  twist,  etc.,  and  here,  too,  is  the  lump  drying 
room,  where  the  manufactured  tobacco  is  placed  preparatory 
to  packing,  especially  when  it  is  to  be  exported,  as  the  least 
particle  of  moisture  is  ruinous  to  goods  intended  for  ocean 
transit.  Upon  the  third  floor  is  the  smoking  tobacco  de- 
partment with  its  great  cutters  for  transforming  the  golden 
leaf  into  beautiful  granulated  for  pipe  and  cigarettes;  and 
here,  too,  is  the  leaf  room,  where  skillful  hands  are  busy 
assorting  and  manipulating  the  weed.  In  the  upper  story 
the  leaf  is  shaken  out,  dried  (in  a  large  steam  room),  dipped 
an(i  otherwise  manipulated,  and  on  the  top  of  the  building 
(which  commands  a  magnificent  view  of  the  city  and  sur- 
roundings) the  fine  sun-cured  tobaccos  are  exposed  in  fine 
weather.  AH  grades  and  styles  of  bright  and  dark  chewing 
are  turned  out  here,  the  capacity  being  about  2,000  pounds 
per  day,  while  of  fine  smoking  about  one-half  this  amount 
is  produced.  This  house  has  long  enjoyed  a  high  reputa- 
tion for  the  excellence  of  its  goods  as  well  as  for  the  cour- 
tesy and  integrity  of  its  members,  audits  wares  find  a  ready 
sale,  not  only  in  the  United  States,  but  even  in  far  Australia, 
where  Barrett's  Crown  and  Barrett's  Anchor  are  standard 
brands.  The  firm  use  for  export  good  fine  Virginia  and 
Carolina  leaf,  and  for  the  fine  navies,  which  are  a  specialty, 
white  Burley  is  principally  used. 

Of  the  members  of  this  old  firm  it  is  scarcely  necessary 
for  us  to  speak.  Wherever  American  tobacco  is  used  their 
brands  are  favorably  known,  and  to  the  trade  the  firm  are 
not  less  favorably  known  as  experienced  tobacconists  and 

216  History  of  Durham. 

courteous,  enterprising  and  reliable  gentlemen — gentlemen 
who  have  hosts  of  friends  and  well-wishers,  who  will  rejoice 
to  hear  that  the  house  is  driven  to  its  fullest  capacity  to 
keep  pace  with  the  orders  which  are  pouring  in  from  all 
quarters.  They  were  awarded  the  highest  prizes  for  two 
successive  years  by  the  Virginia  Fair. 

p.   H.   MAYO  &  BROTHER. 

This  large  tobacco  factory  was  established  in  1830  by  the 
late  Robert  A.  Mayo,  and  soon  attained,  and  has  since  main- 
tained, a  leading  position  in  the  domestic  and  foreign  to- 
bacco trade.  The  Mayo  family,  of  which  the  present  senior 
proprietor  is  a  worthy  offspring,  have  occupied  for  more 
than  150  years  the  old  Powhatan  House,  the  home  of  the 
famous  Indian  chief,  Powhatan,  the  father  of  Pocahontas, 
The  present  firm  are  in  every  respect  worthy  successors  of 
their  eminent  predecessor.  Their  brands  of  tobacco  stand 
unsurpassed  for  excellence  of  quality,  as  their  wide  popu- 
larity and  immense  sales  attest.  The  factory  has  an  impos- 
ing and  handsome  front  of  200  feet  on  Seventh  street,  be- 
tween Gary  and  Main,  four  to  five  stories  high,  forming  a 
hollow  square,  and  is  constructed  of  brick.  The  offices  of 
the  company — which  are  handsomely  furnished — occupy  a 
central  front  position  in  the  building.  They  use  none  but 
the  most  approved  machinery  and  appliances. 

The  principal  brands  are  the  "  Navys."  They  were  the 
origiuators  of  the  world-renowned  "  Navy  Tobacco,"  put  up 
for  the  U.  S.  Government,  and  have  almost  indisputable 
supremacy  among  the  trade  and  all  lovers  of  a  fine  article 
of  chewing  tobacco. 

The  firm  is  now  composed  of  P.  H.  Mayo  and  Thomas 
Atkinson,  both  of  whom  are  thoroughly  trained  and  edu- 
cated in  all  the  ramifications  of  the  business.  They  em- 
ploy several  hundred  of  the  most  skillful  operatives — not 
only  those  educated  in  the  manufacture  of  tobacco,  but  me- 
chanics of  every  kind  necessary  to  make  and  keep  in  per- 
fect order  their  vast  and  magnificent  machinery. 

The  public  display  made  by  this  firm  of  their  manufac- 
tured goods  in  all  styles  of  their  bright,  dark  and  sweet  Na- 
vies attracte(^  marked  attention  and  admiration  from  the 
many  thousand  visitors  to  the  Exhibition  Hall  in  Philadel- 
phia in  1876,  Richmond  in  1881  and  Boston  in  1882.     At 

Tobacco  Interests  of  Virginia.  217 

the  latter  place  their  exhibit  was  gotten  up  at  an  enormous 
cost,  being  50  feet  long  and  12  high,  and  was  a  remarkable 
representation  of  skill  and  workmanship  in  the  multifari- 
ous varieties  and  manipulations  of  tobacco,  from  the  grow- 
ing plant  to  rich  panels  and  other  devices  of  spun  and  plug 
tobacco,  requiring  a  thread  of  spun  tobacco  thirteen  miles 
in  length.  The  conception  of  the  design  of  a  fort  and  fleet, 
all  made  by  them  of  tobacco  of  all  kinds,  shades  and  shapes, 
was  a  fitting  and  novel  association  with  the  firm  and  their 
origin  of  navy  tobacco;  and  so  artistic  was  the  execution  of 
the  work  in  all  of  its  minutest  details  of  handsome  signs, 
columns,  guns,  ship  monitors,  &c.,  that  the  whole  justly  de- 
served and  received  most  favorable  delineations  and  com- 
ments from  the  leading  journals  of  Boston  and  other  cities. 
It  is  almost  impossible  to  give  an  adequate  idea  of  this  won- 
derful piece  of  workmanship,  so  intricate  in  its  variegating 
parts,  the  beautiful  and  harmonious  blending  of  colors  and 
kinds,  all  worked  into  marvelous  shapes  and  designs — the 
whole  must  be  seen  and  critically  examined  to  be  understood 
and  properly  appreciated. 


Brief  History  of  the  Types  of  Tobacco  Produced  in 
Virginia  and  Maryland — Quality  of  Tobacco — 

"  Dark  Shipping  "  was  the  original  and  prevalent  type  of 
tobacco  among  the  planters  of  Virginia  and  Maryland.  For 
many  years  the  laws  regulating  production,  especially  those 
passed  by  the  Colonial  Assembly,  requiring  all  products 
failing  in  quality  and  soundnes«  to  be  burned,  were  rigidly 
enforced.  All  tobacco  was  raised  for  export,  the  only  market, 
and  the  price  being  uniform,  whether  for  sale  or  as  a  cir- 
culating medium,  inspection  was  necessary  to  insure  uni- 
formity of  grade. 


218  History  of  Durham. 

With  a  virgin  soil  of  great  fertility,  the  planter  who  did 
bis  work  well  was  amply  repaid,  lis  cultivation  was  com- 
menced by  tbe  colonists  in  tbe  historic  town  of  Jamestown, 
in  James  City  county,  and  John  Rolfe  produced  the  first  to- 
bacco exported  from  the  colon3\ 

Captain  John  Smith  describes  the  soil  of  tidewater  Vir- 
ginia as  he  saw  it  in  1607:  "The  vesture  of  the  earth  in 
most  places  doth  manifestly  prove  tbe  nature  of  thesoyle  to 
be  lusty  and  very  rich." 

The  culture  of  tobacco  rapidly  spread  as  the  colonists 
built  houses  and  cleared  lands,  the  tobacco-patch  often  tak- 
ing precedence  of  the  corn-field,  and  its  production  being 
carried  to  such  an  excess  as  seriously  to  threaten  subsis- 
tence of  the  colonists,  the  colonial  legislatures  of  Virginia 
and  Maryland  passed  sumptuary  laws  that  "  every  person 
planting  one  acre  of  tobacco  shall  plant  and  tend  two  acres 
of  corn."  As  tobacco  grows  better  on  new  soil  than  corn  or 
other  crops,  it  was  the  first  to  utilize  the  fresh  cleared  land. 
New  soil  produces  a  finer  and  better  flavored  article  than 
old  land ;  therefore  thousands  of  acres  of  forest  were  annually 
cleared.  Thus  extensive  areas  in  Virginia  and  Maryland 
were  early  denuded  of  forest  growth,  and  the  continued  cuL 
tivation  of  tobacco  for  many  years  on  the  same  lands  without 
manure  greatly  impoverished  the  soil ;  for  a  Virginian 
never  thinks  of  reinstating  or  manuring  his  land  with  econ- 
omy until  he  can  find  no  more  new  land  to  exhaust  or  wear 
out"  (William  Tatham,  Historical  Essay  on  the  Culture  of  To- 
bacco: London,  1800). 

Tobacco  raised  on  cow-penned  land  was  considered  of  only 
second  quality,  and  was  sold  accordingly.  Tatham  states 
that  tobacco  at  first  was  cultivated  continuously  for  twenty 
years  on  the  same  land,  and  describes  the  spots  selected  for 
seed-beds  as  those  preferred  at  the  present  da}^ — "  rich,  moist, 
fine  soils,  with  sunny  exposure."  The  "  fly"  was  a  trouble 
then,  as  now ;  and  the  remedy  then  practiced  was  "  to  sow 
mustard  around  the  border  of  the  plant-bed,  and  as  the  fly 
prefers  the  mustard  to  the  tobacco  plants  the  latter  will  es- 
cape injury."  But  of  late  years  this  irrepressible  insect 
takes  more  kindly  to  the  tender  tobacco  plants,  and  plan- 
ters find  it  hard  work  to  coax  or  to  drive  them  off. 

The  primitive  mode  of  harvesting  tobacco  in  Virginia 



Tobacco  Interests  of  Virginia.  219 

was  "tci  pull  the  leaves  from  the  stalks  as  they-ripen  and 
haug  them  on  cords,  to  be  dried  in  the  sun  and  air"  (Rev. 
Hugh  Jones,  Present  Slate  of  Virriiniq,,  1724).  In  after  time 
they  s[)lit  the  stalks  and  hung  the  plants  astraddle  of  sticks, 
as  is  now  generally  practiced  in  Virginia. 

The  early  planters  cured  their  crops  mostly  in  the  sun 
and  air.  "  In  March  or  April  the  tobacco  was  conveyed  to 
the  storehouse  and  dried  with  fire.  *  *  *  Salt  was  used 
in  passing  tobacco  through  the  s-^^-eat."  In  time  "smoke 
was  considered  a  prime  agent  in  keeping  tobacco  sound. 
*  *  *  Small,  smothered  fires  were  used,  made  of  bark 
and  rotten  wood."  The  fires  were  increased  from  year  to 
year  until  log  fires  were  built  in  three  rows  upon  the  barn 
floors,  which  dried  out  the  green  tobacco  in  from  three  to 
five  days.  The  firing  process  prevailed  generally  in  both 
Virginia  and  Maryland,  and  was  kept  up  for  a  long  series 
of  years.  Maryland  finally  abandoned  it;  but  in  the  dark 
shipping  district  of  Virginia  it  is  still  the  mode  practiced, 
except  that  less  fire  is  now  used  than  formerly. 

After  the  close  of  the  war  of  1812-14  the  demand  for  col- 
ored tobacco  for  export  caused  a  change  in  the  process  of 
curing  in  both  Virginia  and  Maryland.  After  being  cut 
and  hung  upon  sticks,  the  tobacco  was  either  placed  upon 
scaffolds  in  the  sun  to  yellow  and  then  housed,  or  it  re- 
mained several  days  in  the  house,  without  fire,  until  it  had 
yellowed  sufficiently  to  receive  the  heat  without  curing 
dark.  Many  planters  in  the  two  states  learned  to  cure  a 
beautiful  piebald  or  spangled  leaf,  which  commanded  high 
prices  in  Richmond  and  in  Baltimore.  In  the  former  cit}' 
it  was  called  "  piebald  ;"  in  the  latter,  "  spangled." 

Open  wood  fires  constituted  the  only  mode  of  curing  by 
artificial  heat  until  about  the  year  1828  or  1829,  when  flues 
w^ere  first  used  in  Virginia,  Dr.  Davis  G.  Tuck,  of  Halifax 
county,  being  the  originator  of  the  flue  constructed  inside 
the  barn,  for  which  he  obtained  a  patent.  This  plan, 
however,  was  adopted  by  but  few  planters,  and  soon  fell  into 

About  this  time  began  the  use  of  charcoal  as  fuel  for  cur- 
ing tobacco,  enterprising  planters  in  Halifax  and  Pittsylva- 
nia counties,  Virginia,  and  in  Caswell  county,  North  Caro 
lina,  being  among  the  first  to  substitute  it  for  wood.  The 
results  were  such  as  to  induce  others  to  adopt  the  new  pro- 
cess, and  thus  it   spread  from  farm  to   farm   throughout 

220  History  of  Durham. 

neighborhoods,  and  afterward  from  State  to  State,  until  it 
has  extended  over  a  wide  area  of  the  tobacco  belt. 

Meanwhile  improvements  were  made  upon  flues,  mainly 
since  1865,  which  justified  their  substitution  for  charcoal 
open  fires  in  the  yellow  tobacco  belt  of  Virginia  and  North 
Carolina.  Charcoal  is  now  but  little  used.  Flues  are  con- 
structed either  of  brick,  stone,  or  mud  walls,  or  by  digging 
ditches  in  the  floor  of  the  barn,  and  some  are  wholly  of  iron, 
furnaces  and  pipes,  and  these  are  generally  patented. 

A  number  of  patent  flues  are  used,  some  of  which  greatly 
economize  fuel  and  perform  admirably,  and  where  the  sav- 
ing of  fuel  is  an  object  they  are  to  be  preferred. 

A  cheap  flue  is  constructed  by  cutting  ditches  in  the  floor 
of  the  barn  from  15  to  18  inches  wide  and  as  deep  as  nec- 
essary and  covering  them  with  sheet-iron,  as  recommended 
for  the  stone  or  brick  flue.  A  better  one  is  made  of  mud 
walls,  covered  with  sheet  iron.  The  mud  walls  are  built  by 
placing  two  wide  boards  from  12  to  14  inches  apart  and 
packing  moist  clay  between  them,  beating  it  down  hard,  in 
position  and  arrangement  similar  to  the  walls  of  stone,  and 
covering  with  sheet-iron.  Upon  firing  the  flues  the  boards 
are  burned  away  and  the  dirt  walls  are  hardened.  If  the 
clay  is  of  proper  quality,  such  as  is  fit  for  making  tolerably 
good  bricks,  these  walls  will  last  a  long  time.  It  is  necessary 
with  the  ditch  or  mud-wall  flue  to  attach  furnaces  of  stone, 
brick,  or  iron. 


There  are  five  distinct  qualities  of  tobacco  produced  in 
Virginia,  viz:  Dark  Shipping,  Red  and  Colored  Shipping, 
Sun  and  Air-cured  Fillers,  Bright  Yellow  Wrappers, 
Smokers  and  Fillers,  and  Orange  and  Mahogany  Flue-cured 
Manufacturing.  These  are  severally  characterized  by  pecu- 
liarities of  color,  quality,  body,  and  flavor,  the  result  of  soil 
influence  and  variety,  modified  by  curing  and  management. 

Dark  Shipping. — Of  this  there  are  four  grades  of  leaf  and 
two  of  lugs,  classed  as  follows:  1.  Dark,  rich  waxy  leaf, 
English  ;  2.  Nutmeg  and  mahogany  leaf,  English  and  Con- 
tinental:  3.  Dark  red  leaf,  English  and  Continental;  4. 
Dull  red  leaf;  5.  Long  lugs;  6.  Short  lugs. 

Dark  Shipping  tobacco  is  generally  raised  on  rich  lots, 
and  is  cured  with  open  wood  fires.     The  English,  French, 

Tobacco  Interests  of  Virginia.  221 

Germans,  Spanish  and  Italians  take  the  bulk  of  this  to- 
bacco, with  a  growing  preference  for  that  cured  without 
smoke.  It  is  produced  more  or  less  all  over  the  tobacco 
belt  of  Virginia,  but  the  bulk  of  it  is  raised  south  of  the 
James  river  and  east  of  the  Blue  Ridge. 

Med  and  Colored  Shipping. — Like  the  foregoing,  this  to- 
bacco is  produced  more  or  less  all  over  the  tobacco  region 
of  the  State.  The  region  producing  most  of  this  tobacco 
consists  of  the  following  :  Northeast  of  the  region  just  de- 
scribed, Dinwiddle,  Chesterfield,  Goochland,  and  Fluvanna, 
with  Rockbridge  and  all  the  counties  west  of  the  Blue 
Ridge  down  to  the  Kentucky  and  Tennessee  lines,  except 
Montgomery,  whiclp  is  classed  in  the  yellow  district. 

This  tobacco  is  divided  into  three  grades:  1.  Bright 
spangled,  2.  Mahogany;  3.  Cherry  red;  and  is  generally 
cured  with  open  wood  fires,  a  method  which  greatly  detracts 
from  its  worth.  The  red  and  mahogany  wrappers  of  this 
and  the  dark  tobacco,  if  fine,  sell  well,  notwithstanding  the 
smell  of  smoke. 

SiL7i  and  Air-Cured  Fillers. — These  include  all  that  is  cured 
without  artificial  heat,  whether  by  the  sun  or  by  air,  or  by 
both.  The  counties  raising  this  tobacco  mainly  are  Caro- 
line, Hanover,  Louisa,  and  Spotsylvania.  Their  product  is 
eagerl}'  sought  after  by  manufacturers,  is  never  in  oversup- 
ply,  and  those  long  accustomed  to  its  use  prefer  it  to  all 
others,  even  to  the  White  Burley. 

Brigld  Yellow  has  many  grades,  the  finest,  smoothest,  and 
brightest  leaves  being  rated  as  wrappers:  1.  P\incy;  2. 
Fine;  3.  Medium,  running  0,  00,  000,  etc.,  according  to 
quality  and  color;  4.  Fillers,  several  grades.  Lugs  are 
graded  as  follows:  Fancy  Smokers,  Fine  Smokers,  Medium 
Smokers,  Common  Smokers,  Bright  Lug  Fillers,  and  Com- 
mon Lug  Fillers. 

Instances  are  on  record  of  its  first  grades  having  been 
sold  for  §3  and  $4  per  pound,  and  to  sell  at  the  highest 
average,  or  to  obtain  the  highest  price,  is  an  honor  sought 
by  the  best  planters  of  the  yellow  belt. 

Flue  cured  Fillers. — These  are  known  as  Henry  county 
fillers,  being  produced  mainly  in  Henry  county  and  in  por- 
tions of  Franklin  and  Patrick  counties.  This  tobacco  is 
divided  into  fillers  and  wrappers,  according  to  size,  color, 
and  quality,  and  is  mostly  manufactured  into  plug  chewing. 

222  History  of  Durham. 

It  is  characterized  by  its  tough,  rich,  silky  leaf,  and  sweet 
flavor,  due  to  the  soil,  the  varieties  cultivated  (Sweet  Ori- 
noco and  Flannagan),  and  (he  peculiar  mode  of  curing  by 
flues,  both  walls  and  tops  of  stone,  and  slow  firing  until  the 
leaf  is  dried. 


The  soils  of  Virginia  are  as  varied  as  the  rocks  they  over- 
lie. A  geological  survey  of  the  State  was  made  by  Professor 
William  B.  Rogers  in  the  3'ears  from  1835  to  1840.  It  is 
necessary  to  notice  carefully  only  the  soils  of  the  tobacco 

The  Tidewater  Region. — This  is  Tertiary,  and  its  soils  are 
principally  alluvials — sand  and  clay.  Tobacco  was  once 
cultivated  over  the  greater  part  of  this  district,  but  it  has 
long  ago  given  place  to  crops  more  suited  to  its  soils  or  to 
the  choice  of  their  owners. 

The  Middle  Country. — This  is  the  great  tobacco-producing 
area  of  the  State,  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  Rappahan- 
nock, on  the  east  by  Tidewater,  on  the  south  by  North 
Carolina,  and  on  the  west  by  Piedmont.  It  is  an  extended 
rolling  plain,  greatly  diversified  by  hills  and  vales,  forests 
and  streams.  Its  geology  is  primary ;  its  rocks  azoic,  many 
containing  mineral  elements  that  by  decomposing  greatly 
enrich  the  soil,  such  as  granite,  gneiss,  syenite,  hornblende, 
mica  schist,  micaceous,  talcose,  and  argillaceous  slates  and 
shales,  and  the  sedimentary  rocks  of  the  Jurassic  and  Tri- 
assic  formations.  The  soil  varies  in  depth  on  the  hills  and 
plains  from  2  to  8  inches,  while  along  the  rivers  and  creeks 
they  are  much  deeper,  in  some  places  practically  inexhaus- 
tible. The  usual  depth  of  forest  soils  is  from  4  to  5  inches, 
with  a  subsoil  rich  in  mineral  elements.  The  tobacco  soils 
proper  are  the  rich  bottoms  and  clay-loam  lots  for  shipping, 
and  thin,  gray,  light  soils,  fertilized,  for  manufacturing. 
This  district  produces  about  seven-eighths  of  the  tobacco  of 
the  State,  and  of  ever}--  grade  heretofore  described,  except 
the  flue-cured  manufacturing  grown  in  Henry  and  adjoin- 
ing counties. 

Piedmont. — Like  the  Middle  division,  this  is  in  the  primary 
region  ;  but  here  the  metamorphic  rocks  differ  considerably 
from  those  of  middle  Virginia.  The  gneiss  is  coarser  and 
darker  in   color.     The   hornblende  and  iron  pyrites  form 

Tobacco  Interests  of  Virginia.  223 

largo  belts  of  red  soil,  called  the  "red-land  district."  Here 
is  found  more  greenstone  (epidote),  and  where  this  abounds 
the  soil  is  richer,  but  is  not  better  adapted  to  the  manufact- 
uring grades  of  tobacco.  The  belts  of  limestone  which 
traverse  portions  of  this  district  are  overlaid  by  soils  rich 
and  admirabl}'  suited  to  grasses  and  the  cereals,  but  they 
produce  a  coarse  staple  of  tobacco,  not  much  in  demand, 
even  at  low  prices.  The  tobacco  soils  of  this  division  are 
the  low  grounds  and  rod-elay  lots  for  shipping,  and  the  gray 
uplands,  sandy  and  slaty,  for  manufacturing.  The  chief 
tobacco-producing  counties  of  this  district  form  a  line  along 
the  eastern  slope  of  the  Blue  Ridge  southward  from  Madi- 
son, and  in   elude  Henry  county. 

Blue  Ridge. — This  district  forms  the  border  between  the 
Transition  and  Fossil iferous,  and  partakes  somewhat  of  the 
character  of  both.  Gneissoid  sandstones,  epidote,  granite, 
syenite,  slates,  and  shales  abound  in  the  east,  while  the 
western  flank  of  the  Blue  Ridge  is  composed  of  the  rocks 
of  the  Cambrian,  Potsdam,  Sandstone,  and  Primal.  The 
abundance  of  epidote  accounts  for  the  great  fertility  of  the 
soils  of  this  division. 

The  gray  sandy  slopes  and  ridges  are  the  best  tobacco 
lauds.  The  tobacco  counties  of  this  district  are  Floyd,  Car- 
roll, and  Grayson. 

The  Valley  and  Appalachia. — In  this  district  are  included 
all  the  remaining  counties  of  the  State  west  of  the  Blue 
Ridge,  southwest  from  Rockbridge,  and  in  the  northeast, 
some  of  these  counties  producing  but  little,  but  all  capable  of 
growing,  to  more  or  less  extent,  a  good  type  of  tobacco.  The 
lighter  soils  are  the  better,  but  the  arenaceous  soils  of  the 
mountain  slopes  and  foothills  are  preferred.  The  limestone 
belt  is  an  extensive  one,  rich  and  well  adapted  to  general 
farming.  The  poorer  siliceous  soils,  notably  in  Poor  Valley, 
in  Washington  and  Lee  counties,  are  growing  a  fine  article 
of  brights,  but  the  south  and  southeastern  slopes  of  the 
mountains  also  produce  desirable  manufacturing  grades. 

While  the  above  are  classed  in  the  red  and  yellow  ship- 
ping district,  there  are  extensive  areas  in  most  of  these  coun- 
ties well  adapted  to  produce  the  bright  yellow  type,  as  is 
being  demonstrated  by  individual  planters  every  year. 


224  History  of  Durham. 


The  Durham  Light  Infantry — The   Durham    Female 


The  adage,  '■  Old  men  for  counsel,  3'oung  men  for  war," 
finds  illustration  in  the  large  number  of  military  organizii- 
lions  throughout  this  Repuhlic  of  ours. 

The  Southern  youth  is  a  soldier  born.  His  ancestors  have 
set  the  example,  their  brave  deeds  have  had  a  tendency  to 
inflame  the  mind,  and,  climatic  influences  being  favor- 
able, there  is  no  reason  why  he  should  not  be  what  he  is. 
North  Carolina,  tliough  proud  of  her  citizen  soldiery,  has 
not,  so  far,  done  what  she  could  to  foster  this  manly,  noble 
spirit  in  her  sons.  We  believe  her  failure  in  this  respect  is 
inexcusable  and  damaging.  Give  us  a  laudable  State  pride 
and  our  sister  States  will  regard  us  in  a  very  different  light 
from  what  they  do  now.  We  are  glad  to  know  the  military 
officers  are  at  work  on  this  point.  Within  the  past  two 
years  their  labors  have  brouglit  forth  good  results,  and  if 
they  do  not  weary  in  well  doing,  the  many  volunteer  com- 
panies of  North  Carolina,  which  have  heretofore  barely  sub- 
sisted by  personal  sacrifice  of  time  and  money,  will  bask  in 
the  sunshine  of  the  so  much  deserved,  long  looked  for  pros- 
perity. For  one,  the  Durham  Light  Infantry  would  shout, 
"  Roll  on  the  glorious  epoch." 

,  This  company  was  organized  August  6, 187S,  with  a  mem- 
bership of  forty,  rank  and  file.  J.  F,  Freeland  was  elected 
Captain,  J.  H.  Southgate,  First  Lieutenant,  and  J.  C.  Angier, 
Second  Lieutenant.  In  October  following,  J.  H. Southgate  re- 
signed, and  W.  L.  Wall  v/as  elected  to  fill  the  vacancy.  It 
was  fully  uniformed  and  equipped  soon  after  its  organiza- 
tion. The  uniform  was  of  gray  cloth,  swallow-tail  coats, 
W'ith  three  rows  of  N.  C.  State  buttons  in  front,  and  no  trim- 
ming except  on  the  tail  of  the  coat ;  the  stripes  on  the  pants 
were  black.     Black  felt  hats,  with  black  plumes,  were  worn. 

Six  years  have  made  many  changes  in  the  organization, 
as  might  have  been  expected.     Several  of  the  first  "forty" 

Addenda  et  Errata.  225 

have  long  since  left  Durham,  others  have  resigned,  and  a 
few  have  "  ordered  arms  "  for  the  last  time  on  earth.  - 

A  short  reference  to  some  of  the  mile-stones  in  the  com- 
pany's history  cannot  fail  to  be  interesting  to,  at  least,  the 
former  and  present  members  of  the  body,  wherever  these 
lines  may  reach  them.  "  The  boys''  will  remember  the  4th 
of  July,  1879,  in  Winston.  Indeed,  how  could  they  forget 
the  glad  scenes  of  that  day — the  marching,  the  music,  the 
concourse  of  people;  Salem  Square  at  night,  with  its  thou- 
sand colored  lights;  its  velvet  carpet  of  green  grass;  its 
stately  poplars  and  elms,  with  their  soft  luxuriant  foliage — 
a  fairy  land,  in  fact,  and  chivalrous  youth  and  maidenly 
beauty  were  its  occupants  that  night.  But,  should  memory 
fail  tlu-m  as  to  these,  the  remembrance  of  the  warm  recep- 
tion and  gracious  hospitality  of  the  Winston  Light  Infantry 
would  ever  remain  green — a  joy,  a  lasting  charm. 


In  the  fall  of  1S70  the  sincere  interest  felt  by  the  ladies 
of  Durham  prompted  them  to  donate  to  the  company  a 
hands(nnely  embroidered  silk  flag,  which  could  not  have  cost 
less  than  one  hundred  and  seventy-five  dollars — in  every 
sense  an  appropriate  gift — and  so  long  as  the  love  of  home 
and  the  innocent  ones  there  remain,  so  long  will  this  beauti- 
ful ensign  be  honored  even  at  the  cost  of  the  last  ruddy  drop. 
The  j»resentation  ceremonies  took  place  at  the  Grand  Cen- 
tral Hotel.  Mrs.  J.  B.  Whitaker,  in  a  graceful  and  appro- 
priate .speech,  tendered  the  flag,  responded  to  by  Lieutenant 
G.  E.  Webb. 

The  *20th  May,  ISSO,  was  truly  a  celebration  day  in  the 
history  of  the  Durham  Light  Infantry.  The  Orange  Guards 
of  Hillsboro,  Winston  Light  Infantry  and  Danville  Greys 
were  the  guests  of  the  Company,  and  everything  that  could 
be  done  was  done  to  make  their  stay  pleasant.  The  troops 
were  quartered  in  the  west  wing  of  the  then  W.  T.  Black- 
well  cV  Co.'s  large  brick  factory.  The  programme  was  such 
as  is  usual  on  similar  occasions — marching,  parading,  ora- 
tions, and  the  like.  At  night  the  large  brick  warehouse, 
now  owned  and  occupied  by  Capt.  E.  J.  Parrish,  presented 
a  scene  which  has  never  before  nor  since  been  duplicated  in 
Durham.  A  table  groaning  under  all  the  delicacies  and 
substaiitials  which  the  barbecuer,  the  grocer  and  the  skilled 

226  History  of  Durham. 

housewife  could  furnish,  extended  from  one  end  of  the 
building  to  the  other,  a  distance  of  two  hundred  and  twenty- 
five  feet.  Around  this  table  were  seated  the  visiting  mili- 
tary, a  large  number  of  prominent  men  from  different  parts 
of  the  State  and  a  host  of  Durhamites.  If  this  was  not  a 
feast,  we  never  saw  one ;  if  people  were  not  happy  that  night, 
we  do  not  know  what  it  is  to  manifest  happiness.  In  an 
hour's  time  the  feast  was  over  and  then  followed  music  and 
eloquence,  each  in  its  turn.  Among  the  speakers  were  Gen. 
Cox,  Hon.  John  Manning  and  Judge  Fowle.  Fair  women, 
brave  men,  soft  music,  thrilling  eloquence  and  a  rich  feast 
were  features  of  an  evening,  which  closed  a  day  long  to  be 
remembered  by  the  boys. 


More  than  a  year  elapsed  before  the  Company  engaged  in 
another  celebration.  In  October,  1881,  with  forty-two  men 
in  full  dress  uniform,  it  went  to  the  Yorktown  Centennial 
Celebration  of  American  liberty.  A  long  description  of 
this  notable  trip,  with  its  pleasures  and  delights,  can  be 
made  short  by  quoting  one  clause  which  is  the  property  of 
the  men  in  common:  "Grandest  event  in  the  Company's 

It  may  be  well  to  note  a  iew  changes  which  have  taken 
place  in"the  Company's  management  within  the  past  two 
years.  In  May,  1882,  Capt.  Freeland  resigned.  J.  C.  Angier, 
First  Lieutenant,  took  command,  and  in  August  following 
was  elected  Captain.  He  served  one  year  acceptably.  In 
August,  1883,  E.  J.  Parrish,  a  prominent  citizen  of  the 
town,  was  elected  Captain ;  John  C.  Angier,  First  Lieuten- 
ant; VV.  A.  Gattis,  Jr.,  Second  Lieutenant;  G.  E.  Webb, 
Second  Junior  Lieutenant.  In  February,  1884,  Lieutenant 
Angier  resigned,  and  W.  A.  Gattis  was  elected  First  Lieu- 
tenant in  his  place,  and  James  H.  Southgate,  Second  Lieu- 
tenant. So  that  the  commissioned  officers  at  present  are: 
E.  J.  Parrish,  Captain  ;  W.  A.  Gattis,  Jr.,  First  Lieutenant; 
J.  H.  Southgate,  Second  Lieutenant;  G.  E.  Webb,  Second 
Junior  Lieutenant. 

The  uniforms  are  gotten  up  in  handsome  style,  and  of 
best  material.  The  personnel  of  the  Company  comprise  some 
of  our  most  cultivated  and  influential  citizens. 


Addenda  et  Errata.  227 


This  valuable  addition  to  the  educational  facilities  of 
Durham  was  established  in  Januan^,  1SS2,  and  Mrs.  M.  E. 
Mahoney,  an  accomplished  educator,  chosen  Principal.  The 
building,  located  on  Mangum  street,  was  erected  by  Mr.  A. 
M.  Rigsbee.  The  school  is  one  of  high  standing,  and  is  in 
a  flourishing  condition.  It  is(>ne  of  the  attractive  and  fixed 
institutions  of  Durham,  which  is  remarked  with  unfeigned 
pride  and  pleasure. 

The  charges  per  term  of  twenty  weeks  are  as  follows  : 

Primar}'  English,  ^ 

Preparatory  English,      ( 

Collegiate  English, 

} $10.00 

Latit.,  J 

Musicon  Piano 20.00 

"Organ 20.00 

"        "  Guitar 15.00 

Use  of  Instrument 5.00 

Vocalization  (Voice  Training) 10.00 

Incidentals 1.00 

Board  per  Month,  including  Fuel  and  Lights...  12.00 

Vocal  Music,  Calisthenics  and  Free  Hand  Writing,  Free. 

The  next  session  begins  Monday,  September  3d.  Parents 
are  advised  to  board  their  daughters  in  the  Seminary. 
Regular  hours  of  stud}'',  recreation,  retiring  and  risini^,  are 
observed.  Oversight  and  direciion  of  the  studies  in  prep- 
aration are  given.  Special  care  is  taken  to  guard  the  morals 
and  improve  the  manners  of  those  who  board  in  the 



On  page  110,  under  head  "  M.  E.  McDowell  &  Co.,"  in 
lines  4  and  5,  strike  out  "Agents  in  Philadelphia,"  and 
insert  in  lieu  thereof,  "Agents  in  the  United  States."  In 
lines  IS  and  19,  strike  out  the  words  "and  other  places," 
and  insert  "Atlanta  and  New  Orleans." 

228  History  of  Durham. 


On  page  138,  sketch  of  James  Southgate,  third  line,  in- 
stead of  "English  parentage,"  read  "English  descent." 
Same  sketch,  page  139,  in  line  14,  strike  out  "second  to  none 
in  the  State,"  and  insert  in  lieu  thereof,  "  among  the  fore- 
most agencies  of  the  State." 


On  page  115,  sketch  of  Z,  I.  Lyon  &  Co ,  in  first  line  in- 
stead of  "  firm  is,"  read  "firm  ivas."  In  line  4,  strike  out  all, 
from  the  word  "  Durham  "  down  to  and  including  "  1867," 
and  insert  in  lieu  thereof  the  following:  "Mr.  Lyon  did 
business  for  Mr.  J.  R.  Green  in  1865-'66.  In  1868  he  pur- 
chased an  interest  in  the  celebrated  Bull  brand.  During 
the  same  year — "  On  page  184,  bottom  line,  in  the  Dur- 
ham quotations  for  fancv  wrappers,  instead  of  "  $1.50  to 
$3.00,"  read  "$150  to  $300." 

T.  H.  Briggs  6£  Sons, 

Briggs  Building,  Raleigh,  H.  C, 



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Durham  Business  Directory.  229 

:E=».^f^:EST  "V". 

Durham   Business  Directory. 


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Mayor. — J.  F.  Freeland. 
Clerk.— ^y.  E.  Foster. 
Treasurer. — G.  C.  Farthing. 
Ciiy  Weigher. — S.  T.  Morgan. 
Chief  of  Police. — Paul  A.  Brownv 
Assistant  Police. — A.  J.  Faucett. 

Commissioners. — Eugene  Morebead,  Thonaas  D.  Jones,  R. 
W.  Thomas,  W.  H.  Rowland  and  T.  S.  Christian. 
Street  Commissioner — William  Maynor. 


Sheriff.— J.  R.  Blacknall. 
Superior  Court  Clerk. — W.  J.  Christian. 
Register  of  Deeds. — J.  C.  Wilkerson. 
Treasurer. — J.  R.  Blacknall. 
County  Attorney. — R.  C.  Strudwick. 
County  Surveyor. — A.  M.  Leathers. 

Commissioners. — W.  A.  Jenkins,  chairman,  G.  A.  Barbae, 
W.  K.  Parrish,  C.  B.  Green  and  J.  G.  Latta. 



History  of  Durham. 


Officers. — Alexander  Walker,  President. 
R.  F.  Webb,  Vice-President. 
Albert  Kramer,  Secretary  and  Treasurer. 

Blackwell,  W.  T. 
Blackwell  &  Goodson, 
Burton,  Robert 
Carr,  Julian  S. 
Cooper,  W.  R. 
Cox,  A.  B. 
Dalbv,  Edward 
Day,%V.  A. 
Duke  Sons  &  Co.,  W. 
Faucett,  R.  T. 
Gattis,  W.  A. 
Green,  Lucius 
Hazel,  J.  B. 
Jones,  Thomas  D. 
Jones,  R.  H. 
Kramer,  Albert 
Lockhart,  J.  S. 
Xyon,  T.  B. 
Lyon,  Z.  I. 
Lyon,  R.  E. 

Mosely,  T.  B. 
Morris  &  Sons'  M'f  g  Co. 
Osborn,  W.  H. 
Parrish,  E.  J. 
Peay,  T.  L. 
Pinnix,  J.  T. 
Pogue  &  Son,  E.  H. 
Reams,  H.  A. 
Reams,  I.  M. 
Rowland,  M.  A, 
Seay,  E.  E. 
Smith,  L.  T. 
Smith,  John  W, 
Smith,  R.  K. 
Stokes,  A.  H. 
Umstead  &  Co.,  A. 
Walker,  John  W. 
Walker,  M.  A. 
Watkins,  Dr.  J.  L. 
Webb,  R.  F. 



Blackwell's  Durham  Tobacco  Co — Depot  street,  southwest 
of  N.  C.  R.  R.  depot. 

W.  Duke  Sons  &  Co. — Railroad,  above  Hillsboro  street. 

R.  F.  Morris  &  Sons'  Manufacturing  Co. — Railroad  street, 
near  depot. 

R.  T.  Faucett— southeast  of  "  Old  Sitting  Bull  "  Factory. 

James  Y.  Whitted,  South  street.  v 

Z.  I.  Lyon—''  Old  Sitting  Bull  "  Factory. 

Seigel  Brothers — South  of  Railroad,  near  Lyon's  factory. 

E.  H.  Pogue  &  Son — S.  Depot  street,  below  the  Blackwell 


The  Reams  Warehouse — Corner  of  Depot  and  Main  streets. 

"THE  "TRAVELERS,"'  OF  HARTFORD,  insures  against  accidents. 

Durham  Business  Directory.  231 

'  The  Parrish  Warehouse — Corner  of  Parrish  and  Mangum 

The  Banner  Warehouse — Main,  between  Green  and  Man- 
gum  streets. 


Since  the  greater  portion  of  this  book  has  passed  through 
the  press,  two  new  manufacturing  enterprises  have  been  es- 
tablished in  Durham — one  Cigar,  and  one  Plug  Tobacco 
Factory — the  former  by  Messrs.  E.  J.  Clark  &  Co.,  the  latter 
by  Mr.  Jas.  Y.  Whitted,  formerly  of  Hillsboro.  These  gen- 
tlemen are  experienced  manufacturers  in  their  line,  and 
have  wisely  selected  Durham,  the  El  Dorado  of  the  South, 
as  a  basis  for  future  operations  and  success.  Success?  With 
proper  business  sagacity  and  push,  no  enterprise  ever  fails 
in  Durham,  and  these  gentlemen  possess  an  ample  amount 
of  both.  We  have  known  Mr.  Clark  for  many  years,  and 
we  take  pleasure  in  bespeaking  for  him  that  abundant  suc- 
cess which  he  richly  deserves.  The  Cigar  Factory  is  lo- 
cated on  Main  street  and  the  Plug  Factory  on  Factory 


A  survey  has  been  made,  and  at  a  distance  of  four  miles 
from  Durham  an  abundance  of  good  spring  water  can  be 
had  with  an  elevation  of  sixty-five  feet.  The  gentlemen 
engaged  in  this  project  have  ample  means  and  the  energy 
and  business  tact  to  make  a  success  of  it.  Durham  has  long 
felt  the  need  of  more  water  power  and  the  supply  from  these 
springs,  we  learn,  will  be  ample  to  supply  a  town  of  ten 
thousand  inhabitants. 


The  Bank  of  Durham— William  T.  Blackwell,  President ; 
P.  A.  Wiley,  Cashier ;  W.  S.  Haliburton,  Teller.  Parrish, 
between  Church  and  Mangum  streets. 

Morehead  Bank — Eugene  Morehead,  President ;  W.  M. 
Morgan,  Cashier;  W.  W.  Avery,  Teller.  Main,  between 
Mangum  and  Depot  streets. 


232  History  op  Durham. 


D.  C.  Maugum,  Postmaster;  salary,  $1,300.  The  oflfice 
now  ranks  third  class.  Main,  between  Mangum  and  Church 



This  company  was  organized  in  the  spring  of  1884,  by 
the  election  of  J.  A.  O'Dell,  President ;  W.  H.  Branson,  Sec- 
retary and  Treasurer.  Stockholders — Julian  S.  Carr,  W.  B. 
O'Dell,  and  J.  M.  O'Dell.  The  factory  will  be  completed 
about  October  1st,  1884,  one  and  a  half  miles  east  of  the  N. 
C.  R.  R.  depot,  on  the  southside  of  the  railroad,  on  what  is 
known  as  the  Barbee  land.  The  work  of  laying  bricks  was 
commenced  in  the  latter  part  of  May,  1884.  Size  of  build- 
ing, 148  feet  4  inches  by  74  feet  4  inches.  Smoke  stack  of 
brick  and  stone,  17  feet  19  inches  at  base  and  13^  feet  high, 


This  company  was  also  organized  in  the  spring  of  1884. 
Officers — John  C.  Angler,  President;  Samuel  T.  Morgan, 
Secretary  and  Treasurer.  Julian  S.  Carr,  M.  A.  Angier,  Eu- 
gene Morehead,  A.  H.  Stokes  and  Jas,  R.  Blacknall,  Stock- 
holders. The  factory  will  be  completed  the  latter  part  of 
September,  1884,  and  will  be  located  about  one  mile  east  of 
the  N.  C.  R.  R.  depot,  on  ns.  railroad,  also  on  the  Barbee  land. 


George  L.  Tinker,  Deputy ;  Post  Office  Building.  Re- 
ceipts for  1883  were  $618,444.34. 


"  The  Durham  Tobacco  Plant,"  (weekly)— C.  B.  Green, 
Editor.  Democratic  in  politics.  Subscription  price,  $1.50 
per  annum.     Main,  between  Depot  and  Mangum  streets. 

"  The  Church  Messenger,"  (weekly)— E.  N.  Joyner,  Editor. 
Episcopal.  Subscription  price,  $1.50  per  annum.  Main, 
between  Mangum  and  Church  streets. 

"  The  Durham  Recorder,"  (weekly)— E.  C.  Hackney,  Ed- 
itor. Democratic.  Subscription  price,  $1.50  per  annum. 
Main,  between  Church  and  Mangum  streets. 

"  The  Daily  Reporter  "— D.  W.  Whitaker,  Editor.     Neu- 

The  Largest  Companies  are  Represented  by  J.  Southgate  &  Son. 

Durham  Business  Directory.  233 

tral    in    politics.     Subscription   price,   $4.00   per  annum. 
"Plant"  Building. 

"  The  Truth,"  (monthly)— Josiah  Turner,  Editor.  His- 
torical and  literary.     Subscription  price,  $1.50  per  annum. 


E,.  W.  Thomas  &  Co.,  ne.  cor.  of  Main  and  Depot  streets. 

R.  Blacknall  &  Son,  se.  cor.  of  Main  and  Depot  streets. 

A.  G.  Carr  &  Co.,  ss.  Main,  between  Church  and  Mangum 

G.  B.  Montague,  ss.  Main,  between  Church  and  Mangum 

N.  M.  Johnson,  Mangum  street,  opp.  Parrish  Warehouse. 


Doctors  R.  W.  Thomas,  A.  G.  Carr,  W.  J.  H.  Durham,  T.  S. 
Vickers,  J.  H.  Cook,  A.  F.  Cain,  N.  M.  Johnson,  L.  W.  Bat- 
tle, E.  B.  Utley  and  J.  B.  Gunter. 


Durham  Commandery,  No.  3,  KnightsTemplars. — Jas.  South- 
gate.  Eminent  Commander  ;  L.  W.  Battle,  Generalissimo; 
Ed.  J.  Parrish,  Captain  General  ;  John  L.  Markham,  Excel- 
lent Prelate  ;  J.  F.  Freeland,  Senior  Warden  ;  W.  L.  Wall, 
Junior  Warden  ;  J.  S.  Carr,  Treasurer ;  J.  W.  Blackwell,  Re- 
corder ;  C.  C.  Taylor,  Standard  Bearer;  Geo.  S.  Scruggs, 
Sword  Bearer  ;  L.  T.  Smith,  Warden,  proiem. ;  J.  D.  Wilbon, 

Royal  Arch  Chapter,  No.  48. — James  Southgate,  High 
Priest;  J.  C.  Wilkerson,  King ;  E.  Dalby,  Scribe;  W.  L. 
Wall,  Capt.  Host;  Robert  HoUoway,  Royal  Arch  Captain  ; 
John  L.  Markham,  Principal  Sojourner;  J.  R.  Gattis, 
Treasurer  ;  C.  C.  Taylor, Secretary  ;  Geo.  S.  Scruggs,  Master 
3d  Vail ;  J.  W.  Blackwell,  Master  2d  Vail  •  John  D.  Wil- 
bon, Master  1st  Vail ;  T.  B.  Smith,  Guard.' 

Durham  Lodge,  F.  A.  M.,  No.  352.— W.  L.  Wall,  Worship- 
ful  Master ;  C.  C.  Taylor,  Senior  Warden  ;  J.  W.  Black- 
well,  Junior  Warden  ;  William  H.  Rogers,  Treasurer ;  James 

Cotton  Mill  Insurance  a  Specialty  with  J.  Southgate  &  Son. 

234  History  of  Durham. 

Southgate,  Secretary ;  H.  N.  Snow,  Senior  Deacon  ;  J.  F. 
Freeland,  Junior  Deacon  ;  A.  Mohsberg  and  Wm.  Maynor, 
Stewards;  T.  B.  Smith,  Tyler. 


Trinity  (Methodist)— Head  of  Church  street.  Rev.  T.  A. 
Boone,  pastor.  Preaching  every  Sunday  at  11  o'clock  a.  m. 
and  7  o'clock  p.  m.  Sunday  School  at  9J  o'clock.  Young 
men's  prayer- meeting  at  3  o'clock  p.  m. 

Baptist  (Missionary) — Rev.  C.  Durham,  pastor.  Preach- 
ing every  Sunday  at  11  o'clock  a.  m.  and  7  o'clock  p.  m. 
Sunday  School  at  9J  o'clock.  Young  men's  prayer  meeting 
at  3  o'clock  p.  m.     Mangum  street. 

Presbyterian — Rev.  H.  T.  Darnall,  pastor.  Preaching  every 
Sunday  at  11  o'clock  a.  m.  and  7  o'clock  p.  m.  Sunday 
School  at  9^  o'clock.     Main  street. 

St.  Philip's  (Episcopal) — Services  every  Sunday  at  11  a.  m. 
and  7  p.  m.  Sunday  School  at  10  a.  m.  Rev.  John  Husk, 
Rector.     Main  street. 

Primitive  Baptists — Liberty  street.  Preaching  once  a 
month.     No  pastor. 


Baptist  Church. — S.  Railroad  street,  opp.  Redmond's  Grove. 
Rev.  F.  H.  Wilkerson,  pastor. 

Methodist  Church. — Fayetteville  street,  Hayti.*  Rev.  W. 
Cook,  pastor. 

Primitive  Baptist. — South  Railroad  street.  Rev.  Luke 
Webb,  pastor. 


Methodist  Female  Seminary,  next  to  Trinity  M.  E. 
church.  Mrs.  Julia  R.  Williams,  Principal.  Teachers— Misses 
Lessie  Southgate,  Addie  Holman  and  Mrs.  L.  C.  Lipscomb. 

Durham  Female  Seminary,  Mangum  street.  Mrs.  M.  E. 
Mahoney,  Principal.     (See  sketch  in  Addenda.) 

Durham  Graded  School — Main  street,  opposite  the  Duke 
Factory.  Prof.  E.  W.  Kennedy,  Superintendent.  Teach- 
ers— Profs.  Thomas  J.  Simmons  and  C.  L.  Dowell,  Misses 
Lula  Freeland,  Bessie  Fanning,  Dora  Fanning,  Eva  Cox 
and  Mrs.  S.  T.  Morgan. 

*A  large  portion  of  the  city  settled  almost  entirely  by  the  colored  people. 

Durham  Business  Directory.  235 


Messrs.  Manning  &  Manning,  E.  C.  Hackney,  C.  B.  Green, 
W.  W.  Fuller,  T.  M.  Argo,  R.  C.  Strudwick  and  Jolm  M. 


Ledger  Public  School,  Hayti.  Miss  —  Ledger,  Super- 

Hack  Road  Public  School— James  Whitted,  Superin- 


G.  C.  Farthing,  Main  and  Depot  streets.  Assistants. — J.  R. 
Patterson,  Bookkeeper;  Thos.  B.  Farthing,  W.  S.  Farthing 
and  J.  R.  Proctor,  Clerks. 

W.  Halliburton,  ss.  Main, between  Manguni  and  Church 

W.  K.  Styron  &  Son,  Main  street,  opposite  Post  Office. 

A.  M.  Rigsbee,  ne.  corner  Main  and  Mangum  streets.  As- 
sistants.—W.  H.  Proctor,  Bookkeeper ;  S.  A.  Dickson  and 
S.  J.  Lewter,  Clerks. 

W.  G.  Gates,  Main  street.  J.  H.  Berry  and  A.  H.  Woods, 

JOHN  L.  MARKHAM,  dealer  in  heavy  and  fancy  gro- 
ceries, dry  goods,  notions.  Also  agent  for  the  most  popular 
fertilizers,  se.  cor.  Main  and  Mangum  streets.  Assistants — 
W.E.Foster,  Bookkeeper;  H.  H.  Markham,  J.W.Jones, 
J.  J.  Thaxton,  G.  W.  Barnes,  R.  R.  Puryear,  A.  G.  Elliot, 
Freeland  Markham  and  H.  P.  Markham,  Clerks;  R.  S. 
Ross,  Storage  House  Manager ;  Richard  Daniel,  Porter. 

Rogers  &  Co— Plant  Building,  Main  street.  W.  D.  Hen- 
don,  Clerk. 

J.  W.  Tatum,  ss.  Main  street.  W.  H.  Moore  and  C.  H. 
Umstead,  Clerks. 

S.  E.  Watts,  ss.  Main  street.     R.  R.  Moore,  Clerk. 

0.  B.  Foushee,  Stokes  Building.     T.  J.  Winston,  Clerk. 

C.  J.  &  W.  M.  Rogers,  cor.  Parrish  and  Mangum  streets. 
Assistants.— J .  J.  Bernard,  Bookkeeper  ;  S.  M.  D.  Parrish,  W. 
M.  Clayton,  C.  R.  Cross  and  A.  L.  Wiggins,  Clerks;  Alex. 
Morgan,  Porter. 

Dwellings  and  Farm  Property  Insured  by  J.  Southgate  &  Son. 

236  History  of  Durham. 

T.  Y.  Monk  &  Co.,  Rigsbee  Block,  ss.  Main  street.  W.  L. 
Cooper,  Bookkeeper;  W.  G.  W.  Terry  and  J.  B.  Bernard, 

W.  Mangum  &  Son,  Mangum,  between  Railroad  and 
Main  streets. 

Rawl's  N.  Y.  Cash  Store,  Main  street. 

S.  R.  PERRY,  dealer  in  heavy  and  fancy  groceries,  and 
general  merchandise.  John  C.  Bailey,  Bookkeeper;  Frank 
M.  Carlton,  Clerk. 

W.  M.  O'Daniel  &  Son,  corner  Church  and  Main  streets. 


The  following  companies  are  represented  by  J.  Southgate 
&  Son,  Durham,  N.  C: 

(Connecticut,  of  Hartford,  Connecticut. 

City  of  London,  of  London. 

Equitable  Life  Assurance  Society,  of  New  York. 

Fire  Association,  of  Philadelphia. 

Germania,  of  New  York. 

German  American,  New  York. 

Georgia  Home,  of  Columbus,  Georgia. 

Hartford,  of  Hartford. 

London  Insurance  Company,  of  London. 

London  &  Lancashire,  Liverpool. 

Niagara,  of  New  York. 

North  Carolina  Home,  Raleigh,  North  Carolina, 

North  British  &  Mercantile,  of  London. 

Northern  Association  Co.,  of  Aberdeen  and  London. 

New  York  Home. 

Phoenix  Association  Company,  of  London. 

Phoenix  Association  Company,  of  Hartford,  Connecticut. 

Phenix  Insurance  Company,  of  Brooklyn,  New  York. 

Royal  Insurance  Company,  of  England. 

Rochester  German,  of  Rochester,  New  York. 

Scottish  Union  and  National,  of  London. 

Underwriters,  of  New  York. 

Travelers'  Accident,  of  Hartford,  Connecticut. 

Virginia  Home,  of  Richmond. 

Virginia  Fire  and  Marine,  of  Richmond. 

The  following  companies  are  represented  by  J.  J.  Mackay, 
Durham,  N.  C: 

Liverpool  Life  Insurance  Company. 


Durham  Business  Directory.  237 

Insurance  Company  of  North  Carolina. 
Mutual  Reserve  Company  of  North  Carolina. 
Liverpool,  London  and  Globe. 
Lyon  Insurance  Company. 
North  Western,  of  Mihvaukie. 
The  Penu  Mutual. 


Hotel  Claiborn,  corner  Railroad  and  Depot  streets,  A.  J. 
Rutjes,  proprietor. 

Mrs.  P.  J.  Anglea,  Main  street. 
J.  W.  Watts,  Main  street. 
C.  G.  Younger,  Main  street. 
J.  M.  Baucom. 
J.  P.  Bradshaw,  s.  of  Depot. 


J.  G.  Vickers,  old  post  office  corner. 

Majigie  Bush,  Railroad  street,  near  depot. 

F.  P.  Clapps,  es.  Mangum,  near  Railroad  street. 

Alice  Crenshaw  &  Co.,  Mangum,  near  Railroad  street. 


A.  Mohsberg,  n.  Main  street. 

E.  Goldstein,  ss.  Main  ;  D.  Kaufman,  Bookkeeper. 

H.  Mohsberg,  ss.  Main  ;  Simeon  Fleishman,  Bookkeeper. 

C.  Summerfield  &  Co.,  Duke  Building,  ss.  Main.  Em- 
ployees—W.  W.  Kivett,  F.  Freeland,  L.  Marks  and  T.  H. 

Jacob  Levy,  ss.  Main.  Employees — J.  C.  Bowers,  Frank 
Hunter  and  Julius  Michael. 

R.  M.  Mclutire,  ns.  Main.  Employees — W.  B.  McGary 
and  Charles  Styron. 

0.  E.  Rawls,  ns.  Main ;  W.  L.  Franklin  and  Edgar  Rawls, 


Mrs.  A.  M.  Smith,  Robinson  Block,  ns.  Main.  Assistants — 
Misses  Mamie  Smith,  Julia  Albright  and  Bettie  Albright. 
Mrs.  John  S.  Meslej' — formerly  Lougee  &  Mesley— us.  Main. 
Misses  McCarty  &  Tyler,  Stokes  Building,  ns.  Main. 

NO  CO-OPERATIVE  Insurance  can  be  had  of  J.  SOUTHGATE&  SON, 

238  History  of  Durham. 


S.  T.  MORGAN,  Mangyin  street,  dealer  in  Farmer's  Sup- 
plies and  Fertilizers  ;  Fred.  D.  Fanning,  Bookkeeper,  and 
W.  C.  Thaxton,  Clerk. 

Webb  &  Parker,  Manguni  street.  General  Commission 


JAMES  SOUTHGATE  &  SON,  cor.  Main  building, 
Rigsbee  and  Mangum  ;  Wm.  H.  McKabe,  Policy  Clerk  and 
Bookkeeper,  and  W.  J.  Holloway,  Assistant  Clerk. 

J.  J.  MACKAY,  Tatum  Building,  N.  Main;  Charles  Mc- 
Gary,  Assistant. 


R.  J.  Rogers,  Proprietor,  ss.  Main,  between  Depot  and 
Green  streets.  Employees — J.  B.  Whitaker,  J.  C.  Smith,  C. 
H.  Huliu,  George  Evans  and  Frank  Dave. 


John  L.  Markham,  Agent.  OflSce — corner  Main  and  Man- 
gum  streets. 


B.  L.  DUKE  &  CO.,  SS.  Main  street.     D.  M.  Carlton,  Book- 
keeper, and  John  Laws,  Jr.,  Clerk. 
M.  C.  Herndon  &  Co.,  ns.  Main  street. 


Morgan,  President;  Eugene  Morehead,  Vice-President  and 
Treasurer;  E.  E.  Thompson,  Superintendent  Factory,  and 
Fred.  D.  Fanning,  Bookkeeper. 

Home  Fertilizer,  Upshur  Guano,'Peruvian  Guano,  ALLI- 
SON &  ADDISON  STAR  BRAND,  Southern  Fertilizer  Co., 
Anchor  Brand. 

ONLY  GENUINE  INSURANCE  CAN  BE  HAD  OF  J.  Southgate  &  Son. 

Durham  Business  Directory.  239 

G.  OBER  &  SONS  CO ,  Patapsco,  Pacific,  Zills  and  Grap- 
lin,  Piedmont,  Norfolis:  Fertilizer  and   Insecticide. 


C.  C.  TAYLOR,  ns.  Main.  A  choice  and  complete  hard- 
ware line — stoves,  &c. 

ROBERTSON,  LLOYD  &  CO.  Mangum,  between  Rail- 
road and  Main  streets.     A  full  line  of  best  goods. 

G.  E.  Lougee,  Main  street. 


Richard  Dowdy,  Mangum  street.     Work  executed  with 
promptness  and  unexcelled  efficiency. 
Levi  Houston,  ss.  Main  street. 
J.  D.  Wilbon,  bet.  Main  and  Depot  streets. 


DIKE  BOOKSTORE— James  Dike,  proprietor,  nw.  cor.  of 
Main  and  Mangum  streets.  Assistants— Wm.  M.  Mahoney, 
H.  J.  Darnall,  Misses  Alice  K.  Rawls  and  E  M.  Harden. 


WILLIAM  MANGUM,  Green  street,  in  rear  of  Banner 

P.  J.  MANGUM,  Railroad  street,  below  Pine. 

WILKERSON,  CHRISTIAN  &  CO.,  junction  of  Railroad 
and  Green  streets. 


S.  F.  Gardner,  ns.  Main,  between  Church  and  Mangum 

C.  F.  Postley,  ss.  Main,  between  Church  and   Mangum 



Willis  Mangum,  Church,  one  door  below  Main  and  De- 
pot streets. 

W.  R  Howerton  &  Bro.,  Mangum  street. 
P.  J.  Mangum,  Railroad  street,  below  Pine. 


240  History  of  Durham. 


J.  B.  Whitaker,  .Jr.,  nw.  cor.  of  Main  and  Mangum  streets. 
Bronze  work  a  specialty. 

H.  E.  Seeman,  Post  Office  Building, Main, between  Church 
and  Mangum  streets. 


A.  A.  SEARS,  Main,  between  Depot  and  Green  streets. 
ALLEN   JONES  &    CO.      Located  just  in  the  rear  of 
Lyon's  Tobacco  Factory. 

W  R.  HERNDON,  rear  of  Howerton's  Carriage  Shop. 


R.  T.  Howerton  &  Bro.,  n.  Mangum  street. 
Henry  Seeman  &  Son,  us.  Railroad  street. 


T.  S.  CHRISTIAN,  T.  C.  Oakley  and  John  A.  Bivins. 


C.  J.  O'Brien  &  Co.,  the  old  Kemper  corner. 


CHAS.  H.  LEWELLIN,  corner  Main  and  Church  sts. 


Dr.  L.  B.  Henderson,  Rooms  over  Dr.  Carr's  Drug  Store, 
Main  street. 


Dr.  Chas.  Grayson,  Railroad  street,  near  N.  C.  Depot. 


C.  W.  RocHELLE,  ss.  Main,  between  Church  and  Mangum 
streets.     All  work  neatly  and  handsomely  executed. 

H.  Murphey,  ss.  Main,  between  Depot  and  Mangum  street. 


Durham  Business  Directory.  241 


Blount  &  Hanks,  Railroad  street,  above  Depot. 
McMannen  &  Carriugtou,  Cora  Street  Smut  and  Screen- 
ing Machine  Works. 


Wright  &  Merritt,  ss.  Main,  one  door  from  Mangum.  street. 
Assistants.— R.  Terrell,  Jas.  Y.  Allen  and  W.  Wright. 

H.  W.  Brown,  Mangum  street. 

Jas.  W.  Murchison,  corner  Main  and  Mangum  streets. 
Assistants. — Virgil  Reid  and  Spot  Sanford. 


J.  H.  Gresham,  Barbee  Building,  ss.  Main,  near  Church 


HENRY  SEEMAN  &    SON,    Railroad,  near    Church 

CHARLES  HOLLOWAY,  Railroad  street,  adjacent 
Messrs.  Seeman  &  Son. 


J.  T.  Watts,  Mangum  street. 
B.  J.  Odens, 
John  Paschall,     " 


No.  1— South  of  Baptist  church.  W.  A.Watson,  Mana- 
ger and  Contract  Agent.  Manufacturing  at  present  writing 
for  Durham  Woollen  Mills  and  Court  House. 

No.  2— Southeast  of  Durham.  Wm.  H.  Smith,  Manager. 
Manufacturing  at  this  writing  1,500,000  for  W.  Duke  Sons 
&  Co.'s  new  Tobacco  Works. 

No.  3 — Three  and  a  quarter  miles  west  of  Durham  on 
the  N.  C.  Railroad.     R.  G.  Fitzgerald,  Manager. 


242  History  of  Durham. 

No.  4 — East  of  Darham,  on  N.  C.  Railroad.  G.  W.  Long, 
Manager.  Making  brick  for  the  Cotton  M'f'g.  Co.,  main 
building  and  tenement  houses. 

No.  5 — West  of  Durham,  on  the  Chapel  Hill  road.  R.  B. 
Fitzgerald,  Manager.     Orders  in  hand  for  2,000,000  bricks. 

No.  6 — East  of  Durham,  on  the  Oxford  road.  D.  Z. 
O'Brien,  Proprietor. 

No.  7— Southeast  of  city.  W.  H.  &  C.  E.  J.  Goodwin, 

No.  8— South  street,  at  city  limits.  B.  W.  Matthew,  Pro- 


D.  A.  Barnwell,  dealer  in  Wines,  Whiskeys,  Cigars,  etc. 
Keeps  also  a  Billiard  Table. 

S.  R.  Carrington,  corner  Depot  and  Mangum  streets. 

J.  T.  Mallery— "Old  Chunk"— Parrish,  near  Depot  street. 

J.  B.  Gooch,  Mangum  street,  near  Railroad. 

JAMES   DIKE,  A.  M. 

On  the  banks  of  the  Kennebec,  in  the  City  of  Bath, 
Maine,  the  subject  of  our  sketch  was  born,  on  the  27th  day 
of  June,  1848.  His  father,  the  Rev.  Samuel  F.  Dike,  D.  D., 
gave  him  the  advantages  of  the  best  educational  training, 
from  the  time  he  was  old  enough  to  attend  school,  till  he 
graduated  at  Bowdoin  College,  Brunswick,  Me.,  at  the  age 
of  twenty-one.  On  leaving  college,  he  engaged  in  teaching, 
and  had  every  grade  of  experience  from  the  rustic  district 
school  to  an  important  position  in  the  Boston  Latin  School, 
the  oldest  institution  of  learning  in  the  United  States,  being 
founded  in  1635.  In  1876,  Mr.  Dike  married  Miss  E.  J. 
Loring,  daughter  of  Mr.  B.  T.  Loring,  a  merchant  of  Bos- 
ton, Mass. 

While  teaching,  Mr.  Dike's  health  became  impaired 
through  overwork,  and  he  was  obliged  to  give  up  his  duties 
temporarily.  The  School  Committee  of  Boston,  in  appre- 
ciation of  his  services,  presented  him  with  one  thousand 
dollars  and  six  months'  vacation,  that  he  might  regain  his 
strength.  At  the  close  of  this  period,  Mr.  Dike  undertook 
his  duties,  but  again  breaking  down  he  resigned  hi-s  posi- 


DuEHAM  Business  Directory.  243 

tion.  Desiring  to  avoid  the  harshness  of  a  northern  win- 
ter, Mr.  Dike,  with  his  wife,  came  South  to  spend  a  few 
weeks.  Under  the  influences  of  the  change  of  climate,  he 
improved  in  health  so  rapjidly,  that  he  shortly  looked  about 
for  some  occupation  that  would  enable  him  to  remain  for  a 
length  of  time  and  reap  the  full  benefit  of  the  climate. 
Having  lived  among  books  all  his  life,  it  naturally  occurred 
to  him  to  open  a  bookstore,  as  most  congenial  to  his  tastes. 
He  opened  a  store  in  Greensboro,  N.  C  ,  whither  he  had  first 
gone,  and  placed  upon  the  shelves  890  wcrth  of  goods,  ob- 
tained on  credit  from  two  ol  the  town  merchants.  One  not 
to  be  forgotten  day,  his  sales  reached  a  total  of  25  cents, 
and  this  was  after  standing  in  the  store  more  than  ten  hours, 
without  making  one  sale.  Nevertheless  his  business  grew, 
and  at  the  end  of  the  year,  he  rt-moved  with  his  family  to 
Durham,  N.  C,  as  a  wider  field  seemed  to  be  opened.  The 
only  store  he  could  find  for  rent  was  a  large  wooden  build- 
ing, not  favorably  located  for  business.  At  various  times 
Mr.  Dike  moved  his  store,  bettering  his  position  as  far  as 
possible.  Last  December  a  store-room  was  prepared  for 
him  in  the  new  brick  building  on  the  corner  of  Main  and 
Mangum  streets.  This  location  is  unsurpassed  in  Durham, 
and  it  has  been  said  by  travellers  that  his  bookstore  is  one 
of  the  handsomest  and  best  arranged  in  the  State. 

Mr.  Dike  has  been  in  Durham  about  seven  years,  and  in 
all  that  time  has  striven  hard  to  place  before  the  people  a 
selection  of  books  of  the  highest  literary  merit,  and  has 
sternly  set  his  face  against  corrupting  literature.  It  has 
not  been  possible  to  keep  as  full  an  assortment  of  books  as 
might  be  done  in  a  larger  community,  but  every  facility 
has  been  offered  to  the  people  to  obtain  promptly  any  book 
published  in  any  city.  A  varied  line  of  stationery  and 
artistic  goods  form  a  part  of  his  stock. 

It  is  no  small  advantage  that  the  town  has  had  these 
privileges  from  its  early  growth,  and  it  is  to  he  hoped  that 
only  good  results  may  f  jUow  from  the  earnest  efforts  that 
have  been  made. 


Mr.  Whitted  is  a  gentleman  of  extensive  experience  in^ 

Provide  against  Accidents  by  insuring  with  J.  SOUTHGATE  &  SON. 

244  History  of  Durham. 

the  manufacture  of  plug,  twist  and  granulated  smoking 
tobaccos.  Engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  tobacco  at  Hills- 
boro  in  the  year  of  1859,  and  is  a  pioneer  of  this  great  in- 
dustry of  the  State.  To  the  industry  and  wisdom  of  such 
men  as  Mr.  Whitted  may  justly  be  attributed  the  gratifying 
position  North  Carolina  is  assuming  in  the  tobacco  interests 
of  America.  As  a  tobacco  producing  and  manufacturing 
State,  in  point  of  quantity,  North  Carolina  has  few  superiors, 
and  in  point  of  quality,  she  is  second  to  none. 

Mr.  Whitted  continued  the  manufacture  of  plug,  twist 
and  granulated  smoking  tobaccos  until  April,  1861,  when 
he  enlisted  in  the  Confederate  service,  being  assigned  to  the 
27ih  N.  C.  S.  Troops.  Participated  in  nearly  all  the  hard 
ficrhting  in  Virginia.  Accompanied  General  Lee  on  his 
fa^mous  raid  into  Maryland,  and  was  severely  wounded  in 
September,  1863,  during  the  terrific  engagement  at  Sharps- 
burg.  Although  disabled  for  active  field  duty  he  remained 
with  his  command,  performing  light  du.ies,  until  the  close 
of  hostilities,  when  he  returned  home,  and  once  more  en- 
gaged, in  1867,  in  his  manufacturing  enterpise.  His  various 
brands  have  gained  much  celebrity  and  are  used  through- 
out the  Union.  His  principal  brands  of  plug  and  twist 
are— "Ambrosia,"  "Old  North  State,"  "Walter  Raleigh," 
"Nat.  Macon,"  "Favorite,"  and  "Ain't  it  Nice,"  and  of 
granulated  smoking  tobaccos— " Harry  Lee"  and  "Rising 
Star."  These  goods  are  made  of  the  very  best  material, 
and  are  guaranteed  to  be  free  of  drugs  and  all  injurious 
concomitants,  hence  their  great  reputation  and  increasing 

In  May,  1884,  Mr.  Whitted  moved  his  factory  to  Durham, 
where  he  is  now  prosecuting  his  business  with  great  vigor 
and  success.  His  factory  is  located  on  Factory  street,  about 
fewo  hundred  yards  from  the  railroad  depot,  and  is  amply 
furnished  with  all  the  necessary  modern  appliances,  which 
are  of  the  best  quality.  Mr.  Whitted  is  an  enterprising,  in- 
dustrious and  affable  gentleman,  and  we  bespeak  for  him 
an  abundant  success. 





Keeps  ill  stock  the  finest 
line  of  goods  for 

Gentlemen's  Wear 

ever  exhibited  in  this  section, 
and  is  prepared  to  make  them 
up  in  the  most  satisfactory 
and  elef^ant  styles,  equal  to 
any  Tailor  North  or  iSouth. 

Cheap  as  the  Cheapest. 

Will  continue  business  in 
despite  of  oiiposition,  and 
will  do  all  he  can  to  please 
his  patrons. 

Roherson  Block  Corner, 
Durham,  X.  ('. 


(Of  Liverpool.) 
Assets,  -   -   -  $4,187,679. 


Durham,  N.  C. 

T.  M.  ARGO, 



Practices  in  the  State  and 
Federal  Courts,  and  specially 
in  Durham,  Wake,  Orange 
and  Alamane  counties. 



Clay  Street,  Durham,  N.  C,  dealer  in 

Pure  Whiskies  and  Brandies ! 

Copper  Distilled,  from  one 
to  thirteen  years  old. 


exclusively  by  himself. 

He  is  shipping  it  by  Ex- 
press all  over  the  different 
States  for  Medical  purposes. 
All  who  buy  once  buy  again. 


J.  M.  BAUGOM, 

DURHAM,  >.    C, 

Hasjnst  fitted  up  and  am- 
ply furnished  a 

Firsl-Class  Boarding  Honsc, 

on  South  Street.  His  table 
will  always  be  furnished  with 
Tlie  Best  Hie  Market  Affords. 
U^"  He  also  has  for  sale 
on  reasonable  terms,  a  very 

Desirable  Farm, 

in  the  Southern  part  of  Dur- 
ham county,  nine  miles  from 
the  city  of  Durham. 



(of   LONDON.) 

ASSETS,  -    -  $3,264,426. 

J.Southgate  &  Son,Agts., 
Durham,  N.  C. 

246  History  of  Durham. 

The  Old  Travelers'  Accident  Ins.  Co., 


ASSETS, $7,435,987, 

J.  SOUTHGATE  &  SON,  Agents. 
Durham,  N.  C. 


opposite  Post-Office,  Main  St.,  DurJiani,  N.  C, 
Copying  and  enlarging  a  Speciality.     Bear  in  miiu] 

that  ROCHELLE'6  is  leading  Gallery,  and  that  he  intends 
to  make  it  First  Class  in  every  respect  °^^ 

attorneys  at   Lav^, 

DURHAM,  N.  C. 
I^^^AU  business  promptly  attended  to.^.^5| 

5ews  and  Observer^ 


The   Leading  Oemocratic  Journal 


Important  Market  Reports,  Statistics  and  General  In- 
telligence from  all  parts  of  the  World.  S.  A.  ASHE,  Ed- 
itor." Subscription  :  Daily  $7.00  per  annum;  Weekly 
$2.00  per  annum. 


Democratic  in  Politics. 

Devoted  to  the  Material,  Moral  and   Educational   Interests 

of  North   Carolina. 

R  A.  SHOTW ELL,  Editor  AND  Proprietor. 

Subscription,        -        -        -       -        ^2.00  per  annum. 

Ada  ertisements. 


Sitting  Bull. 


Durham  Loug  Cut, 



jURHAM  ci&arette;^. 

Mamifactured  by 

E.  H.  Po^ue  &  Sou, 

Durham,  N.  C. 

UaFtf  OFd  l^lp©  IttSt  e&^B 

ASSETS, $4,541,239. 

J.  SOUTHGATE  &  SON,  Agents, 
Durham,  N.  C. 


Remington  Standard 




Every  Merchant,  Lawyer,  Book- 
Keeperand  Minister  shouKl  have  one. 
Send  for  V/ircular, 

MORTON  W.  REED,  Agent. 
Durham,  N.  C. 

Equitable  Life  Assurance  Society 


NEW     YORK: 
ASSETS, $53,030,581. 

Wrote  more  than    Eighty  one   Millions  of  New  Business 
during  year  18S3. 

J.  SOUTHGATE  &  SON,  Agents, 

l5urham,N.  C. 

248  History  of  Durham. 

P.  H.  MAYO  &  BRO., 

Tobacco  Manufacturers, 


[Established  iu  1830  by  Robt.  A.  Mayo.] 





mMWEwm  ©mai^M^ 

DURHAM,  N.  C, 

Dealer  in  Leaf  Tobacco. 

[Estalished  in  1875.] 

^^^  Prompt  attention  given  to  all  orders  and  satisfaction 

guaranteed. =^^ 



Assets, $3,699,794. 

J.  SOUTHGATE  &  SON,  Agents, 

Durham,  N.  C 






(Of  Liverpool.) 

Assets,  -    -   -  $1,398,546. 


Durham,  N.  C. 



Hartford,  Conn., 
Assets,  -   -    -  $4,435,000. 


Durham,  N.  C. 

The  Tobacco  Plant, 

DURHAM,  N,  C. 

[ESTA)!LISHEn    IN    1S72.] 

A  Sterling  Democratic  and  Trade  Weekly  Newspaper,  devoted  to  the  best 
interests  of  North  Carolina.  Largest  circulation  of  any  pajier  in  middle  Caro- 
lina.    Subscription  $1.50  per  year.      Advertising  terms  lilieral. 

C.  B,  GBEEX,  Editor  and  Broprietor, 

Fire  Association  of  Philadelphia, 

ASSETS, $4,279,676. 


Durham,  N.  C. 

North  Carolina  Headquarters 




®      WW 

Book    ©tore, 

RALEIGH,   N.  C. 

We  can  supply  all  your  wants  at 

Lowest  Prices. 


History  of  Dcrham, 


A.   M.   LYON. 

Nos.  1434  and  1436,  cor.  Caiy  and  15th  Streets, 




Pkg,  Twist  and  Smoking  Tobaccos. 




BIRD  IN   HAND,         FLORA  BELL,  &c. 




DURHAM,  N.  C. 

Leaf  Tobacco  Broker 

All  orders,  of  whatever  grade,  promptly  filled  and 

Sa^tisfa^ction  (3-Tj.a.ra.nteed.. 

Deals  Exclusively  in  the  Celebrated  Tobacco  grown  in 
the  "Golden  Belt  of  North  Carolina." 

Advertisements.  251 

LAW.  LOTTIER,  Manufacturer.     I 






Durham,  Silver  Coin 



Brands  of  Plug  Tobacco,  also  of  the  latest 



^  jy  lyi  lif  ® 

Richmond,  Virginia. 








School  Books  of  every  kind  on  hand,  or  promptly  supplied  to  order. 

Stor)'^Books,  Magazines  and  Newspapers,  Hymn  Books  and  Pocket  Bibles, 
Children's  Toy  Books,  Family  Bibles,  Dictionaries,  Encyclopedias. 

Writing  Paper  in  various  styles,  such  as  Legal  Cap,  Bill  Cap,  Foolscap,  Let- 
ter and  Ladies'  Note  Paper. 

Albums,  Scrap  Books,  Papeteries,  Ink,  Pencils,  Pens,  &c.,  &c, 

Pnpcr  Bags  at  wholesale. 

In  our  Music  Department 

We  can  furnish  any  article  from  a  Violin  String  to  a  Piano  or  a  Church 
Organ.     Violins,  Guitars,  Accordeons,  Banjos. 

Z^A  superior  lot  of  Violin,  Guitar  and  Banjo  Strings  just  received  at  low 


History  of  Durham. 



MR.  A.  A.  SEARS, 

The  popular  and  courteous  Proprietor, 
settled  in  Durham  in  the  year  1838, 
and  attended  school  two  years.  In 
1870  he  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of 

Smoking'  Tobacco, 

In  co-partnership  witli  Mr.  T.  B.  Mor- 
ris, their  only  brand  being 

"  The  Star." 

He  continued  in  this  business  until 
1872,  when  he  opened  his 

Livery  and  Exchange 

■which  are  certainly  tlie 

in  all  their  departments  of  any  Estab- 
lishment of  the  kind  in  the  State. 
jKff=-The  Stables  are  situated  on  Main, 
between  Depot  and  Green  streets, 

Daiiiam,  3f.  C. 


Boarding  and  Lodging  House, 

Main  Street,  bet.  Church 
and  Mangum,  Durham,  N. 
C,  on  tlie 

European  Plan. 

p^^  Tables  always  supplied 
with  the  Best  the  Market 
affords. =^^ 

Transient  board 

$1.00  per  day, 

including  lodging. 



B.  L.  DUKE  &  CO.'S 



For  all  kinds  of 



Undertaker's  Supplies. 

g^^  Call  and  examine  qual- 
ity and  prices. 

Durham,  N.  C. 



ASSETS, $1,296,426. 



Durham,  N.  C. 




First-Class  Blacksmith  Shop 

On  Railroad  St.,  Durham,  in 
1878,  and  ever  since  has  been 
turning  out  First-Class  work 

At  Reasonable  Prices. 

Best  Temperer  in  Durham. 

Advertisements.  253 

R.  T.  HOTTgEERTOH  d^  BRO.^ 

Keep  constantly  on  hand  a  choice  stock  of 


The  Carriage  TIpTIQIitlllpllt  is  complete  in  all   its  details  and  only  f/»e 
and   Bu^gy     UOPul  lUlulll  Very  Best  Material  Used. 


Prompt  attention  paid  to  all  orders.    aII  work  executed  with  dispatch  and  in 
the  most  skillful  manner. 



DURHAM,  N.  C, 



F'or  the  accommodation  of  the  puhlic,  at  very  nioflerate  prices.  Then 
Livery  is  unexcelled  In  all  its  details.  All  orders  tilled  with  promptness  and 
dispatch.    Orders  respectfully  solicited  and  entire  satisfaction  guaranteed. 

03L.ID  I^ELI-^BLE, 



Heavy  and  Fancy  Groceries,  Dry  Goods,  Boots  and 
Shoes,  and  General  Merchandise. 


Crockery,  Cutlery,  Etc. 
The  Oldest  Merchant  in  Durham. 

E.  IB.  xjTL:Er5r,  is/l.  id.. 

Offers  liis  Professional  Services  to  the  citizens  of  Durham 
and  surrounding  country. 


Prompt  attention  given  to  all  calls  ivlietlier  in  or  out  of  the  city. 

Office  at  G.  B.  Montague's  Drug  Store.  Main  between  Church  and  Mangum 








I  have  a  large  and  varied  assortment  of 

Canned  Goods,  Bacon,  Lard,  Meal,  Flour,  Pickles,  Cof- 
fee and  Su^ar. 

In  fact  you  -will  find  at  my  store  everything  usually  kept  in  a  first  class  Dry 
Goods  and  Grocery  Store.  In  matter  of  price  we  cannot  be  undersold.  Al! 
goods  promptly  delivered  free,  and  jiuaranteed  as  to  quality  and  price. 

S.  R.  PERRY,  Durham,  N.  C. 

Established  iu   1874. 

P.  J.  MANGUM, 



Sasl,  Boors,  BliMs  ai  Mollis 

All  work  executed  witli  promptness  and  in  the  most  workmanlike  manner. 

Also  all  kinds  of  work   usually  executed  by  ^Lrst  Class    O-^^iaertafeers 
Also  all  ^i°'^^^^M>^=_'t^'-4l  ica32:ers-    Satisfaction  guaranteed. 

Robert  Dymott. 

C.  J.  O'Brien. 

C.J.  O'BRIEN  &C0,, 

Old  Kemper  Corner,  Durham,  N.  C, 


Eirst  Class  Workmen  and  laterial 


Promptness,  Neatness  and  Dispatch. 


SatisfactioH  in  Every  Respect  Guaranteed. 



EST  A  B  L  I  S  H  E  I)     I  X    1  S  :i  7  . 


sr  &  Sois  Gompiiy's  lw\i\  Coipifl, 

MA.XUF  VCTl  EEI)  AT  BALTI310KE,  Ml).,  BY 

C.  Ober  $t  Sons  Company. 


ILVr/riMOUE,  >rp.,  February  1st,  lS8J.-We  desire  to  exleinl  onr  most  hearty 
congratulations  to  tlie  ^rrowcrs  t)f  bright  Tol)nceo— not  only  im  account  ol  the 
present  high  prices  uf  tlioir  st;iplo,  hut  lor  the  hriglit  proniise  of  fuluie  rewar  I 
to  thoi?e  who  grow  GOOD,  FIN'i-;.  and  FANCY  Tol).icco.  The  Iiternal  Hcveimc 
Department  of  the  United  Slates  shows  that  for  the  past  fl%-e  years  the  pniduc- 
tion  of  Tobacco  in  tlic  United  .states  has  not  equalled  consumption  in  tlie  Slatefe; 
and  exports;  as  a  coii!?e(iuence  the  Tohacco  markets  of  the  world  are  gr-'Qtly  re- 
duced in  stocks;  particnhuly  is  this  the  casewitli  HUKillT  TOHAC\  <  >.  wl'.icli 
has  grown  in  favor  vear  hv  vear  the  worM  ov<t  'Tis  even  said  that  nne  ^vh() 
has  once  used  the  FLl'E-CUKED  MRIGHT  TOBACCO  of  Virginia  and  Xoith 
Carolina  becomes  so  attached  to  its  delicate  flavor  tiiai  lie  can  neve*-  be  induced 
to  use  any  other  when  that  is  obt^iinalile.  Indeed,  there  is  no  ot I ler  staple  crop 
grown  that  now  holds  out  such  proniise  of  profit.  With  these  flattering  jiros- 
pecls  for  the  future,  it  behooves  every  grower  rif  YKLl.OW  TOI5Al'CO  loniake 
every  pound  he  can,  and  to  bo  sure  to  secur.^  an  OLD,  KELIAHLK,  and  TRIEU 
Fertilizer.  The  almost  unparalelled  success  that  has  attended  tlieuseofour 
Fertilizer  in  the  past,  shows  tlint  it  is  just  the  food  required  for  growing  GOOD. 
FINE,  and  FANCY  HKIGIIT  TOBACCO.  It  is  made  only  from  the  best  mate- 
rial, and  is  rich  iu  Soluble  i'hosphate,  Ammonia,  and  Totash,  beautifully  and 
unifornily  combined;  fine,  dry, and  in  prime  condition  for  drilling,  and  HAS 
NO  SUPERIOR,  if  an  ci)Ual,  lor  the  i>rrduction  of  Bright  Yellow  Tobacco,  and 
equals  any  Fertilizer  lor  the  various  other  crops  grown  in  Virginia  and  North 

In  rear  of  Howerton's  Carriage  Shop, 

r)UR,H:A.:M:,  isr,  o„ 

A  First  Class  and  Complete  Livery  Line. 

An  experience  of  many  years  in   handling   and  managino 
liorses,  has  given  iiim  a  practical  knowledge  in  his 

line  nnsurpappcd  hy  any  man   in  the  State. 
.Vll  Orders  are  Atlciulod  to  ^vith  rroinplncss  and  DisputoJi. 

Employs   only    such  Assistants   as  are  th  roushly 
versed  in  the  business. 





Factory  Street,  Durhafn,  N,  C, 


FlM  aiii  fwlst 



amilatei  Ssukb  Tobacoo. 


First  Class  in  Every  Respect 



Jl  b  i^  h  #  b  a 

Cigtirettes  and  Long  Cnt, 

Manufactured  by 


H.  A.  REAMS, 

DURHAM,  N.  C. 

Bright  Tobaccos  a  specially  and  deals  extensively  in  bright  scrap. 
Has  sold  more  than  40,000,000  ponnds  of  Leaf  Tobacco  in  twelve  years. 
Refers  to  Eugene  Morehead  &  Co.,  Bankers,  and  W.  T.  Blackwell,  Banker, 
Durham,  N.  C. 

Home  Insurance  Company 


ASSETS, $7,492,751 

J.  80UTIK4ATE  &  SON,  Agknt.s, 
Durlumi,  N.  (I 


Rev.  W.  H.  MILBURN 

&ty.  W.  H.  MiiBua.N,  D.O.,  the  famous 
l>Und  preacher,  write. 
New  York,  April  3d,  1884 
For  ten  or  twelve  years  1  have 
used  Bl;  ckwell's  Durham  Smok- 
ing   Tobacco,    and  founu  it  the 
most  satisfactory   of  all   I   have 
tried.    I  gave  Thomas  Carlyle  a 
pound  of  it,  as  we  often  smoked 
together,  and  he  warmly  praiseJ 
it.    I  have  found  no  tobacco  on 
c:u..r  continent    that    compares 
wiiu  '  Vou'^  truly.